Alkylating agents[edit]. Main article: Alkylating antineoplastic agent. Alkylating agents are the oldest group of ... Siddik ZH (2005). Mechanisms of Action of Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents: DNA-Interactive Alkylating Agents and Antitumour ... Available agents[edit]. Main article: List of antineoplastic agents. There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. ... there are now many types of alkylating agents in use.[1] They are so named because of their ability to alkylate many molecules ...
Alkylating agents[edit]. The alkylating agents used in immunotherapy are nitrogen mustards (cyclophosphamide), nitrosoureas, ... Small biological agents[edit]. Fingolimod is a new synthetic immunosuppressant, currently in phase 3 of clinical trials. It ... Immunosuppressive drugs, also known as immunosuppressive agents, immunosuppressants and antirejection medications are drugs ... Immunosuppressive+Agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Alkylating agents[edit]. The alkylating agents used in immunotherapy are nitrogen mustards (cyclophosphamide), nitrosoureas, ... Small biological agents[edit]. Fingolimod is a new synthetic immunosuppressant, currently in phase 3 of clinical trials. It ... Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of ... Immunosuppressive+Agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Gate, Laurent; Tew, Kenneth D. (2011). "Alkylating Agents". Cancer Management in Man: Chemotherapy, Biological Therapy, ... EMP is a dual cytostatic and hence chemotherapeutic agent and a hormonal anticancer agent of the estrogen type. It is a prodrug ... and hence was thought to be an alkylating antineoplastic agent. However, subsequent research has found that EMP is devoid of ... or other more marked toxicity associated with such agents. In contrast to most other cytostatic agents, which often cause ...
All are alkylating agents. A colorless solid, 2-chloromethylpyridine is a precursor to pyridine-containing ligands. 2- ...
Summary table of crosslinking agents[edit]. Crosslinking Agent Alkylating Agent Crosslink Structure Preferential Target ... Exogenous agents[edit]. *Nitrogen mustards are exogenous alkylating agents which react with the N7 position of guanine. These ... These agents differ from other crosslinkers as they alkylate O6 of guanine to form an O6-ethanoguanine. This intermediate ... Crosslinking agents[edit]. Many characterized crosslinking agents have two independently reactive groups within the same ...
It is an alkylating agent. It can react with DNA to form intrastrand crosslinks. Huang CH, Kuo HS, Liu JW, Lin YL (June 2009 ...
Alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide and cisplatin, as well as intercalating agent such as daunorubicin and doxorubicin ... Alkylating agents such as ethylnitrosourea. The compounds transfer methyl or ethyl group to bases or the backbone phosphate ... Other alkylating agents include mustard gas and vinyl chloride. Aromatic amines and amides have been associated with ... 2016). "Contributions of DNA repair and damage response pathways to the non-linear genotoxic responses of alkylating agents". ...
... an alkylating antineoplastic agent; Hydroxydaunorubicin, also known as doxorubicin: an anthracycline antibiotic that is able to ...
They are strong alkylating agents. Aside from the BF− 4 salt, many related derivatives are available. Triethyloxonium ... Triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate is a strong alkylating agent, although the hazards are diminished because it is non-volatile ...
The original reaction formed the alkylating agent using an alkene in the presence of a strong acid. The Ritter reaction ... Fernholz, H.; Schmidt, H. J. (1969). "Tert-Butyl Acetate as Alkylating Agent". Angewandte Chemie International Edition in ... Ritter reaction is a chemical reaction that transforms a nitrile into an N-alkyl amide using various electrophilic alkylating ...
Siddik ZH (2005). "Mechanisms of Action of Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents: DNA-Interactive Alkylating Agents and Antitumour ... there are now many types of alkylating agents in use. They are so named because of their ability to alkylate many molecules, ... Alkylating agents will work at any point in the cell cycle and thus are known as cell cycle-independent drugs. For this reason ... Unlike alkylating agents, anti-metabolites are cell cycle dependent. This means that they only work during a specific part of ...
Alkylating agents (e.g., N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). These agents can mutate both replicating and non-replicating DNA. In ... Agents that form DNA adducts (e.g., ochratoxin A) DNA intercalating agents (e.g., ethidium bromide) DNA crosslinkers Oxidative ...
... is an alkylating agent. Indicative of its high reactivity (relative to alkyl chlorides), benzyl chloride reacts ...
It is incompatible with acids, bases, oxidizing agents, and reducing agents. Methyl bromoacetate is an alkylating agent. It has ... It reacts with conjugated base and produce alkylated carbene complexes. Methyl bromoacetate can be toxic by ingestion and ... been used to alkylate phenol and amino groups. Moreover, it can be used to make vitamins and pharmaceutical drugs. It is ...
Because HN1 is an alkylating agent, it damages DNA, causes immunosuppression, and causes injury to areas that come into contact ... HN1 is also an alkylating agent. Nitrogen mustards react via an initial cyclization to the corresponding aziridinium salt. The ... HN1 was developed in the 1920s and 1930s to remove warts and later as a military agent. Because of the latter use, it is a ... If HN1 has been ingested, emetics (agents that induce vomiting) and gastric lavage are contraindicated, and nothing should be ...
... an alkylating antineoplastic agent; (P)rednisone or (P)rednisolone - a glucocorticoid hormone that has the ability to cause ... an alkylating antineoplastic agent; (E)toposide - a topoisomerase inhibitor from the epipodophyllotoxin group; (P)rocarbazine ...
Treatment with alkylating agents gives organic polysulfides. In one commercial application, it is used to produce the cross- ... linking agent bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)tetrasulfide: Na2S4 + 2 ClC3H6Si(OEt)3 → S4[C3H6Si(OEt)3]2 + 2 NaCl Sometimes as a ...
These compounds are potentially dangerous alkylating agents. The reduction of sulfate in nature involves the formation of one ...
... (INN) is a nitrosourea alkylating agent. It is used to treat malignant brain tumors and has proven to be rather ...
Kang SI, Spears CP (January 1990). "Structure-activity studies on organoselenium alkylating agents". Journal of Pharmaceutical ... however it is still a potent alkylating agent and has potential uses in chemotherapy. Diethyl selenide O-Mustard Sesquimustard ... Selenium mustard is somewhat less toxic than its relatives and has not been used as a chemical warfare agent, ... Selenium mustard (Bis(2-chloroethyl) selenide) is a haloalkyl derivative of selenium, related to vesicant chemical agents such ...
... they were the first chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of cancer. Nitrogen mustards are nonspecific DNA alkylating agents. ... Brookes P, Lawley PD (September 1961). "The reaction of mono- and di-functional alkylating agents with nucleic acids". Biochem ... Note that the alkylating damage itself is not cytotoxic and does not directly cause cell death. Nitrogen mustards are powerful ... This aziridinium group then alkylates DNA once it is attacked by the N-7 nucleophilic center on the guanine base. A second ...
SAM is a weak DNA-alkylating agent. Another reported side effect of SAM is insomnia; therefore, the supplement is often taken ...
Tertiary alkyloxonium salts are useful alkylating agents. For example, triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate (Et 3O+ )(BF− 4), a ...
It is used as an alkylating agent. Merck Index, 13th Edition, 1572. "1-iodobutane - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: ...
... an alkylating antineoplastic agent from oxazafosforine group; Mitoxantrone - a synthetic anthracycline analogue (anthraquinone ...
The resulting 1-bromoalkanes are versatile alkylating agents. By reaction with dimethyl amine, they are precursors to fatty ...
Dexter, Thomas Michael (1974). Leukaemogenesis by the alkylating agent methylnitrosourea (PhD thesis). University of Manchester ...
It is an alkylating agent that binds DNA. Brostallicin entry in the NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms This article incorporates ...
... (INN) is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent. It is sometimes abbreviated "TRO". It has been used in trials to ...
Prostate cancer may be treated by removing the major source of testosterone: testicle removal (orchiectomy); or agents which ... 17α-Alkylated 19-nortestosterone derivatives: Bolenol. *Dimethyltrienolone (7α-methylmetribolone, 7α,17α-dimethyltrenbolone) ...
However, sterilant alkylating agents such as ethylene oxide (ETO), and 10% bleach are effective against endospores. To kill ... Endospores are resistant to most agents that would normally kill the vegetative cells they formed from. Unlike persister cells ... Bacterial endospores are resistant to antibiotics, most disinfectants, and physical agents such as radiation, boiling, and ... Common anti-bacterial agents that work by destroying vegetative cell walls do not affect endospores. Endospores are commonly ...
... s are alkylated by alkyl halides. Acyl chlorides and acid anhydrides react with primary and secondary amines to form ... Either accomplished with reducing agents or by electrosynthesis Reduction of nitro compounds Nitro compounds Can be ... Important primary alkyl amines include, methylamine, most amino acids, and the buffering agent tris, while primary aromatic ... This reaction also takes place with a reducing agent such as lithium aluminium hydride. ...
Commonly, the phosphorus substrate is a phosphite ester (P(OR)3) and the alkylating agent is an alkyl iodide.[11] ... Phase-transfer catalysts and precipitating agentsEdit. Organic phosphonium cations are lipophilic and can be useful in phase ...
The alkylating agent affects more the upper parts of the respiratory tract, and only intensely exposed victims showed signs ... Sulfur mustard is a vesicant alkylating agent with strong cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic properties. After exposure, ... followed by death allowing for evaluation of novel cytoprotective agents. Potential tissue reparative agents can be evaluated ... Other inhaled agents may be directly toxic (e.g. cyanide, carbon monoxide), or cause harm simply by displacing oxygen and ...
The aromatic ring in 6 is activated at positions ortho to the hydroxyl group, and is alkylated by 5, an alkylating agent. The ...
Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ... Alkylating. *Nitrogen mustards: Chlormethine. *Cyclophosphamide# (Ifosfamide#. *Trofosfamide). *Chlorambucil# (Melphalan. * ...
Cannabinoids are used in patients with cachexia, cytotoxic nausea, and vomiting, or who are unresponsive to other agents. These ...
For the intermolecular case, the reaction is limited to tertiary alkylating agents, some secondary alkylating agents (ones for ... or alkylating agents that yield stabilized carbocations (e.g., benzylic or allylic ones). In the case of primary alkyl halides ... The acylated reaction product can be converted into the alkylated product via a Clemmensen reduction.[17][18][19] ... Typical acylating agents are acyl chlorides. Typical Lewis acid catalysts are acids and aluminium trichloride. However, because ...
NaHOCH2SO2 reacts with alkylating agents to give sulfones. HO-CH2-SO2Na + 2 C6H5CH2Br → [C6H5CH2]2SO2 + NaBr + CH2O + HBr. ... The original use of the compound was as industrial bleaching agent and as a reducing agent for vat dyeing.[1] Another large- ... As such it is used both as a reducing agent and as a reagent to introduce SO2 groups into organic molecules. Treatment of ... scale use is as a reducing agent in redox-initiator systems for emulsion polymerization. One of the typical redox pair examples ...
Alkyl nitriles are sufficiently acidic to form nitrile anions, which alkylate a wide variety of electrophiles.[28] Key to the ... α-aminonitriles can be decyanated with other reducing agents such as lithium aluminium hydride.[31] ...
The alkylation process alkylates isobutane with isobutylene using a strong acid catalyst. In the NExOCTANE process, isobutylene ... Antiknock agents. References. *^ NExOCTANE - Neste Jacobs External links. *International Chemical Safety Card 0496 ...
Psychotropic agents[edit]. Other psychotropic analgesic agents include ketamine (an NMDA receptor antagonist), clonidine and ... Unselective agents Aceclofenac. Comes in betadex salt and free acid forms; practically insoluble in water, soluble in many ... Other agents directly potentiate the effects of analgesics, such as using hydroxyzine, promethazine, carisoprodol, or ... When choosing analgesics, the severity and response to other medication determines the choice of agent; the World Health ...
It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant,[119] or as a wakefulness-promoting agent.[120] ... Tashkin, D. P. (1 March 2001). "Airway effects of marijuana, cocaine, and other inhaled illicit agents". Current Opinion in ... and anorectic agent.[112] It is commonly used in prescription and over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. In veterinary ... "Phenylisopropylamine stimulants: amphetamine-related agents". In Lemke TL, Williams DA, Roche VF, Zito W (eds.). Foye's ...
... , also known as Istodax, is an anticancer agent used in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and other peripheral T-cell ... Alkylating. *Nitrogen mustards: Mechlorethamine. *Cyclophosphamide# (Ifosfamide#. *Trofosfamide). *Chlorambucil# (Melphalan. * ...
List of agents[edit]. Adrenaline releasing agents[edit]. Main article: Norepinephrine releasing agent ... 3 List of agents *3.1 Adrenaline releasing agents *3.1.1 Common or widely marketed ... since these agents lose effectiveness after a few days. ... Anticancer agents *Antimetabolites. *Alkylating. *Spindle ...
Nucleophilic alkylating agentsEdit. Nucleophilic alkylating agents deliver the equivalent of an alkyl anion (carbanion). The ... Electrophilic alkylating agentsEdit. Electrophilic alkylating agents deliver the equivalent of an alkyl cation. Alkyl halides ... Alcohols alkylate to give ethers: ROH + R'X → ROR'. When the alkylating agent is an alkyl halide, the conversion is called the ... Electrophilic, soluble alkylating agents are often toxic due to their tendency to alkylate DNA. This mechanism of toxicity is ...
These compounds are potentially dangerous alkylating agents. Natural sulfate esters[edit]. The reduction of sulfate in nature ...
On the other hand, methyl chloride and methyl bromide are gaseous, thus harder to handle, and are also weaker alkylating agents ... It is used for alkylating carbon, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorus nucleophiles.[8] Unfortunately, it has a high ... "any anticipated scenario for the agricultural or structural fumigation use of this agent would result in exposures to a large ...
C)yclophosphamide, an alkylating agent which damages DNA by binding to it and causing the formation of cross-links ... H)ydroxydaunorubicin (also called doxorubicin or adriamycin), an intercalating agent which damages DNA by inserting itself ...
... which are divided into broad categories such as alkylating agents and antimetabolites.[144] Traditional chemotherapeutic agents ... Hormones are important agents in sex-related cancers, such as cancer of the breast, endometrium, prostate, ovary and testis and ... Physical agents. Some substances cause cancer primarily through their physical, rather than chemical, effects.[63] A prominent ... Agents (e.g. viruses) and events (e.g. mutations) that cause or facilitate genetic changes in cells destined to become cancer. ...
See also: Sex-hormonal agent and List of sex-hormonal medications available in the United States ... 17α-Alkylated 19-nortestosterone derivatives: Ethylestrenol. *Mibolerone. *Norethandrolone. *Normethandrone (methylestrenolone ... cholesterol-lowering agents and aspirin for cardiovascular disease, and vaginal estrogen for local symptoms. Observational ...
Like other alkylating agents, cyclophosphamide is teratogenic and contraindicated in pregnant women (pregnancy category D) ... Hall AG, Tilby MJ (September 1992). "Mechanisms of action of, and modes of resistance to, alkylating agents used in the ... Cyclophosphamide and the related nitrogen mustard-derived alkylating agent ifosfamide were developed by Norbert Brock and ASTA ... Cyclophosphamide is in the alkylating agent and nitrogen mustard family of medications.[4] It is believed to work by ...
To do this other anticancer drugs can be utilized such as alkylating drugs (cyclophosphamide), antimetabolites (5-fluorouracil ... result in the development of resistance to multiple drugs such as antibiotics and anti-cancer agents. Hundreds of ABC ... have gained extensive attention because they contribute to the resistance of cells to antibiotics and anticancer agents by ...
International Agency for Research on Cancer; World Health Organization (2001). Some Thyrotropic Agents. World Health ... 17α-Alkylated dihydrotestosterone derivatives: Androisoxazole. *Desoxymethyltestosterone. *Furazabol. *Mebolazine (dimethazine) ... Sica DA (2005). "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mineralocorticoid blocking agents and their effects on potassium ...
Like many alkylating agents, chlorambucil has been associated with the development of other forms of cancer. ... In the 1950s, aromatic mustards like chlorambucil were introduced as less toxic alkylating agents than the aliphatic nitrogen ... Chlorambucil is in the alkylating agent family of medications.[2] It works by blocking the formation of DNA and RNA.[2] ... Chlorambucil alkylates and cross-links DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, inducing DNA damage via three different methods ...
Like PAH metabolites, acrolein is also an electrophilic alkylating agent and permanently binds to the DNA base guanine, by a ... Smoke, or any partially burnt organic matter, contains carcinogens (cancer-causing agents). The potential effects of smoking, ... because they can permanently alkylate DNA, similarly to mustard gas or aflatoxin. Acrolein is only one of them present in ... "Acrolein is a major cigarette-related lung cancer agent: Preferential binding at p53 mutational hotspots and inhibition of DNA ...
Although not widely employed for esterifications, salts of carboxylate anions can be alkylating agent with alkyl halides to ... Using a dehydrating agent: sulfuric acid not only catalyzes the reaction but sequesters water (a reaction product). Other ... which involves treating a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in the presence of a dehydrating agent: RCO2H + R′OH ⇌ RCO2R′ + H2O. ... drying agents such as molecular sieves are also effective.. *Removal of water by physical means such as distillation as a low- ...
... an enzyme that has been implicated in the resistance of cancer cells against chemotherapeutic agents, especially alkylating ...