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*  Protein metabolism
... and production of glucose or fat or other amino acids. This break-down of amino acids to α-keto acids occurs in the liver by a ... anabolic amino acid synthesis). Protein catabolism is the process by which proteins are broken down to their amino acids. This ... These amino acids are further broken down to α-keto acids which can be recycled in the body for generation of energy, ... Dietary proteins are first broken down to individual amino acids by various enzymes and hydrochloric acid present in the gastro ...
*  Essential amino acid
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo (from scratch) by the ... amino acids are sometimes considered a single pool of nutritionally equivalent amino acids as are the aromatic amino acid pair ... amino acids Low-protein diet Orthomolecular medicine Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score Ketogenic amino acid ... Amino acid content of some vegetarian foods at veganhealth.org. Amino Acid Profiles of Some Common Feeds at Virginia Tech. ...
*  Protein primary structure
Amino acids are polymerised via peptide bonds to form a long backbone, with the different amino acid side chains protruding ... Protein sequencing Nucleic acid primary structure Translation Pseudo amino acid composition SANGER F (1952). "The arrangement ... listing the amino acids starting at the amino-terminal end through to the carboxyl-terminal end. Either a three letter code or ... as well as mixtures or ambiguous amino acids (similar to nucleic acid notation). Peptides can be directly sequenced, or ...
*  SLC1A1
Excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 is a member of the high-affinity glutamate transporters which plays an essential role in ... SLC1A1, also known as excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A1 gene. ... Excitatory amino acid transporter Glutamate transporter Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000106688 - ... Nieoullon A, Canolle B, Masmejean F, Guillet B, Pisano P, Lortet S (2006). "The neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter ...
*  Amino acid
Only 837 D-amino acids were found in Swiss-Prot database (187 million amino acids analysed). The 20 amino acids that are ... part of amino acid catabolism (see below). A rare exception to the dominance of α-amino acids in biology is the β-amino acid ... "N-alkylated alpha-amino acid". The α-carboxylic acid group of amino acids is a weak acid, meaning that it releases a hydron ( ... While L-amino acids represent all of the amino acids found in proteins during translation in the ribosome, D-amino acids are ...
*  Non-proteinogenic amino acids
There are various groups of amino acids: 20 standard amino acids 22 proteinogenic amino acids over 80 amino acids created ... ic acid.) Most natural amino acids are α-amino acids in the L conformation, but some exceptions exist. Some non-α amino acids ... a β-amino acid. Taurine is an amino sulfonic acid and not an amino acid, however it is occasionally considered as such as the ... amino acids. Other amino acids are solely found in abiotic mixes (e.g. α-methylnorvaline). Over 30 unnatural amino acids have ...
*  Amino acid kinase
The conversion of aspartate into either the storage amino acid asparagine or aspartate family amino acids may be subject to a ... In molecular biology, the amino acid kinase domain is a protein domain. It is found in protein kinases with various ... In prokaryotes and plants the synthesis of the essential amino acids lysine and threonine is predominantly regulated by feed- ... relatively little is known about the regulation of carbon and nitrogen flow into amino acids. The metabolic regulation of ...
*  Proteinogenic amino acid
The abundance of amino acids includes amino acids in free form and in polymerization form (proteins). The proteinogenic set ... Glucogenic amino acid Ketogenic amino acid Ambrogelly A, Palioura S, Söll D (Jan 2007). "Natural expansion of the genetic code ... Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation. The word " ... In contrast, non-proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are either not incorporated into proteins (like GABA, L-DOPA, ...
*  Amino acid transporter
Solute carrier family Amino acid transport Amino acid transport, acidic Amino acid transport, basic Amino acid transport ... An amino acid transporter is a membrane transport protein that transports amino acids. They are mainly of the solute carrier ... There are several families that function in amino acid transport, some of these include: TC# 2.A.3 - Amino Acid-Polyamine- ... Branched Chain Amino Acid Exporter (LIV-E) Family TC# 2.A.95 - 6TMS Neutral Amino Acid Transporter (NAAT) Family TC# 2.A.118 - ...
*  Aromatic amino acid
An aromatic amino acid (AAA) is an amino acid that includes an aromatic ring. Examples include: Among 20 standard amino acids: ... Aromatic amino acids are able to absorb light due to their conjugated double bonds. This characteristic of aromatic amino acids ... Animals obtain aromatic amino acids from their diet, but all plants and micro-organisms must synthesize their aromatic amino ... These amino acids are able to absorb light which excites its electron to the excited state. When the electron falls back to its ...
*  Amino acid oxidoreductases
... are oxidoreductases, a type of enzyme, that act upon amino acids. They constitute the majority of ... Examples include: Glutamate dehydrogenase Nitric oxide synthase Amino Acid Oxidoreductases at the US National Library of ...
*  Amino acid response
... (AAR) is the mechanism triggered in mammalian cells by amino acid starvation. The amino acid response ... is a cofactor of ATF4 for amino acid-regulated transcription of CHOP". Nucleic Acids Res. 35 (17): 5954-65. doi:10.1093/nar/ ... Amino acid deprivation induces the transcription rate of the human asparagine synthetase gene through a timed program of ... Kilberg MS, Pan YX, Chen H, Leung-Pineda V. Nutritional control of gene expression: how mammalian cells respond to amino acid ...
*  Amino acid permease
... s are membrane permeases involved in the transport of amino acids into the cell. A number of such proteins ... Amino acid transporter CIP1; SLC12A1; SLC12A2; SLC12A3; SLC12A4; SLC12A5; SLC12A6; SLC12A7; SLC12A8; SLC12A9; SLC7A1; SLC7A10; ...
*  Glucogenic amino acid
Ketogenic amino acid List of standard amino acids Glycolysis Metabolism Brosnan J (1 June 2003). "Interorgan amino acid ... The production of glucose from glucogenic amino acids involves these amino acids being converted to alpha keto acids and then ... A glucogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis. This is in contrast to the ... Amino acid metabolism Chapter on Amino acid catabolism in Biochemistry by Jeremy Berg, John Tymoczko, Lubert Stryer. Fourth ed ...
*  Amino acid activation
... During amino acid activation the amino acids (aa) are attached to their corresponding tRNA. The coupling ... Amino acid activation refers to the attachment of an amino acid to its Transfer RNA (tRNA). Aminoacyl transferase binds ... to amino acid, PP is released. Aminoacyl transferase binds AMP-amino acid to tRNA. The AMP is used in this step. ... one specific amino acid and its corresponding tRNA. The specificity of the amino acid activation is as critical for the ...
*  Silk amino acid
... typically 18 to 19 amino acids in length. Silk amino acids have a lower molecular weight than silk protein powders and are ... Silk amino acid (SAAs) also known as Sericin is a natural water-soluble glycoprotein extracted from raw silk. It is used as an ... Silk amino acids are used in formulating shampoos, conditioner, hair treatments, bodywash, body lotions, cleansers, toners and ... It also has a unique carbohydrate moiety and a unique repetitive amino acid sequence which give it a high affinity for bonding ...
*  Amino acid score
... , in combination with protein digestibility, is the method used to determine if a protein is complete. PDCAAS ... two major protein standards which determine the completeness of proteins by their unique composition of essential amino acids. ...
*  Amino acid neurotransmitter
There are inhibitory amino acids (IAA) or excitatory amino acids (EAA). Some EAA are L-Glutamate, L-Aspartate, L-Cysteine, and ... An amino acid neurotransmitter is an amino acid which is able to transmit a nerve message across a synapse. Neurotransmitters ( ... Amino acid non-protein functions Monoamine neurotransmitter "Axon Terminal : on Medical Dictionary Online". Archived from the ... Amino acid neurotransmitter release (exocytosis) is dependent upon calcium Ca2+ and is a presynaptic response. ...
*  Amino acid synthesis
Amino acids that must be obtained from the diet are called essential amino acids. Nonessential amino acids are produced in the ... Amino acid synthesis is the set of biochemical processes (metabolic pathways) by which the various amino acids are produced ... Most amino acids are synthesized from α-ketoacids, and later transaminated from another amino acid, usually glutamate. The ... A transamination reaction takes place in the synthesis of most amino acids. At this step, the chirality of the amino acid is ...
*  Amino acid replacement
... is a change from one amino acid to a different amino acid due to point mutation in DNA sequence. It is ... Leucine is an example of a typical amino acid. Idiosyncratic amino acids - there are few similar amino acids that they can ... or simple properties such as amino acid size or charge (see also amino acid chemical properties). Usually amino acids are thus ... Amino acids can also be classified according to how many different amino acids they can be exchanged by through single ...
*  Ketogenic amino acid
Glucogenic amino acid List of standard amino acids Ketogenesis Metabolism Amino acid metabolism Chapter on Amino acid ... two amino acids are exclusively ketogenic: (remembered as all the "L" amino acids) Leucine Lysine In humans, five amino acids ... A ketogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be degraded directly into acetyl-CoA, which is the precursor of ketone bodies ... This is in contrast to the glucogenic amino acids, which are converted into glucose. Ketogenic amino acids are unable to be ...
*  Amino acid dating
Amino acid racemization analysis consists of sample preparation, isolation of the amino acid wanted, and measure of its D:L ... All biological tissues contain amino acids. All amino acids except glycine (the simplest one) are optically active, having a ... Fundamentals of sample age determination from its amino acid racemization by Policarp Hortolà Brown 1985 Amino Acid Dating. ... Origins 12(1):8-25 Northern Arizona University Amino Acid Geochronology Laboratory University of Massachusetts Amino Acid ...
*  Amino-acid racemase
... a D-amino acid Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, L-amino acid, and one product, D-amino acid. This enzyme belongs to the ... In enzymology, an amino-acid racemase (EC 5.1.1.10) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an L-amino acid ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is amino-acid racemase. This enzyme is also called L-amino acid racemase. This enzyme ... Soda K, Osumi T (1969). "Crystalline amino acid racemase with low substrate specificity". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 35 (3 ...
*  ADDA (amino acid)
6-dienoic acid is a non-proteinogenic amino acid found in toxins made by cyanobacteria. Toxins which include this amino acid ... all-S,all-E)-3-Amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyldeca-4, ...
*  D-amino acid oxidase
DAO DAOA-AS1 D-amino acid dehydrogenase D-amino acid oxidase activator D-aspartate oxidase Diamine oxidase D-Amino-Acid Oxidase ... The enzyme is most active toward neutral D-amino acids, and not active toward acidic D-amino acids. DAAO is a candidate ... It is not present in plants or in bacteria which instead use D-amino acid dehydrogenase. Its function is to oxidize D-amino ... this is then hydrolysed to yield ammonia and the corresponding a-keto acid." Recently, mammalian D-amino acid oxidase has been ...
*  Phage display
PelB (an amino acid signal sequence that targets the protein to the periplasm where a signal peptidase then cleaves off PelB) ... Usually peptides that can be fused to pVIII are 6-8 amino acids long. The size restriction seems to have less to do with ... Moreover, pIII allows for the insertion of larger protein sequences (>100 amino acids) and is more tolerant to it than pVIII. ... Direct Interaction Rescue or by adding an 8-10 amino acid linker between the cDNA and pIII at the C-terminus. pVIII is the main ...
*  Amino acid N-carboxyanhydride
... s, also called Leuchs' anhydrides, are reactive derivatives of amino acids. They are classified as ... NCA's are precursors to amino acid homopolymers. Ephraim Katzir first used this method to synthesize poly-L-lysine from N- ... NCA's were first synthesized in 1906 by Hermann Leuchs by heating an N-ethoxycarbonyl or N-methoxycarbonyl amino acid chloride ... Typically these compounds are derived from amino acids by treatment with triphosgene. They are white solids, prone to ...