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*  AGK (gene)
AGK encodes a 47.1 kDa protein that is composed of 422 amino acids; 32 peptides have been observed through mass spectrometry ... The protein encoded by this gene is a mitochondrial membrane protein involved in lipid and glycerolipid metabolism. It ... As phosphatidic acid is also involved in the synthesis of phospholipids, its loss will result in changes to the lipid ... The enzyme is involved in the more general pathway of fatty acid metabolism. AGK also has an implicated role in the assembly of ...
*  Glossary of diabetes
Chemically it is two amino acids and is therefore a kind of miniature protein, a very small peptide. It is sweet because, in a ... Protein a class of biochemicals made from amino acids in specific sequences. Proteins can be very large molecules with very ... Its amino acid code (DNA triplet --> amino acid incorporation) is identical across all Terrestrial life except for a very few ... Amino acids are the building blocks of protein and there are about 20 used in the human body, of which about half can be ...
*  Bone sialoprotein
The mammalian BSP cDNAs encode for proteins averaging 317 amino acids, which includes the 16-residue preprotein secretory ... signal peptide. Among the mammalian cDNAs currently characterized, there is an approximate 45% conservation of sequence ... The protein is highly acidic (pKa of ~ 3.9) and contains a large amount of Glu residues, constituting ~22% of the total amino ... BSP, a SIBLING protein, was originally isolated from bovine cortical bone as a 23-kDa glycopeptide with high sialic acid ...
*  Crustacean neurohormone family
Caenorhabditis elegans uncharacterised protein ZC168.2. These neurohormones are peptides of 70 to 80 amino acid residues which ... Ion transport peptide (ITP) from locust. ITP stimulates salt and water reabsorption and inhibits acid secretion in the ileum of ... In molecular biology, the crustacean neurohormone family of proteins is a family of neuropeptides expressed by arthropods. The ...
*  GBAS (gene)
... most common and malignant form of central nervous system tumor.The predicted 286-amino acid protein contains a signal peptide, ... Protein NipSnap homolog 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GBAS gene. Chromosomal region 7p12, which contains GBAS ... GBAS protein might be involved in vesicular transport. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000146729 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ... 2006). "The LIFEdb database in 2006". Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (Database issue): D415-8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkj139. PMC 1347501 . ...
*  1907 in science
... synthesizes peptide amino acid chains and thereby shows that amino acids in proteins are connected by amino group-acid group ...
*  Proteolysis
... acid hydrolysis). The standard way to hydrolyze a protein or peptide into its constituent amino acids for analysis is to heat ... It is necessary to break down proteins into small peptides (tripeptides and dipeptides) and amino acids so they can be absorbed ... Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids. Uncatalysed, the hydrolysis of peptide bonds ... The amino acids may then be reused for protein synthesis. The intracellular degradation of protein may be achieved in two ways ...
*  Protein targeting
The targeting peptides of these proteins have a high content of basic and hydrophobic amino acids, a low content of negatively ... He discovered that many proteins have a signal sequence, that is, a short amino acid sequence at one end that functions like a ... The amino acid chain of transmembrane proteins, which often are transmembrane receptors, passes through a membrane one or ... This information is contained in the polypeptide chain or in the folded protein. The continuous stretch of amino acid residues ...
*  KDEL (amino acid sequence)
KDEL is a target peptide sequence in the amino acid structure of a protein which prevents the protein from being secreted from ... ER retention KKXX (amino acid sequence) Endoplasmic reticulum protein retention receptors KDELR1 KDELR2 KDELR3 Mariano ... The abbreviation KDEL is formed by the corresponding letters to each amino acid. This letter system was defined by the IUPAC ... It also targets proteins from other locations (such as the cytoplasm) to the ER. Proteins can only leave the ER after this ...
*  Biuret test
... used to assess the concentration of proteins because peptide bonds occur with the same frequency per amino acid in the peptide ... Peptides with the chain length of at least 3 amino acids are necessary for a significant, measurable colour shift with these ... In this assay, the copper(II) binds with nitrogens present in the peptides of proteins. In a secondary reaction, the copper(II ... Due to its insensitivity and little interference by free amino acids, this assay is most useful for whole tissue samples and ...
*  Chelates in animal nutrition
... in which the mineral is chelated with short-chain peptides and amino acids derived from hydrolysed soy proteins and contain ... in which the mineral is chelated with an amino acid. Based on one single type of amino-acid, the product is pure (there is only ... minerals are bound to various amino acids with different levels of stability Amino-acid complex, such as glycinates or ... Moreover, depending on the size of amino acid, it is also possible to increase the metal content Some notice concluded that the ...
*  SBP-tag
The Streptavidin-Binding Peptide (SBP)-Tag is a 38-amino acid sequence that may be engineered into recombinant proteins. ... for proteins that interact with the Dengue Virus protein DENV-2 NS4A with the SBP-Tag and the Calmodulin Tag. and for proteins ... "One-Step Purification of Recombinant Proteins Using a Nanomolar-Affinity Streptavidin-Binding Peptide, the SBP-Tag". Protein ... SPR has also been used to compare the SBP-Tag with other streptavidin-binding peptides such as Strep-tag. Protein tag Keefe, ...
*  Reelin
The reelin protein starts with a signaling peptide 27 amino acids in length, followed by a region bearing similarity to F- ... One exon, coding for only two amino acids near the protein's C-terminus, undergoes alternative splicing, but the exact ... The final reelin domain contains a highly basic and short C-terminal region (CTR, marked "+") with a length of 32 amino acids. ... Reelin is composed of 3461 amino acids with a relative molecular mass of 388 kDa. It also has serine protease activity. Murine ...
*  Cyanotoxin
A peptide is a short polymer of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. They have the same chemical structure as proteins, except ... The non-proteinogenic amino acid beta-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is ubiquitously produced by cyanobacteria in marine, ... a neurotoxic amino acid". PNAS. 102 (14): 5074-5078. Bibcode:2005PNAS..102.5074C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0501526102. PMC 555964 . ... In a cyclic peptide, the ends link to form a stable circular chain. In mammals this stability makes them resistant to the ...
*  ACSL4
ASCL4 encodes a 74.4 kDa protein, FACL4, which is composed of 670 amino acids; 17 peptides have been observed through mass ... Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACSL4 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... Fatty acid-CoA ligase 4 (FACL4), the protein encoded by the ACSL4 gene, is an acyl-CoA synthetase, which is an essential class ... "Fatty acid CoA ligase-4 gene polymorphism influences fatty acid metabolism in metabolic syndrome, but not in depression". The ...
*  Function-spacer-lipid construct
... hyaluronic acid oligomers and sialic acid residues Peptide/protein - ranging from single amino acids to proteins as large as ... In contrast, FSL constructs usually use specifically selected peptide fragments (up to 40 amino acids), thereby overcoming ... Furthermore typical immunoassays use recombinant peptides rather than discrete peptide antigens. As the recombinant peptide is ... Simple FSL peptide synthesis - there is a reactive-functional-group FSL construct with maleimide as its functional group which ...
*  Chemical process of decomposition
These collagenases break down protein into peptides. The peptides are subsequently reduced to their constituent amino acids, ... A summary of the protein degradation products can be found in Table 1 below. Nitrogen is a component of amino acids and is ... glucuronic acid citric acid oxalic acid Under anaerobic conditions, bacteria will decompose sugars into: lactic acid butyric ... In general, proteolysis breaks down proteins into: proteoses peptones polypeptides amino acids Continuing proteolysis leads to ...
*  HYOU1
This signal peptide-lacking protein, is only 3 amino acids shorter than the mature protein in the ER, and it is thought to have ... Hypoxia up-regulated protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HYOU1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... The protein encoded by this gene is thought to play an important role in protein folding and secretion in the ER. Since ...
*  Organic chemistry
The other main classes are amino acids (monomer building blocks of peptides and proteins), carbohydrates (which includes the ... Peptide Synthesis See also Peptide synthesis Oligonucleotide Synthesis See also Oligonucleotide synthesis Carbohydrate ... Thus, the informally named lysergic acid diethylamide is systematically named (6aR,9R)-N,N-diethyl-7-methyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9- ... Some are long-chain biopolymers, and these include peptides, DNA, RNA and the polysaccharides such as starches in animals and ...
*  Enzyme inhibitor
... heating in concentrated hydrochloric acid will hydrolyse the peptide bonds holding proteins together, releasing free amino ... "Herbicidal inhibitors of amino acid biosynthesis and herbicide-tolerant crops". Amino Acids. 30 (2): 195-204. doi:10.1007/ ... This molecule is not based on a peptide and has no obvious structural similarity to a protein substrate. These non-peptide ... these poisons also include peptides and proteins. An example of a toxic peptide is alpha-amanitin, which is found in relatives ...
*  Complement receptor 1
The encoded protein has a 47 amino acid signal peptide, an extracellular domain of 1930 residues, a 25 residue transmembrane ... this is predicted to be a protein of 1,408 amino acids that includes 21 short consensus repeats (SCR) of ca. 60 amino acids ... is composed of 38 exons spanning 133kb encoding a protein of 2,039 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 220 kDa. ... also known as complement control protein repeats (CCPs) or sushi domains), each having 60 to 70 amino acids. The sequence ...
*  Antigen processing
Proteasomes break the protein up into peptides that include some around nine amino acids long (suitable for fitting within the ... The peptides are presented on MHC class II molecules. Proteins are endocytosed and degraded by acid-dependent proteases in ... In Cross-presentation, peptides derived from extracellular proteins are presented in the context of MHC class I. The cell ... The nascent MHC class II protein in the rough ER has its peptide-binding cleft blocked by Ii (the invariant chain; a trimer) to ...
*  Theta defensin
... θ-defensins are produced from 76 amino acid precursor proteins. A single nine amino acid peptide is derived from each precursor ... Two of these nine amino acid peptides are spliced together to form the circular 18 amino acid defensin. Since there are two ... Structure of human retrocyclin-2 θ-defensin θ-defensins are cyclic peptides of 18 amino acids (~2 kDa), possessing ... Protein Pept. Sci. 5 (5): 373-81. doi:10.2174/1389203043379657. PMID 15544532. Li D, Zhang L, Yin H, Xu H, Satkoski Trask J, ...
*  Protease
... depending on the amino acid sequence of a protein, or break down a complete peptide to amino acids (unlimited proteolysis). The ... proteases to hydrolyse the peptide bonds in proteins and therefore break the proteins down into their constituent amino acids. ... are involved in digesting long protein chains into shorter fragments by splitting the peptide bonds that link amino acid ... The mechanism used to cleave a peptide bond involves making an amino acid residue that has the cysteine and threonine ( ...
*  Timeline of biology and organic chemistry
... synthesized peptide amino acid chains and thereby shows that amino acids in proteins are connected by amino group-acid group ... not protein. 1953 - Stanley Miller showed that amino acids can be formed when simulated lightning is passed through vessels ... 1961 - J. Heinrich Matthaei cracked the first codon of the genetic code (the codon for the amino acid phenylalanine) using ... 1951 - Fred Sanger, Hans Tuppy, and Ted Thompson completed their chromatographic analysis of the insulin amino acid sequence. ...
*  Protein fold class
Protein classes are broad categories of protein topologies. They describe groups of proteins that share similar amino acid and ... These predicted sequences can then be validated experimentally through methods such as peptide synthesis, site-directed ... They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins. ... They constitute one of the main types of protein (alongside globular, fibrous and membrane proteins). Coiled coil proteins form ...