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*  Protein primary structure
Amino acids are polymerised via peptide bonds to form a long backbone, with the different amino acid side chains protruding ... Intramolecular transesterification, resulting in a branched polypeptide. In inteins, the new ester bond is broken by an ... The proposal that proteins were linear chains of α-amino acids was made nearly simultaneously by two scientists at the same ... Protein sequencing Nucleic acid primary structure Translation Pseudo amino acid composition SANGER F (1952). "The arrangement ...
*  Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase
... (BCAT), also known as branched-chain amino acid transaminase, is an aminotransferase ... of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases is to catalyse the synthesis or degradation of the branched chain amino acids ... Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are ubiquitous in many organisms, comprising 35% of all proteins and 40% of the amino acids ... The branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases help to produce compounds like isovaleric acid, isobutyric acid, 2- and 3- ...
*  Branched chain amino acid transaminase 1
This enzyme catalyzes the reversible transamination of branched-chain alpha-keto acids to branched-chain L-amino acids ... Branched chain amino acid transaminase 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BCAT1 gene. This gene encodes the ... Two different clinical disorders have been attributed to a defect of branched-chain amino acid transamination: hypervalinemia ... Branched chain amino acid transaminase 1". Retrieved 2016-04-21. Yoshikawa R, Yanagi H, Shen CS, Fujiwara Y, Noda M, Yagyu T, ...
*  Branched chain amino acid-cation symporter
The branched chain amino acid:cation symporter (LIVCS) family (TC# 2.A.26) is a member of the APC superfamily. Characterized ... "2.A.26 The Branched Chain Amino Acid:Cation Symporter (LIVCS) Family". Transporter Classification Database. Braun, Peter R.; Al ... "Competitive inhibition of amino acid uptake suppresses chlamydial growth: involvement of the chlamydial amino acid transporter ... members of this family transport all three of the branched chain aliphatic amino acids (leucine (L), isoleucine (I) and valine ...
*  Leucine transaminase
Aki K, Ogawa K, Ichihara A (1968). "Transaminases of branched chain amino acids. IV. Purification and properties of two enzymes ... Ikeda T, Konishi Y, Ichihara A (1976). "Transaminase of branched chain amino acids. XI. Leucine (methionine) transaminase of ...
*  Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue (2-methylpropanoyl)transferase
Massey LK, Sokatch JR, Conrad RS (1976). "Branched-chain amino acid catabolism in bacteria". Bacteriol. Rev. 40 (1): 42-54. PMC ... "In vitro reconstitution of the 24-meric E2 inner core of bovine mitochondrial branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase ... "Catalytic and structural properties of the dihydrolipoyl transacylase component of bovine branched-chain alpha-keto acid ...
*  Valine
... like other branched-chain amino acids, is synthesized by plants, but not by animals. It is therefore an essential amino acid in ... Like leucine and isoleucine, valine is a branched-chain amino acid. In sickle-cell disease, a single glutamic acid in β-globin ... "A branched-chain amino acid metabolite drives vascular fatty acid transport and causes insulin resistance". Nature Medicine. 22 ... Acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase Dihydroxyacid dehydratase Valine aminotransferase Like other branched-chain amino acids, the ...
*  Low-protein diet
Specifically restricting consumption of the three branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine is sufficient to ... Due to the sulphur content of the amino acids methionine and cysteine, excess of these amino acids leads to the production of ... "Decreased Consumption of Branched-Chain Amino Acids Improves Metabolic Health". Cell Reports. 16: 520-30. doi:10.1016/j.celrep. ... "Restoration of metabolic health by decreased consumption of branched-chain amino acids". The Journal of Physiology. doi:10.1113 ...
*  Organic acidemia
... particularly branched-chain amino acids, causing a buildup of acids which are usually not present. The branched-chain amino ... Organic acids refer to the amino acids and certain odd-chained fatty acids which are affected by these disorders. The four main ... Most of the organic acidemias result from defective autosomal genes for various enzymes important to amino acid metabolism. ... ACAT1 § Ketothiolase deficiency, another type of OA Ogier de Baulny H, Saudubray JM (2002). "Branched-chain organic acidurias ...
*  Cachexia
Branched-chain amino acids consist primarily of leucine and valine. In a research paper published by the Indian J of Palliat ... Also studies have shown branched-chain amino acids can return the metabolism of a cachectic patient from catabolic-losing ... The potential role of branched-chain amino acids as antianorexia and anticachexia agents was proposed many years ago, but ... The conditionally essential amino acid glutamine has been used as a component of oral supplementation to reverse cachexia in ...
*  Leucine
... is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) since it possesses an aliphatic side-chain that is non-linear. Racemic leucine ... Like valine and isoleucine, leucine is a branched-chain amino acid. Because the products of its breakdown are acetyl-CoA and ... Feb 01 2017) "Interactions in the Metabolism of Glutamate and the Branched-Chain Amino Acids and ketoacids in the CNS" ... The vast majority of L-leucine metabolism is initially catalyzed by the branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase enzyme, ...
*  Adrenocortical hormone
Dietary branched chain amino acids ameliorate injury-induced cognitive impairment. Proceedings of the National Academy of ... The synthesis of adrenocortical steroid hormones involves a chain of oxidation-reduction reactions catalyzed by a series of ... Through shared intermediates and pathways branching off those shared intermediates, the different classes of steroids are ...
*  Weakness
Davis JM (1995). "Carbohydrates, branched-chain amino acids, and endurance: the central fatigue hypothesis". Int J Sport Nutr. ... Newsholme, E. A., Acworth, I. N., & Blomstrand, E. 1987, 'Amino acids, brain neurotransmitters and a functional link between ... It was once believed that lactic acid build-up was the cause of muscle fatigue. The assumption was lactic acid had a "pickling ... producing lactic acid as a metabolic byproduct. Contrary to common belief, lactic acid accumulation doesn't actually cause the ...
*  Indole-3-acetic acid
Sep 2015). "Regulation of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis by branched-chain amino acids in Enterobacter cloacae UW5". FEMS ... Enterobacter cloacae can produce IAA, from aromatic and branched-chain amino acids. Fungi can form a fungal mantle around roots ... Some Chlorophenoxyacetic Acids". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 63 (6): 1768-1768. doi:10.1021/ja01851a601. "Indole-3-Acetic Acid: Material ... "Synthesis of Indoleacetic Acid from Glutamic Acid and a Proposed Mechanism for the Conversion". Journal of the American ...
*  ACAD8
... functions in catabolism of the branched-chain amino acid valine. ACAD8 functions as a homotetramer and has an overall ... ACAD8 is an isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase that functions in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids including valine, and ... function to catalyze the dehydrogenation of acyl-CoA derivatives in the metabolism of fatty acids or branched-chain amino acids ... "Isolated 2-methylbutyrylglycinuria caused by short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: identification of a new ...
*  Enzyme inhibitor
Both these enzymes are needed for plants to make branched-chain amino acids. Many other enzymes are inhibited by herbicides, ... "Herbicidal inhibitors of amino acid biosynthesis and herbicide-tolerant crops". Amino Acids. 30 (2): 195-204. doi:10.1007/ ... These electrophilic groups react with amino acid side chains to form covalent adducts. The residues modified are those with ... side chains containing nucleophiles such as hydroxyl or sulfhydryl groups; these include the amino acids serine (as in DFP, ...
*  Biotinidase deficiency
Specifically, two essential branched-chain amino acids (leucine and isoleucine) are metabolized differently. Individuals ...
*  Cellucor
The COR-Performance Series include as ingredients branched chain amino acids, creatine, and protein. At the end of the year, ... The brand released Alpha Amino later in 2013, which is an amino acid drink. Cellucor supplies a large variety of products that ... Alpha Aminos: made with a mix of 14 amino acids. Flavors include watermelon, blue raspberry, lemon lime, and fruit punch. C4: a ... "Ingesting a preworkout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, β-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days is both ...
*  Acetyl-CoA
Degradation of branched-chain ketogenic amino acids such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine occurs. These amino acids are ... At low glucose levels, the production of acetyl-CoA is linked to β-oxidation of fatty acids. Fatty acids are first converted to ... Unlike free fatty acids, ketone bodies can cross the blood-brain barrier and are therefore available as fuel for the cells of ... Fatty acids are also components of the phospholipids that make up the bulk of the lipid bilayers of all cellular membranes. In ...
*  Simin Liu
Elevated circulating branched chain amino acids is an early event in pancreatic adenocarcinoma development. Nature Medicine ... Intake of Small-to-Medium Chain Saturated Fatty Acid Is Associated with Peripheral Leukocyte Telomere Length in Postmenopausal ... PMC 2809271 Chan KH, Song Y, Hsu YH, You NC, L FT, Liu S. Common genetic variants in fatty acid- binding protein-4 (FABP4) and ...
*  Acetolactate synthase
The ilvGMEDA operon (encoding ALS II, branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase, dihydroxy-acid dehydratase, and threonine ammonia ... the branched-chain amino acids. The ilvBNC operon, which encodes ALS I and a ketol-acid reductoisomerase, is similarly ... ALS catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine). It is a ... Both the ilvGMEDA and ilvBNC operons are derepressed during shortages of the branched-chain amino acids by the same mechanism ...
*  CodY protein family
"Pleiotropic transcriptional repressor CodY senses the intracellular pool of branched-chain amino acids in Lactococcus lactis". ...
*  Liver support systems
Bergeron, M; Layrargues, GP; Butterworth, RF (September 1989). "Aromatic and branched-chain amino acids in autopsied brain ... Imbalance between aromatic and branched chain aminoacids (Fischer index), traditionally involved in HE genesis, can be ... Substances involved are ammonia, manganese, aromatic aminoacids, mercaptans, phenols, medium chain fatty acids, bilirubin, ... "The role of plasma amino acids in hepatic encephalopathy". Surgery. 78 (3): 276-90. PMID 807982. Loock, J; Stange, J; Mitzner, ...
*  Tardive dyskinesia
In males, the branched-chain amino acid formula Tarvil, containing the amino acids valine, isoleucine, and leucine in a 3:3:4 ... 2003). "Efficacy of the Branched-Chain Amino Acids in the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia in Men". American Journal of ...
*  Sports nutrition
... protein or individual amino acids are ingested as well. Branched-chain amino acids are important since they are most ... However, if too much protein and amino acid supplements is consumed it can be more harmful to the body than it is beneficial; ... The substance glutamine, found in whey fiber supplements, is the most abundant free amino acid found in the human body. It is ... Complete proteins such as meat, eggs, and soy provide the athlete with all essential amino acids for synthesizing new tissues. ...
*  Metabolism
... which is then transaminated to form an amino acid. Amino acids are made into proteins by being joined together in a chain of ... the polysaccharides produced can have straight or branched structures. The polysaccharides produced can have structural or ... lack all amino acid synthesis and take their amino acids directly from their hosts. All amino acids are synthesized from ... amino acids can be linked in varying sequences to form a huge variety of proteins. Proteins are made from amino acids that have ...
*  Central nervous system fatigue
Branch-chained amino acid supplementation has proven to have little to no effect on performance. There has been little success ... Effect of branched-chain amino acid and carbohydrate supplementation on the exercise-induced change in plasma and muscle ... The transport mechanism for tryptophan is shared with the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine, and valine. ... Several studies have attempted to decrease the synthesis of serotonin by administering branched-chain amino acids and ...