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*  Dinosaur
The lungs of theropod dinosaurs (carnivores that walked on two legs and had bird-like feet) likely pumped air into hollow sacs ... Large meat-eating dinosaurs had a complex system of air sacs similar to those found in modern birds, according to a 2005 ... Early avian-style respiratory systems with air sacs may have been capable of sustaining higher activity levels than those of ... CT-scanning of Aerosteon's fossil bones revealed evidence for the existence of air sacs within the animal's body cavity. ...
*  Allosaurus
Such spaces, which are also found in modern theropods (that is, the birds), are interpreted as having held air sacs used in ...
*  Physiology of dinosaurs
argued against the presence of air sacs in dinosaurs. Researchers have presented evidence and arguments for air sacs in ... but that the air sacs were almost certainly present. A further indication for the presence of air sacs and their use in lung ... air sacs actually evolved before the channels in the skeleton that accommodate them in later forms. Evidence of air sacs has ... air sacs, and the physiology of sauropod dinosaurs". Paleobiology. 2003. and "Vertebral pneumaticity, air sacs, and the ...
*  Air sacs
argued against the presence of air sacs in dinosaurs. Researchers have presented evidence and arguments for air sacs in ... but that the air sacs were almost certainly present. A further indication for the presence of air sacs and their use in lung ... air sacs actually evolved before the channels in the skeleton that accommodate them in later forms. Evidence of air sacs has ... air sacs, and the physiology of sauropod dinosaurs". Paleobiology. 2003. and "Vertebral pneumaticity, air sacs, and the ...
*  Air sac
... generally refers to an organ or portion of an organ containing air within an animal's respiratory system. It may refer ... small hollow cavities which are a part of the lungs within mammals Air sacs, structures in the saurischian dinosaur respiratory ...
*  Glassworm
These dots are the air sacs. They use these air sacs to migrate up and down in lakes. Glassworms breathe through the end of ... fact that a normal air filled invertebrate tracheal system would fail at these depths by having it reduced to just two air sacs ...
*  Bird feet and legs
They contain many air pockets connected to the pulmonary air sacs of the respiratory system. Their spongy interior makes them ... ISBN 0-521-81172-4. Gier, H. T. (1952). "The air sacs of the loon" (PDF). The Auk. American Ornithologists' Union. 69 (1): 40- ... Bezuidenhout, A.J.; Groenewald, H.B.; Soley, J.T. (1999). "An anatomical study of the respiratory air sacs in ostriches" (PDF ... JSTOR 41559544 . Wedel, Mathew J. (2003). "Vertebral pneumaticity, air sacs, and the physiology of sauropod dinosaurs" (PDF). ...
*  Skeletal pneumaticity
The air pockets of the bones are connected to the pulmonary air sacs: However the extent of pneumaticity depends on species. ... It is generally produced during development by excavation of bone by pneumatic diverticula (air sacs) from an air-filled space ... On the Origin of Avian Air Sacs. Resp. Physiol. Neuro. 154(1-2):89-106. Bruno Moreira and Peter M. Som. Unexplained Extensive ... Evidence for avian intrathoracic air sacs in a new predatory dinosaur from Argentina. PLoS ONE 3(9): e3303. doi:10.1371/journal ...
*  Prenatal development
Alveoli (air sacs) are forming in lungs. Gestational age: 24 weeks old. Embryonic age: Week nr 25. 24 weeks old. The fetus ... Fetal hematopoiesis first takes place in the yolk sac. The function is transferred to liver by 10th week of gestation and to ... Formation of the yolk sac. The embryonic cells flatten into a disk, two cells thick. If separation into identical twins occurs ... Rudimentary blood moves through primitive vessels connecting to the yolk sac and chorionic membranes. The metanephros, ...
*  Mites of livestock
Cytodites nudus is a typical species of this type; it infests the air-sacs of birds. Laminosioptes cysticola , the fowl cyst ... or to penetrate and scrape at internal tissue such as air-sac or lung. Psoroptes ovis is an example of a surface-feeding mite. ... air-sac mites) Family: Laminosioptidae (fowl cyst mites) Family: Analgidae (feather mites) Family: Trombiculidae (trombiculid ... and other species have adapted to feed directly on internal tissues such as air-sacs or lungs (Cytoditidae and Laminosioptidae ...
*  Darwin IV
Bladderhorns make bellowing sounds by deflating the air sacs. The Bladderhorn uses its "antlers" for communication, which, in ... The Sac-back gets its name from the sac on the male's back. The sac is used to store pre-digested food from the "sea", which is ... Sac-back - The Sac-back lives at the edge of the Amoebic Sea. They are resembles a apatosaurus. ... Female Sac-backs dig "tombs" in which they bury themselves. Once buried, the only part of the female that sees the light of day ...
*  Sauropoda
These air spaces reduced the overall weight of the massive necks that the sauropods had, and the air-sac system in general, ... An air-sac system connected to the spaces not only lightened the long necks, but effectively increased the airflow through the ... In 2004, D.M. Henderson noted that, due to their extensive system of air sacs, sauropods would have been buoyant and would not ... Along with other saurischian dinosaurs (such as birds and other theropods), sauropods had a system of air sacs, evidenced by ...
*  Glossary of entomology terms
air sac A dilated portion of a trachea. alar squama The middle of three flap-like outgrowths at the base of the wing in various ... spiracle Respiratory openings on the thorax and abdomen that allow air to enter the trachea. sporophagy feeding on mycet spores ...
*  Brontosaurus
The large neck was filled with an extensive system of weight-saving air sacs. Brontosaurus, like its close relative Apatosaurus ... Wedel, M. J. (2003). "Vertebral Pneumaticity, Air Sacs, and the Physiology of Sauropod Dinosaurs". Paleobiology. 29 (2): 243- ... Diplodocids like Brontosaurus are often portrayed with their necks held high up in the air, allowing them to browse on tall ...
*  Rhamphorhynchoidea
Butler, R.J., Barrett, P.M., and gower, D.J. (2009). "Postcranial skeletal pneumaticity and air-sacs in the earliest pterosaurs ...
*  Common raven physiology
Air flow is directed through the lungs via air sacs. The sacs are used to create a continuous unidirectional flow of fresh air ... but the common raven as a member of the Passeriformes group only has seven air sacs (missing two cervical air sacs). The common ... Most birds have nine air sacs, grouped into anterior and posterior sacs, ... Air moves in a unidirectional flow and blood travels in a concurrent direction to air flow. An advantage of this type of system ...
*  Apatosaurus
Though this plays a role in reducing the weight of the animal, Wedel (2003) states they are also likely connected to air sacs, ... To lighten its vertebrae, Apatosaurus had air sacs that made the bones internally full of holes. Like that of other diplodocids ... On this basis, its respiratory system would likely have been parabronchi, with multiple pulmonary air sacs as in avian lungs, ... The large neck was filled with an extensive system of weight-saving air sacs. Apatosaurus, like its close relative Supersaurus ...
*  Thoracic diaphragm
A complicated system of valves and air sacs cycles air constantly over the absorption surfaces of the lungs so allowing maximal ... On careful dissection, around eight air sacs can be clearly seen. They extend quite far caudally into the abdomen. ... When the diaphragm relaxes, air is exhaled by elastic recoil process of the lung and the tissues lining the thoracic cavity. ... or air abnormally present in the abdomen, may collect on one side of the diaphragm. An X-ray may reveal this. Pleural effusion ...
*  Two-spotted bumble bee
Mites were recovered from the autosomal air sacs of bumble bees. These mites can affect behavior and reduce longevity, which ...
*  Scipionyx
They considered the space more likely to have been filled by a large yolk-sac. Air-sacs were nevertheless probable given the ... Many bird livers are large too, showing that such a trait is compatible with an air-sac system. The small body cavity in front ... Such a system would be an argument against the idea that birds, whose lungs are ventilated by air-sacs, are coelurosaurian ... Dal Sasso & Maganuco however, rejected this interpretation because with living birds the air-sac of the posterior abdomen does ...
*  Respiratory tract
The alveoli are tiny air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange takes place. The mean number of alveoli in a human lung is 480 ... These bronchioles give rise to the air sacs in the lungs called the alveoli. The lungs are the largest organs in the lower ... This type of COPD deteriorates the air sacs, and lung mass. Secondary COPD can be found in older adults who smoke or have ... When that happens, these sacs fill with air, making the lung expand. The alveoli are rich with capillaries, called alveolor ...
*  Cyclocoelidae
Trematoda: Cyclocoelidae) from the air sacs of purple moorhen at Sangrur India. Rivista di Parassitologia, 46, 351-354. Dronen ...
*  Istiodactylus
The vertebral column, forelimb, and trunk bones were pneumatised by air sacs. The neural arches of the vertebrae had tall, ... Seeley, H. G. (1901). Dragons of the Air: an Account of Extinct Flying Reptiles. New York: D. Appleton & Co. pp. 173-175. Howse ... In his 1901 Dragons of the Air, the first popular book about pterosaurs, Seeley reported another specimen (NHMUK R176 at the ... and they probably spent much time in the air. Istiodactylids had wing-membranes connected to shortened bodies with short legs ...
*  Booby
Facial air sacs under their skin cushion the impact with the water. Boobies are colonial breeders on islands and coasts. They ...
*  Respiratory system
... the posterior air sacs filling with fresh inhaled air, while the anterior air sacs fill with "spent" (oxygen-poor) air that has ... These microscopic air sacs have a very rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood. These air ... the oxygen-poor air it contains at the end of exhalation is the first air to re-enter the posterior air sacs and lungs. In ... The air passages connecting the ventrobronchi and anterior air sacs to the intrapulmonary bronchi direct the "spent", oxygen ...
*  178th Reconnaissance Squadron
It moved to Moody Air Force Base, Georgia, where it became part of Strategic Air Command (SAC), and was assigned to the ... In 1994 the 119th Group won the Hughes Trophy which recognizes the most outstanding air-to-air unit in the Air Force. The only ... William Tell tests pilots and ground crews from the Air Force fighter units in air-to-air combat. This was the Hooligans' third ... Barry (1985). Army Air Forces Stations: A Guide to the Stations Where U.S. Army Air Forces Personnel Served in the United ...
*  Araucariaceae
The pollen grains are round and do not possess wings or air sacs. Female cones are also very large. They are spherical to ovoid ... Each has four to 20 elongated pollen sacs attached to the lower surface at one end. ...