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*  Essential amino acid
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo (from scratch) by the ... The distinction between essential and non-essential amino acids is somewhat unclear, as some amino acids can be produced from ... amino acids are sometimes considered a single pool of nutritionally equivalent amino acids as are the aromatic amino acid pair ... If one of the essential amino acids is less than needed for an individual the utilization of other amino acids will be hindered ...
*  SLC1A1
Excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 is a member of the high-affinity glutamate transporters which plays an essential role in ... SLC1A1, also known as excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A1 gene. ... Excitatory amino acid transporter Glutamate transporter Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000106688 - ... Nieoullon A, Canolle B, Masmejean F, Guillet B, Pisano P, Lortet S (2006). "The neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter ...
*  Amino acid
Essential amino acids may also differ between species. Because of their biological significance, amino acids are important in ... Only 837 D-amino acids were found in Swiss-Prot database (187 million amino acids analysed). The 20 amino acids that are ... part of amino acid catabolism (see below). A rare exception to the dominance of α-amino acids in biology is the β-amino acid ... "N-alkylated alpha-amino acid". The α-carboxylic acid group of amino acids is a weak acid, meaning that it releases a hydron ( ...
*  Amino acid synthesis
Amino acids that must be obtained from the diet are called essential amino acids. Nonessential amino acids are produced in the ... an essential amino acid. The pathways for the biosynthesis of essential amino acids are much more complex than those for the ... non-essential amino acid), and in time of accelerated growth, histidine, can be considered an essential amino acid. A ... Amino acid synthesis is the set of biochemical processes (metabolic pathways) by which the various amino acids are produced ...
*  Succotash
"Nutritional Sources of Essential Amino Acids". Retrieved 5 June 2017. "Essential Amino Acids". hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu. ... Combining a grain with a legume provides a dish that is high in all essential amino acids. Because of the relatively ...
*  Aromatic amino acid
... causes phenylketonuria and concurrently renders tyrosine an essential amino acid. Aromatic amino acids are able to absorb light ... An aromatic amino acid (AAA) is an amino acid that includes an aromatic ring. Examples include: Among 20 standard amino acids: ... These aromatic amino acids are the derivatives of many secondary metabolites, all essential to a plant's biological functions, ... Animals obtain aromatic amino acids from their diet, but all plants and micro-organisms must synthesize their aromatic amino ...
*  Proteinogenic amino acid
... and so they are called essential amino acids. The essential amino acids are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine ... The abundance of amino acids includes amino acids in free form and in polymerization form (proteins). The proteinogenic set ... Glucogenic amino acid Ketogenic amino acid Ambrogelly A, Palioura S, Söll D (Jan 2007). "Natural expansion of the genetic code ... Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation. The word " ...
*  Arthrospira
Its protein harbours all essential amino acids. Arthrospira also contain high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), ... These PUFAs contain the γ-Linolenic acid (GLA), an essential Omega-6 Fatty acid. Further ingredients of Arthrospira include ...
*  Glutamine
... polar amino acid. It is non-essential and conditionally essential in humans, meaning the body can usually synthesize sufficient ... Glutamine is the most abundant naturally occurring, nonessential amino acid in the human body, and one of the few amino acids ... Lacey, JM; Wilmore, DW (Aug 1990). "Is glutamine a conditionally essential amino acid?". Nutrition Reviews. 48 (8): 297-309. ... Watford, Malcolm (September 2015). "Glutamine and glutamate: Nonessential or essential amino acids?". Animal Nutrition. 1 (3): ...
*  Cystathionine
... "very essential" amino acid". Molecular Vision. 18: 2673-2686. PMID 23170060. ... The cystathionine is then used by the cystathionine gamma-lyase CTH, cysteine dioxygenase CDO, and cysteine sulfinic acid ...
*  Taurine
Other effects of a diet lacking in this essential amino acid are dilated cardiomyopathy and reproductive failure in females. ... While taurine is sometimes called an amino acid, and indeed is an acid containing an amino group, it is not an amino acid in ... Harris Ripps, Wen Shen (2012). "Review: Taurine: A "very essential" amino acid". Molecular Vision. 18: 2673-2686. PMC 3501277 ... Taurine is conjugated via its amino terminal group with chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid to form the bile salts sodium ...
*  Amino acid response
The amino acid response pathway is triggered by shortage of any essential amino acid, and results in an increase in activating ... Amino acid response (AAR) is the mechanism triggered in mammalian cells by amino acid starvation. ... is a cofactor of ATF4 for amino acid-regulated transcription of CHOP". Nucleic Acids Res. 35 (17): 5954-65. doi:10.1093/nar/ ... Amino acid deprivation induces the transcription rate of the human asparagine synthetase gene through a timed program of ...
*  Amino acid score
... two major protein standards which determine the completeness of proteins by their unique composition of essential amino acids. ... Amino acid score, in combination with protein digestibility, is the method used to determine if a protein is complete. PDCAAS ...
*  Cat
Another unusual feature is that the cat cannot produce taurine, with a deficiency in this essential amino acid causing macular ... Most mammals can convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, as well as the omega 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and ... "Essential fatty acid requirements of cats: Pathology of essential fatty acid deficiency". American Journal of Veterinary ... Morris, J. G.; Rogers, Q. R. (1 December 1978). "Arginine: An Essential Amino Acid for the Cat". Journal of Nutrition. 108 (12 ...
*  Low-protein diet
... each plant provides an amount of all the essential amino acids. However, the relative abundance of the essential amino acids is ... Due to the sulphur content of the amino acids methionine and cysteine, excess of these amino acids leads to the production of ... Essential amino acid High protein diet Feskanich, Diane; Willett, Walter C.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Colditz, Graham A. (1996). " ... Plant protein is often described as incomplete, suggesting that they lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Apart from ...
*  Wernicke's encephalopathy
Lourenço R, Camilo ME (2002). "Taurine: a conditionally essential amino acid in humans? An overview in health and disease" (PDF ... Production of neurotransmitters including glutamic acid and GABA. Lipid metabolism, necessary for myelin production. Amino acid ... Other supplements may also be needed, including: cobalamin, ascorbic acid, folic acid, nicotinamide, zinc, phosphorus ( ... Specifically, it acts as an essential coenzyme to the TCA cycle and the pentose phosphate shunt. Thiamine is first metabolised ...
*  Glucansucrase
2] [3] Tsumori, H; Minami, T; Kuramitsu, HK (1997). "Identification of essential amino acids in the Streptococcus mutans ... Additionally, some amino acids between domains A and B form a calcium binding site near the nucleophilic aspartate. The Ca2+ ... Glucansucrase allows the oral bacteria Streptococcus mutans to metabolize sucrose into lactic acid. This lactic acid lowers the ... Glucansucrase (also known as glucosyltransferase) is an enzyme in the glycoside hydrolase family GH70 used by lactic acid ...
*  Defense in insects
The degradation of such essential amino acids provides propanoyl-CoA. This compound is further transformed into propanoic acid ... Essential amino acids as valine serve as precursors for the production of the hemolymph toxins of Chrysomelina leaf beetles. ... The amino group in β-alanine is then oxidized to yield either an oxime or the nitro-toxin 3-nitropropanoic acid (3-NPA). The ... 2006). "3-Nitropropionic Acid Is a Suicide Inhibitor of Mitochondrial Respiration That, upon Oxidation by Complex II, Forms a ...
*  Cooking
Any of these may be sources of essential amino acids. When proteins are heated they become denatured (unfolded) and change ... a form of non-enzymatic browning involving an amino acid, a reducing sugar and heat. Home cooking has traditionally been a ... In 1956, the "Essentials of an Adequate Diet" brought recommendations which cut the number of groups that American school ... a traditional South American dish where fish is cooked with the acids in lemon or lime juice. Preparing food with heat or fire ...
*  Fucosyltransferase
... definition of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1334 (1): 57-64. doi:10.1016/s0304- ...
*  AnkB F-Box
Host Proteasomal Degradation Generates Amino Acids Essential for Intracellular Bacterial Growth. SCIENCE VOL 334 16 DECEMBER ...
*  Spirulina (dietary supplement)
Like all protein-rich foods, spirulina contains the essential amino acid phenylalanine (2.6-4.1 g/100 g), which should be ... providing the fatty acids, gamma-linolenic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, stearidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, ... containing all essential amino acids. Provided in its typical supplement form as a dried powder, a 100 gram amount of spirulina ... Campanella, L; Russo, MV; Avino, P (April 2002). "Free and total amino acid composition in blue-green algae". Annali di Chimica ...
*  Fermentation in food processing
... acetic acid, and alkaline fermentations; to enrich food substrates with protein, essential amino acids, and vitamins; to ... Fermentation lock Food microbiology Industrial fermentation Industrial microbiology Lactic acid bacteria Lactic acid ... Food fermentation is the conversion of sugars and other carbohydrates into alcohol or preservative organic acids and carbon ... The production of organic acids is exploited to preserve and flavor vegetables and dairy products. Food fermentation serves ...
*  Azolla
... is rich in proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals. describe feeding azolla to, chickens and egg ... The only known limiting factor on its growth is phosphorus, another essential mineral. An abundance of phosphorus, due for ... giving the plant access to the essential nutrient. This has led to the plant being dubbed a "super-plant", as it can readily ... "Feeding deterrence of Azolla in relation to deoxyanthocyanin and fatty acid composition" (PDF). Aquatic Botany. 74 (2): 181-187 ...
*  GDP-mannose:cellobiosyl-diphosphopolyprenol alpha-mannosyltransferase
Abdian, P.L.; Lellouch, A.C.; Gautier, C.; Ielpi, L.; Geremia, R.A. (2000). "Identification of essential amino acids in the ...
*  Metabolism
... but mammals can only synthesize eleven nonessential amino acids, so nine essential amino acids must be obtained from food. Some ... lack all amino acid synthesis and take their amino acids directly from their hosts. All amino acids are synthesized from ... Amino acid synthesis depends on the formation of the appropriate alpha-keto acid, which is then transaminated to form an amino ... amino acids can be linked in varying sequences to form a huge variety of proteins. Proteins are made from amino acids that have ...
*  Genetically modified soybean
These amino acids are called "essential" because animals cannot make them; only plants and micro-organisms can make them and ... Glyphosate kills plants by interfering with the synthesis of the essential amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. ... Genetic modifications increased the amount of oleic acid and stearic acid and decreased the amount of linolenic acid. By ... link) "Aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, The shikimate pathway - synthesis of chorismate". Metabolic Plant Physiology Lecture ...