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*  Aspartate transaminase
Serum AST level, serum ALT (alanine transaminase) level, and their ratio (AST/ALT ratio) are commonly measured clinically as ... AST is similar to alanine transaminase (ALT) in that both enzymes are associated with liver parenchymal cells. The difference ... Example reference ranges are shown below: Alanine transaminase (ALT/ALAT/SGPT) Transaminases PDB: 1AAM​Almo SC, Smith DL, ...
*  Protein metabolism
Serine Threonine Asparagine Glutamine Special cases Cysteine Selenocysteine Glycine Proline Hydrophobic side chains Alanine ...
*  Alanine
... "alanine scanning", where every position in turn is mutated to alanine. Alanine is a nonessential amino acid, meaning it can be ... forming alanine and α-ketoglutarate. The alanine enters the bloodstream, and is transported to the liver. The alanine ... Alanine is found in a wide variety of foods, but is particularly concentrated in meats. Alanine can be synthesized from ... Alterations in the alanine cycle that increase the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are linked to the development ...
*  Alanine transaminase
... (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme (EC 2.6.1.2). It is also called alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and was ... Alanine transaminase shows a marked diurnal variation.[citation needed] The ratio of ALT to AST (aspartate aminotransferase) ... L-alanine + α-ketoglutarate ⇌ pyruvate + L-glutamate ALT (and all aminotransferases) require the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate, ... It catalyzes the two parts of the alanine cycle. Serum ALT level, serum AST (aspartate transaminase) level, and their ratio ( ...
*  Alanine scanning
In molecular biology, alanine scanning is a technique used to determine the contribution of a specific residue to the stability ... In addition, alanine scanning is also used to determine which functional motif of Cry4Aa has the mosquitocidal activity. Cry4Aa ... Alanine is used because of its non-bulky, chemically inert, methyl functional group that nevertheless mimics the secondary ... Alanine Scanning was used to determine simultaneously the functional contributions of 19 side chains buried at the interface ...
*  Alanine carboxypeptidase
... (EC 3.4.17.6, N-benzoyl-L-alanine-amidohydrolase) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following ... Alanine carboxypeptidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... Miyagawa, E.; Takahiro, H.; Yoshinobu, M. (1986). "Purification and properties of N-benzoyl-L-alanine amidohydrolase from ... chemical reaction Release of a C-terminal alanine from a peptide or a variety of pteroyl or acyl groups This enzyme is isolated ...
*  Alanine aminopeptidase
Watanabe Y, Iwaki-Egawa S, Mizukoshi H, Fujimoto Y (July 1995). "Identification of an alanine aminopeptidase in human maternal ...
*  Alanine dehydrogenase
L-alanine dehydrogenase, NAD+-linked alanine dehydrogenase, alpha-alanine dehydrogenase, NAD+-dependent alanine dehydrogenase, ... alanine oxidoreductase, and NADH-dependent alanine dehydrogenase. T Alanine dehydrogenase contains both a N-terminus and C- ... Alanine dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine + H2O + NAD+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-alanine:NAD+ oxidoreductase (deaminating). Other names in common use include ...
*  Beta-Alanine
... β-alanine > taurine ≫ alanine, L-serine > proline). There is evidence that β-alanine supplementation can increase exercise ... The IUPAC name for β-alanine is 3-aminopropanoic acid. Unlike its counterpart α-alanine, β-alanine has no stereocenter. In ... β-Alanine (or beta-alanine) is a naturally occurring beta amino acid, which is an amino acid in which the amino group is at the ... Sources for β-alanine includes pyrimidine catabolism of cytosine and uracil. β-alanine can undergo a transanimation reaction ...
*  Alanine racemase
This enzyme is also called L-alanine racemase. This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism and D-alanine ... D-alanine Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, L-alanine, and one product, D-alanine. This enzyme belongs to the family of ... The D-alanine produced by alanine racemase is used for peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Peptidoglycan is found in the cell walls of ... Alanine racemase can be found in some invertebrates. Bacteria can have one (alr gene) or two alanine racemase genes. Bacterial ...
*  Alanine-tRNA ligase
... alanine-transfer RNA ligase, alanine transfer RNA synthetase, alanine tRNA synthetase, alanine translase, alanyl-transfer ... In enzymology, an alanine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-alanine + tRNAAla ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-alanine:tRNAAla ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include alanyl- ... Webster GC (1961). "Isolation of an alanine-activating enzyme from pig liver". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 49: 141-152. doi:10.1016 ...
*  Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase
Other names in common use include AGT, alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, alanine-glyoxylic aminotransferase, and L-alanine- ... In enzymology, an alanine-glyoxylate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.44) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine + ... Noguchi T, Okuno E, Takada Y, Minatogawa Y, Okai K, Kido R (1978). "Characteristics of hepatic alanine-glyoxylate ... This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism and glycine, serine and threonine metabolism. It employs one ...
*  Alanine-oxomalonate transaminase
Other names in common use include alanine-oxomalonate aminotransferase, L-alanine-ketomalonate transaminase, and alanine- ... In enzymology, an alanine-oxomalonate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.47) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-alanine:oxomalonate aminotransferase. ... the two substrates of this enzyme are L-alanine and oxomalonate, whereas its two products are pyruvate and aminomalonate. This ...
*  Alanine-oxo-acid transaminase
Other names in common use include L-alanine-alpha-keto acid aminotransferase, leucine-alanine transaminase, alanine-keto acid ... In enzymology, an alanine-oxo-acid transaminase (EC 2.6.1.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine + a 2 ... Sallach HJ (1956). "Formation of serine from hydroxypyruvate and L-alanine" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 223 (2): 1101-1108. Wilson DG ... This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism. It employs one cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. ALTENBERN RA, ...
*  Beta-Methylamino-L-alanine
D. (1989). "Neurotoxicity of β -N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and β-N-oxalylamino-L-alanine (BOAA) on cultured cortical ... β-Methylamino-L-alanine, or BMAA, is a non-proteinogenic amino acid produced by cyanobacteria. BMAA is a neurotoxin and its ... BMAA is a derivative of the amino acid alanine with a methylamino group on the side chain. This non-proteinogenic amino acid is ... Karlsson, O. (2011). Distribution and Long-term Effects of the Environmental Neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA): Brain ...
*  Beta-Alanine ethyl ester
β-Alanine ethyl ester is the ethyl ester of the non-essential amino acid β-alanine. It would be expected to hydrolyise within ... Part I. Glycine ethyl ester, β-alanine ethyl ester, acetylcholine, and methylbetaine methyl ester". Journal of the Chemical ... the body to form β-alanine. Kodaira, Toshiyuki; Miyake, Hideo; Hayashi, Koichiro; Okamura, Seizo (1965). "The Synthesis and ...
*  D-alanine 2-hydroxymethyltransferase
In enzymology, a D-alanine 2-hydroxymethyltransferase (EC 2.1.2.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 5,10- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate:D-alanine 2-hydroxymethyltransferase. This enzyme is ... D-alanine, and H2O, whereas its two products are tetrahydrofolate and 2-methylserine. This enzyme belongs to the family of ... methylenetetrahydrofolate + D-alanine + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } tetrahydrofolate + 2-methylserine The 3 ...
*  Pantoate-beta-alanine ligase
... beta-alanine ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme participates in beta-alanine metabolism and pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis. ... In enzymology, a pantoate-beta-alanine ligase (EC 6.3.2.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + (R)-pantoate ... Maas WK (1956). "Mechanism of the enzymatic synthesis of pantothenate from beta-alanine and pantoate". Fed. Proc. 15: 305-306. ... and beta-alanine, whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and (R)-pantothenate. This enzyme belongs to the family of ...
*  Beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase
Other names in common use include beta-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase, and beta-alanine-alpha-alanine transaminase. This ... In enzymology, a beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine ... the two substrates of this enzyme are L-alanine and 3-oxopropanoate, whereas its two products are pyruvate and beta-alanine. ... HAYAISHI O, NISHIZUKA Y, TATIBANA M, TAKESHITA M, KUNO S (1961). "Enzymatic studies on the metabolism of beta-alanine". J. Biol ...
*  N-acetyl-beta-alanine deacetylase
The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-acetyl-beta-alanine amidohydrolase. This enzyme participates in beta-alanine ... beta-alanine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are N-acetyl-beta-alanine and H2O, whereas its two products are acetate ... In enzymology, a N-acetyl-beta-alanine deacetylase (EC 3.5.1.21) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction N-acetyl- ... Fujimoto D, Koyama T, Tamiya N (1968). "N-Acetyl-beta-alanine deacetylase in hog kidney". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 167: 407-413 ...
*  D-alanine-D-alanine ligase
In enzymology, a D-alanine-D-alanine ligase (EC 6.3.2.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 2 D-alanine ... D-alanine ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include alanine:alanine ligase (ADP-forming), and alanylalanine ... The N-terminal region of the D-alanine-D-alanine ligase is thought to be involved in substrate binding, while the C-terminus is ... the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and D-alanine, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and D-alanyl-D-alanine. ...
*  3-chloro-D-alanine dehydrochlorinase
"Synthesis of D-cysteine from 3-chloro-D-alanine and hydrogen sulfide by 3-chloro-D-alanine hydrogen chloride-lyase (deaminating ... Other names in common use include beta-chloro-D-alanine dehydrochlorinase, and 3-chloro-D-alanine chloride-lyase (deaminating ... In enzymology, a 3-chloro-D-alanine dehydrochlorinase (EC 4.5.1.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3-chloro-D ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-chloro-D-alanine chloride-lyase (deaminating; pyruvate-forming). ...
*  Ribosomal-protein-alanine N-acetyltransferase
... ribosomal-protein L-alanine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + ribosomal-protein N-acetyl-L-alanine Thus, the two ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:ribosomal-protein-L-alanine N-acetyltransferase. This enzyme is also ... In enzymology, a ribosomal-protein-alanine N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.128) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... whereas its two products are CoA and ribosomal-protein N-acetyl-L-alanine. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, ...
*  N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase
N-acylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, acetylmuramoyl-alanine amidase, N-acetylmuramic acid L-alanine amidase, acetylmuramyl-alanine ... Other names in common use include acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, ... In enzymology, a N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (EC 3.5.1.28) is an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reaction that cleaves ... Herbold DR, Glaser L (1975). "Interaction of N-acetylmuramic acid L-alanine amidase with cell wall polymers". J. Biol. Chem. ...
*  D-alanine-poly(phosphoribitol) ligase
D-alanine: membrane acceptor ligase, D-alanine-D-alanyl carrier protein ligase, D-alanine-membrane acceptor ligase, and D- ... This enzyme participates in d-alanine metabolism. BADDILEY J, NEUHAUS FC (1960). "The enzymic activation of D-alanine". Biochem ... In enzymology, a D-alanine-poly(phosphoribitol) ligase (EC 6.1.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + D- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-alanine:poly(phosphoribitol) ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use ...