This is confirmed by the presence of glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, and alanine dehydrogenase. Since M. scandinavica ... The TCA cycle is incomplete due to the inactivity of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase enzyme. M. scandinavica also uses ...
Transamination by alanine transaminase produces alanine. Reduction by lactate dehydrogenase produces lactate. Pyruvate is sold ... It can also be used to construct the amino acid alanine and can be converted into ethanol or lactic acid via fermentation. ... Jaimes, R., III (Jul 2015). "Functional response of the isolated, perfused normoxic heart to pyruvate dehydrogenase activation ... Pyruvate from glycolysis is converted by fermentation to lactate using the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase and the coenzyme NADH ...
... alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase are closely examined. Abnormal levels of these proteins are indicative of ... Muscle enzymes are increased, commonly lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors are commonly used in the ...
The malonate semialdehyde can then be converted into malonate via malonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Malonate is then ... β-alanine > taurine ≫ alanine, L-serine > proline). There is evidence that β-alanine supplementation can increase exercise ... The IUPAC name for β-alanine is 3-aminopropanoic acid. Unlike its counterpart α-alanine, β-alanine has no stereocenter. In ... β-Alanine (or beta-alanine) is a naturally occurring beta amino acid, which is an amino acid in which the amino group is at the ...
Dando PR (1981). "Strombine [N-(carboxymethyl)-D-alanine] dehydrogenase and alanopine [meso-N-(1-carboxyethyl)-alanine ... D-alanine]dehydrogenase, and N-(carboxymethyl)-D-alanine: NAD+ oxidoreductase. ... In enzymology, a strombine dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.1.22) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction N-(carboxymethyl)-D- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-(carboxymethyl)-D-alanine:NAD+ oxidoreductase (glycine-forming). Other names in ...
L-alanine dehydrogenase, NAD+-linked alanine dehydrogenase, alpha-alanine dehydrogenase, NAD+-dependent alanine dehydrogenase, ... alanine oxidoreductase, and NADH-dependent alanine dehydrogenase. T Alanine dehydrogenase contains both a N-terminus and C- ... Alanine dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine + H2O + NAD+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... O'Connor RJ, Halvorson H (March 1961). "The substrate specificity of L-alanine dehydrogenase". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. ...
Alanine and lactate are major gluconeogenic precursors that enter gluconeogenesis as pyruvate. The high NADH/NAD+ ratio shifts ... Lactate dehydrogenase-A deficiency is caused by a mutation to the LDHA gene, while lactate dehydrogenase-B deficiency is caused ... LDH is measured by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test (also known as the LDH test or lactic acid dehydrogenase test). ... Ethanol is dehydrogenated to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase, and further into acetic acid by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase ...
Dando PR (1981). "Strombine [N-(carboxymethyl)-D-alanine] dehydrogenase and alanopine [meso-N-(1-carboxyethyl)-alanine] ... alanine]dehydrogenase, meso-N-(1-carboxyethyl)-alanine:NAD+ oxidoreductase, alanopine: NAD+ oxidoreductase, ADH, and alanopine: ... Alanopine dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.1.17) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2,2'-iminodipropanoate + NAD+ + H2O ... Its 4 products are L-alanine, pyruvate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and hydrogen ion. This enzyme belongs to the family ...
Kim H (2006). "Activity of human dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase is largely reduced by mutation at isoleucine-51 to alanine". J ... "How dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-binding protein binds dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase ... "How dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-binding protein binds dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase ... Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD), also known as dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, mitochondrial, is an enzyme that in humans is ...
This enzyme participates in beta-alanine metabolism. Nakamura K; Bernheim F (1961). "Studies on malonic semialdehyde ... In enzymology, a malonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3- ... dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 50: 147-152. doi:10.1016/0006-3002(61)91071-X. PMID ...
This enzyme participates in beta-alanine metabolism and propanoate metabolism. Den H, Robinson WG, Coon MJ (1959). "Enzymatic ... In enzymology, a 3-hydroxypropionate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.59) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3- ...
This enzyme participates in urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups and beta-alanine metabolism. It has 2 cofactors: FAD, and ... IIE2a Speridine dehydrogenase". Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas Mol. Biol. 36: 225-226. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... In enzymology, a spermidine dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.99.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction spermidine + acceptor ... "Identification of flavin adenine dinucleotide and heme in a homogeneous spermidine dehydrogenase from Serratia marcescens". J. ...
This enzyme participates in 4 metabolic pathways: inositol metabolism, alanine and aspartate metabolism, beta-alanine ... Hayaishi, O; Nishizuka, Y; Tatibana, M; Takeshita, M; Kuno, S (1961). "Enzymatic studies on the metabolism of beta-alanine". ... In enzymology, a malonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (acetylating) (EC 1.2.1.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ...
This enzyme participates in the urea cycle and the metabolism of amino groups and beta-alanine. Callewaert DM, Rosemblatt MS, ... ABAL dehydrogenase, 4-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase, 4-aminobutanal dehydrogenase, gamma-aminobutyraldehyde dehydroganase, 1 ... In enzymology, an aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 4- ... Prieto MI, Martin J, Balana-Fouce R, Garrido-Pertierra A (1987). "Properties of gamma-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase from ...
N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone), superoxide dismutase, glutathione transferase, class 3 ... aldehyde dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, and tissue kallikrein (function unknown) Cells: possibly as many as 8 ...
Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by elevated beta-alanine, 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and ... demonstration of defective valine and beta-alanine metabolism and reduced malonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase activity in ... "CoA-dependent methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, a unique member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily. cDNA ... "CoA-dependent methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, a unique member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily. cDNA ...
... and dihydrouracil dehydrogenase (NAD+). This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: pyrimidine metabolism, beta-alanine ... Other names in common use include dehydrogenase, dihydrouracil, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, dihydrothymine dehydrogenase, ... In enzymology, a dihydrouracil dehydrogenase (NAD+) (EC 1.3.1.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 5,6- ... Purification and properties of dihydrouracil dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 227 (2): 693-700. PMID 13462991. Molecular and ...
In the first step, α-ketoglutarate, ammonia and NADH are converted by glutamate dehydrogenase to glutamate, NAD+ and water. In ... "alanine scanning", where every position in turn is mutated to alanine. Alanine is a nonessential amino acid, meaning it can be ... forming alanine and α-ketoglutarate. The alanine enters the bloodstream, and is transported to the liver. The alanine ... Alanine is found in a wide variety of foods, but is particularly concentrated in meats. Alanine can be synthesized from ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-(D-1-carboxyethyl)-beta-alanine:NAD+ oxidoreductase (beta-alanine-forming). Sato ... Beta-alanopine dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.1.26) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction beta-alanopine + NAD+ + H2O ⇌ {\ ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } beta-alanine + pyruvate + NADH + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are beta-alanopine, ... nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ion, and water, whereas its 4 products are beta-alanine, pyruvate, nicotinamide adenine ...
... and pyruvic dehydrogenase. This enzyme participates in 5 metabolic pathways: glycolysis / gluconeogenesis, alanine and ... pyruvate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide), pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, pyruvate:lipoamide 2-oxidoreductase ... In enzymology, a pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) (EC 1.2.4.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... decarboxylating and, acceptor-acetylating), pyruvic acid dehydrogenase, ...
... then transaminated by alanine aminotransferase into lactate-derived pyruvate to form alanine, which is exported to astrocytes. ... The ammonia fixed as part of the glutamate dehydrogenase enzyme reaction in the neurons is transaminated into α-ketoisocaproate ... In the opposite direction of the amino acid, a corresponding molecule is transported; for alanine this molecule is lactate; for ... The ammonia produced in neurons is fixed into α-ketoglutarate by the glutamate-dehydrogenase reaction to form glutamate, ...
... beta-alanine metabolism, glycerolipid metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, 1,2-dichloroethane degradation, propanoate metabolism, 3 ... NAD-aldehyde dehydrogenase, NAD-dependent 4-hydroxynonenal dehydrogenase, NAD-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase, NAD-linked ... Other names in common use include CoA-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase, m-methylbenzaldehyde dehydrogenase, ... aldehyde dehydrogenase, propionaldehyde dehydrogenase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD). This enzyme participates in 17 ...
... beta-alanine metabolism, and pantothenate and coa biosynthesis. As of late 2007, 5 structures have been solved for this class ... DHU dehydrogenase hydropyrimidine dehydrogenase dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (NADP+) This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic ... dihydrothymine dehydrogenase dihydrouracil dehydrogenase (NADP+) 4,5-dihydrothymine: oxidoreductase DPD DHPDH dehydrogenase, ... In enzymology, a dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (NADP+) (EC 1.3.1.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 5,6- ...
The pyrimidine bases uracil and thymine are degraded via the consecutive action of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DHPDH), ... dihydropyrimidinase (DHP) and beta-ureidopropionase (UP) to beta-alanine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid, respectively. UP ...
... glutamate dehydrogenase (GlDH), EC 1.4.1.2 glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), also called alanine transaminase (ALT), EC ... the malate dehydrogenase reaction and the malate decarboxylase reaction. Due to low glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate ... and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; EC 1.1.1.27) according to the following equations: malate + NAD(P)+→ pyruvate + NAD(P)H + H+ + ... alanine and citrate. Glutaminolysis partially recruits reaction steps from the citric acid cycle and the malate-aspartate ...
Pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl-CoA and CO2 by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). The PDC contains multiple copies of ... Lactate formation is catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase in a reversible reaction. Lactate can also be used as an indirect ... low Km transporter to bring it into the mitochondrial matrix for oxidation by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. ... Alanine Branched-chain. amino acids Aspartate. group Homoserine. group. & lysine Glutamate. group. & proline ...