... (formerly known as ALT-711) was a drug candidate developed by Alteon, Inc. It was the first drug candidate to be clinically tested for the purpose of breaking the crosslinks caused by advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), thereby reversing one of the main mechanisms of aging. Through this effect Alagebrium is designed to reverse the stiffening of blood vessel walls that contributes to hypertension and cardiovascular disease, as well as many other forms of degradation associated with protein crosslinking. Alagebrium has proven effective in reducing systolic blood pressure and providing therapeutic benefit for patients with diastolic heart failure. AGEs are structures that form irreversibly when carbohydrates react non-enzymatically with proteins, lipids, or DNA. Many proteins, including structural proteins such as collagen and elastin, play an integral role in the architecture of tissues and organs and ...
S100 calcium-binding protein A9 (S100A9) also known as migration inhibitory factor-related protein 14 (MRP14) or calgranulin B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100A9 gene. The proteins S100A8 and S100A9 form a heterodimer called calprotectin. S100-A9 is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in the inhibition of casein kinase. MRP14 complexes with MRP-8 (S100A8), another member of the S100 family of calcium-modulated proteins; together, MRP8 and MRP14 regulate myeloid cell function by binding to ...
A composting toilet is a type of toilet that uses a predominantly aerobic process to treat human excreta by composting or managed aerobic decomposition. These toilets typically use no water for flushing and are therefore also called a "dry toilet". A variation on this design is the "vermifilter toilet" which may use a flushing or micro-flushing system. In some systems, carbon additives such as sawdust, coconut coir, or peat moss is added after each use. This practice creates air pockets in the human excreta to promote aerobic decomposition. This also improves the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and reduces potential odor. Most composting toilet systems rely on mesophilic composting as well as retention time to destroy pathogens. The endproduct can also be treated by a secondary system - usually another composting step - to "finish" the compost: this allows more time for mesophilic composting to further reduce pathogens. Composting toilets, together with the secondary composting step, produce a ...
Bauerle, R.H., Freundlich, M., Størmer, F.C. and Umbarger, H.E. (1964). "Control of isoleucine, valine and leucine biosynthesis. II. Endproduct inhibition by valine of acetohydroxy acid synthetase in Salmonella typhimurium". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 92: 142-149. PMID 14243762. ...
A vortex breaker is a device used in engineering to stop the formation of a vortex when a fluid (liquid or gas) is drained from a vessel such as a tank or vapor-liquid separator. The formation of vortices can entrain vapor in the liquid stream, leading to poor separation in process steps such as distillation or excessive pressure drop, or causing cavitation of downstream pumps. Vortices can also re-entrain solid particles previously separated from a gas stream in a solid-gas separation device such as a cyclone. Many different designs of vortex breaker are available. Some use radial vanes or baffles around the liquid exit to stop some of the angular velocity of the liquid. The "floor grate" design uses a system of grating similar to the metal floor of a catwalk. Different authors give different rules of thumb for vortex breaker design. Vortex generator Stewart, Maurice; Arnold, Ken (2008). Gas-liquid and liquid-liquid separators. Gulf Professional Publishing. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-7506-8979-3. ...
An artificial chemistry is a chemical-like system that usually consists of objects, called molecules, that interact according to rules resembling chemical reaction rules. Artificial chemistries are created and studied in order to understand fundamental properties of chemical systems, including prebiotic evolution, as well as for developing chemical computing systems. Artificial chemistry is a field within computer science wherein chemical reactions-often biochemical ones-are computer-simulated, yielding insights on evolution, self-assembly, and other biochemical phenomena. The field does not use actual chemicals, and should not be confused with either synthetic chemistry or computational chemistry. Rather, bits of information are used to represent the starting molecules, and the end products are examined along with the processes that led to them. The field originated in artificial life but has shown to be a versatile method with applications in many fields such as chemistry, economics, ...
Lee YS; Kang YH; Jung JY; LEE, Sanghyun; OHUCHI, Kazuo; SHIN, Kuk Hyun; KANG, Il-Jun. Protein glycation inhibitors from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Október 2008, roč. 31, s. 1968-72. Dostupné online. DOI: 10.1248/bpb.31.1968. PMID 18827365 ...
... is a peer-reviewed scientific open access journal publishing original research in applied mathematics with the focus on numerical analysis and scientific computing,. It is published by the Kent State University and the Johann Radon Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics (RICAM). Articles for this journal are published in electronic form on the journal's web site. The journal is one of the oldest scientific open access journals in mathematics. The Electronic Transactions on Numerical Analysis were founded in 1992 by Richard S. Varga, Arden Ruttan, and Lothar Reichel (all Kent State University) as a fully open access journal (no fee for reader or authors). The first issue appeared in September 1993. The current editors-in-chief are Lothar Reichel and Ronny Ramlau. 1993-2008: Richard S. Varga 1993-1998: Arden Ruttan 2005-2013: Daniel Szyld since 1993: Lothar Reichel since 2010: Ronny Ramlau Since its foundation, the journal follows an open ...
The main reason authors make their articles openly accessible is to maximize their research impact.[108] There have been claims of higher citation rates for open access authors.[109] The overall citation rates for a time period of 2 years (2010-2011) were 30% higher for subscription journals, but, after controlling for discipline, journal age and publisher location, the differences largely disappeared in most subcategories, except for those launched prior to 1996.[110] A study in 2001 first reported an open access citation impact advantage.[111] While there is some debate around the impact of open access, most studies conducted show increased citations with open access publications.[2]. Two major studies dispute the claim that open access articles lead to more citations.[112][113] A randomized controlled trial of open access publishing involving 36 participating journals in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities found that open access articles (n=712) received significantly more downloads ...
The main reason authors make their articles openly accessible is to maximize their research impact.[67] There have been claims of higher citation rates for open access authors.[68] The overall citation rates for a time period of 2 years (2010-2011) were 30% higher for subscription journals, but, after controlling for discipline, journal age and publisher location, the differences largely disappeared in most subcategories, except for those launched prior to 1996.[69] A study in 2001 first reported an open access citation impact advantage,[70] Two major studies dispute the claim that open access articles lead to more citations.[71][72] A randomized controlled trial of open access publishing involving 36 participating journals in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities found that open access articles (n=712) received significantly more downloads and reached a broader audience within the first year, yet were cited no more frequently, nor earlier, than subscription-access control articles ...
... (also known as G2B) is a peer-reviewed online-only scientific journal covering research in the fields of behavioral, neural, and psychiatric genetics. It is published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society. The journal was established in 2002 as a quarterly and is currently published monthly. G2B is a hybrid open access journal, but two years after publication all content is available for free online. Genes, Brain and Behavior is published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society. Volume 1 appeared in 2002 and issues appeared quarterly. As submissions increased, the journal switched in 2003 to a bimonthly schedule, in 2006 to 8-times-a-year, and in 2014 to a monthly frequency. Content is available online from the Wiley Online Library or, after a 12-month embargo, from EBSCOhost. Authors can elect to have accepted articles published as open access. All content is available ...
Vincent R. Racaniello (born January 2, 1953 in Paterson, New Jersey) is a Higgins Professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons. He is one of four virologists who has recently authored Principles of Virology, a textbook used by many teaching virology to undergraduate, medical and graduate students. As an esteemed member of the scientific community, Racaniello has received several awards including Irma T. Hirschl, Searle Scholars, Eli Lilly and NIH Merit. He has also been a Harvey Society Lecturer at Rockefeller University, the Hilleman Lecturer at the University of Chicago, and University Lecturer at Columbia University. Racaniello has served on the editorial boards of scientific journals, including the Journal of Virology, and is a community editor for the open access journal PLOS Pathogens. He also served as the 2015 president of the American Society for Virology. Racaniello graduated from Cornell University in 1974 (BA, ...
Montgomery has been awarded the title of London Leader by the London Sustainable Development Commission for his work in climate change and health under the auspices of Project Genie; he was also a founding member of the UK Climate and Health Council and one of the co-authors of the UCL-Lancet Commission" in 2009. Montgomery has complemented his interest in fitness with achievements which include the 100 km ultra marathons, holding the world record for underwater piano playing as well as visiting Everest with the Xtreme Everest research group to undertake research.[9] He is the co-Editor-in-Chief of the Open Access journal Extreme Physiology & Medicine published by BioMed Central.[10] Montgomery is the author of the children's book The Voyage of the Arctic Tern.[11] ...