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*  List of MeSH codes (D09)
... adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.075 --- adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125 --- ... guanosine diphosphate mannose MeSH D09.408.620.569.727 --- uridine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.727.100 --- uridine ... poly adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.200 --- cytidine diphosphate diglycerides MeSH D09.408.620.569.400 --- ... guanosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.400.410 --- guanosine diphosphate fucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.400.500 --- ...
*  Aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase
... adenosine diphosphosugar phosphorylase, ADP sugar phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate ... doi:10.1016/0926-6569(64)90337-2. Passeron S, Recondo E, Dankert M (1964). "Biosynthesis of adenosine diphosphate D-hexoses". ... Dankert M, Goncalves IR, Recondo E (1964). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose: orthophosphate adenylyltransferase in wheat germ". ... Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, ...
*  Adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor
The sugar ribose unit was also replaced with a cyclopentyl group to avoid possible unstability of the glycosidic bond. The ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors are a drug class of antiplatelet agents, used in the treatment of acute ... P2Y12 receptor is a G-coupled receptor and is activated by adenosine diphosphate. ADP binds to the P2Y12 receptor that leads to ... "Platelet Adenosine Diphosphate P2Y12 Receptor Antagonism: Benefits and Limitations of Current Treatment Strategies and Future ...
*  Adenosine diphosphate
The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5' carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1' carbon ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D13)
... adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.667.138.124.070.075 --- adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D13.695.667.138.124.070. ... adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.827.068.124.070.075 --- adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D13.695.827.068.124.070. ... adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.827.708.070.075 --- adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D13.695.827.708.070.125 --- ... guanosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.667.454.340.350.400 --- guanosine diphosphate fucose MeSH D13.695.667.454.340.350.500 ...
*  Bisphosphate
... fructose sugar phosphorylated on carbons 1 and 6 Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (or fructose 2,6-diphosphate), abbreviated Fru-2,6- ... an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + H2O adenosine 5'-phosphate + phosphate Fructose 1 ... 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), an important substrate involved in carbon fixation ...
*  Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency type 1
Cellular processes, especially muscles, then convert the ATP into adenosine diphosphate (ADP), freeing the energy to do work.[ ... It is a part of the metabolic process that converts sugar, fat, and protein into cellular energy. In order to use energy, a ... Adenosine mediates pain through adenosine receptors. MADD causes an increase of free adenosine during heavy activity which may ... In the brain, excess adenosine decreases alertness and causes sleepiness. In this way, adenosine may play a role in fatigue ...
*  Cytidine monophosphate
As a substituent it takes the form of the prefix cytidylyl-. CMP can be phosphorylated to cytidine diphosphate by the enzyme ... CMP consists of the phosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase cytosine; hence, a ribonucleoside ... CMP kinase, with adenosine triphosphate or guanosine triphosphate donating the phosphate group. Since cytidine triphosphate is ...
*  Daniel I. Arnon
... by adding a third phosphorus group to adenosine diphosphate. In 1954, Arnon reproduced the process in a laboratory, making him ... the first to successfully demonstrate the chemical function of photosynthesis, producing sugar and starch from inputs of carbon ... His work was able to demonstrate how energy from sunlight is used to form adenosine triphosphate, the energy transport ...
*  Adenosine
... and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Adenosine itself is ... Adenosine is a purine nucleoside composed of a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule (ribofuranose) moiety ... In the US, Adenosine is marketed as Adenocard. In India Adenosine is sold as Adenoscan (Cipla) All adenosine receptor subtypes ... When adenosine enters the circulation, it is broken down by adenosine deaminase, which is present in red cells and the vessel ...
*  Glucokinase
... is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) when the phosphate is removed. The reaction ... It is as a signal for insulin release that glucokinase exerts the largest effect on blood sugar levels and overall direction of ... 6 carbon sugars) and similar molecules. Therefore, the general glucokinase reaction is more accurately described as: Hexose + ...
*  Outline of cell biology
Important molecules: ADP - Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (Adenosine pyrophosphate (APP)) is an important organic compound in ... Glucose - An important simple sugar used by cells as a source of energy and as a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the ... A molecule of ADP consists of three important structural components: a sugar backbone attached to a molecule of adenine and two ... Lactic acid fermentation - An anaerobic metabolic process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted ...
*  Chloroplast
ATP synthase uses the energy from the flowing hydrogen ions to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate into adenosine triphosphate ... which builds sugar molecules from carbon dioxide. The two phases are linked by the energy carriers adenosine triphosphate (ATP ... ATP is the phosphorylated version of adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which stores energy in a cell and powers most cellular ... to subsequently produce food in the form of sugars. Water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are used in photosynthesis, and sugar ...
*  Hydrolysis
ATP can undergo hydrolysis in two ways: the removal of terminal phosphate to form adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic ... When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and ... or the removal of a terminal diphosphate to yield adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and pyrophosphate. The latter usually undergoes ... Invertase is a sucrase used industrially for the hydrolysis of sucrose to so-called invert sugar. Lactase is essential for ...
*  Adenosine triphosphate
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) Adenosine-tetraphosphatase Adenosine methylene triphosphate ATPases ... carbon atom of the sugar to a triphosphate group. In its many reactions related to metabolism, the adenine and sugar groups ... Gajewski, E.; Steckler, D.; Goldberg, R. (1986). "Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5′-triphosphate to adenosine 5 ... Energy ATP and Exercise PubChem entry for Adenosine Triphosphate KEGG entry for Adenosine Triphosphate. ...
*  Thiamine
Adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP) or thiaminylated adenosine diphosphate exists in small amounts in vertebrate liver, but ... The best-characterized form is thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), a coenzyme in the catabolism of sugars and amino acids. In yeast, ... and adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP). While the coenzyme role of thiamine diphosphate is well-known and extensively ... Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP) or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate has recently been discovered in Escherichia ...
*  Neonatal diabetes mellitus
The elevated ATP/adenosine diphosphate ratio causes closure of the KATP channel, and inhibit potassium efflux (a lot of ... Their kidneys are working overtime to filter and uptake excess sugar. However, their kidneys cannot keep up, excess sugar is ... Characterization of hyperglycemia is high blood glucose, high levels of sugar in the urine, frequent urination and increase ... is a polypeptide that activates adenylate cyclase and increases the cyclic adenosine monophosphate or cAMP. cAMP is a second ...
*  Bioenergetic systems
The building blocks of ATP synthesis are the by-products of its breakdown; adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate ... "Glycolysis" refers to the breakdown of sugar. In this system, the breakdown of sugar supplies the necessary energy from which ... When sugar is metabolized anaerobically, it is only partially broken down and one of the byproducts is lactic acid. This ... Those processes convert energy into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the form suitable for muscular activity. There are ...
*  Nucleic acid metabolism
The nucleoside, adenosine, is then deaminated and hydrolyzed to form hypoxanthine via adenosine deaminase and nucleosidase ... The conversion of a nucleoside-diphosphate (NDP) to a nucleoside-triphosphate (NTP) is catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate ... Unlike in purine synthesis, the sugar/phosphate group from PRPP is not added to the nitrogenous base until towards the end of ... This enzyme converts NDPs (nucleoside-diphosphate) to dNDPs (deoxynucleoside-diphosphate). The nucleotides must be in the ...
*  Ticagrelor
Like the thienopyridines prasugrel, clopidogrel and ticlopidine, ticagrelor blocks adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptors of ... Ticagrelor is a nucleoside analogue: the cyclopentane ring is similar to the sugar ribose, and the nitrogen rich aromatic ring ... system resembles the nucleobase purine, giving the molecule an overall similarity to adenosine. The substance has low ...
*  Vidarabine
As you can see from figure 1.1 that it is a stereoisomer of adenosine. It has a half-life of 60 minutes, and its solubility is ... Soc., 1957, p. 19-C. Glaudemans, C. P. J.; Fletcher, Jr., H. G. Syntheses with Partially Benzylated Sugars. II. A Simple ... This prevents the reduction of nucleotide diphosphates, causing a reduction of viral replication. Vidarabine is more toxic and ... The use of an inhibitor of adenosine deaminase to increase the half-life of vidarabine has also been tried, and drugs such as ...
*  Nucleoside triphosphate
The first phosphate group linked to the sugar is termed the α-phosphate, the second is the β-phosphate, and the third is the γ- ... The conversion of NTPs to dNTPs can only be done in the diphosphate form. Typically a NTP has one phosphate removed to become a ... "ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate , Boundless Biology". courses.lumenlearning.com-US. Retrieved 2017-11-12. Carvalho AT, Szeler K, ... Conventionally, the carbon numbers in a sugar are followed by the prime symbol (') to distinguish them from the carbons of the ...
*  Ribonucleotide
In ribonucleotides, the sugar component is ribose while in deoxyribonucleotides, the sugar component is deoxyribose. Instead of ... Ribonucleoside diphosphate (NDP) is reduced by thioredoxin to a deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate (dNTP). The general reaction is ... Other variations include adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). ... Ribonucleoside diphosphate + NADPH + H+ -> Deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate + NADP+ + H2O To illustrate this equation, dATP and ...
*  Ribose-phosphate diphosphokinase
PRPP provides the ribose sugar in de novo synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, used in the nucleotide bases that form RNA and ... In the transition state upon binding of both substrates, the diphosphate is transferred. The enzyme first releases AMP before ... which can ultimately be converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or guanosine triphosphate (GTP). PRPP plays a role in purine ...
*  Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase
... and begins the synthesis of a polymeric adenosine diphosphate ribose (poly (ADP-ribose) or PAR) chain, which acts as a signal ... This model suggests that this "sugar plug" can also begin the signal for apoptosis. DNA damage theory of aging Maximum life ... This leaves a pyrophosphate as the linking group between ribose sugars rather than single phosphate groups. This creates some ... leaving a single phosphate group linking deoxyribose sugars. PAR is synthesized using nicotinamide (NAM) as the leaving group. ...
*  Metabolism
... causing the active site of the synthase domain to change shape and phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate - turning it into ATP. ... which reduces the coenzyme NADPH and produces pentose sugars such as ribose, the sugar component of nucleic acids. Fats are ... Each nucleotide is composed of a phosphate attached to a ribose or deoxyribose sugar group which is attached to a nitrogenous ... Once inside, the major route of breakdown is glycolysis, where sugars such as glucose and fructose are converted into pyruvate ...