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*  Adenosine diphosphate ribose
... is an ester molecule formed into chains by the enzyme poly ADP ribose polymerase. It binds to and ... Adenosine diphosphate Ribose Fonfria E, Marshall IC, Benham CD, et al. (September 2004). "TRPM2 channel opening in response to ... oxidative stress is dependent on activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase". Br. J. Pharmacol. 143 (1): 186-92. doi:10.1038/sj. ...
*  NAD+ nucleosidase
"Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide glycohydrolases and poly adenosine diphosphate ribose synthesis in rat liver". Biochem. ... ADP-ribose + nicotinamide Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are NAD+ and H2O, whereas its two products are ADP-ribose and ...
*  DNA repair
PARP1 synthesizes polymeric adenosine diphosphate ribose (poly (ADP-ribose) or PAR) chains on itself. Next the chromatin ... Li D, Bi FF, Cao JM, Cao C, Li CY, Liu B, Yang Q (2014). "Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 transcriptional regulation: a novel ... In further steps, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is required and may be an early step in MMEJ. There is pairing of ... The PARP1 protein, attached to both DDB1 and DDB2, then PARylates (creates a poly-ADP ribose chain) on DDB2 that attracts the ...
*  Parthanatos
Noncovalent Interactions of Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) with Histones. Biochemistry-US. 31: 1397-1385. Fatokun AA, ... ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase. Biochemistry 50: 2850-2859. Wang Y, Dawson VL, Dawson TM. 2009. Poly(ADP-ribose) signals to ... Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer is a death signal. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 103: 18308-18313 Yu SW, Wang H, Poitras MF, Coombs C, ... Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is a mediator of necrotic cell death by ATP depletion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96: 13978-13982 ...
*  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone)
Complex I is also blocked by adenosine diphosphate ribose - a reversible competitive inhibitor of NADH oxidation - by binding ... by ADP-ribose". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1320 (3): 256-64. doi:10.1016/S0005-2728(97)00029-7. PMID 9230920. Viollet B, ...
*  Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase
ADP-ribose). Miwa, M.; Sugimura, T. (1971). "Splitting of the ribose-ribose linkage of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) by a ... linkage of ribose-ribose bond to produce free ADP-ribose Specific to (1-2') linkage of ribose-ribose bond of poly( ... ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase". J. Biol. Chem. 272: 11895-11901. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.18.11895. PMID 9115250. Poly(ADP-ribose) ... Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.143) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction hydrolyses ...
*  Ribose-5-phosphate adenylyltransferase
Stern AI, Avron M (1966). "An adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose:orthophosphate adenylyltransferase from Euglena gracilis". ... D-ribose-5-phosphate adenylyltransferase. Other names in common use include ADP ribose phosphorylase, and adenosine ... ADP-ribose Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ADP and D-ribose 5-phosphate, whereas its two products are phosphate and ... In enzymology, a ribose-5-phosphate adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.35) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ADP + D ...
*  Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase
... and begins the synthesis of a polymeric adenosine diphosphate ribose (poly (ADP-ribose) or PAR) chain, which acts as a signal ... ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). NAD+ is required as substrate for generating ADP-ribose monomers. It has been thought that ... Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a family of proteins involved in a number of cellular processes such as DNA repair, ... Bürkle A, Brabeck C, Diefenbach J, Beneke S (May 2005). "The emerging role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in longevity". Int ...
*  Adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor
The sugar ribose unit was also replaced with a cyclopentyl group to avoid possible unstability of the glycosidic bond. The ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors are a drug class of antiplatelet agents, used in the treatment of acute ... P2Y12 receptor is a G-coupled receptor and is activated by adenosine diphosphate. ADP binds to the P2Y12 receptor that leads to ... "Platelet Adenosine Diphosphate P2Y12 Receptor Antagonism: Benefits and Limitations of Current Treatment Strategies and Future ...
*  Adenosine diphosphate
... a sugar backbone attached to adenine and two phosphate groups bonded to the 5 carbon atom of ribose. The diphosphate group of ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D09)
... adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125 --- adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125.040 ... cyclic adp-ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125.600 --- poly adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.200 --- cytidine ... nucleoside diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070 --- adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.075 --- ... uridine diphosphate n-acetylglucosamine MeSH D09.408.620.569.727.150 --- uridine diphosphate n-acetylmuramic acid MeSH D09.408. ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D13)
... adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D13.695.667.138.124.070.125 --- adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D13.695.667.138.124.070. ... adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D13.695.827.068.124.070.125 --- adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D13.695.827.068.124.070. ... adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D13.695.827.708.070.125 --- adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D13.695.827.708.070.125.040 ... cyclic adp-ribose MeSH D13.695.827.708.070.125.600 --- poly adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D13.695.827.708.260 --- cytidine ...
*  Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
This is distinct from adenosine diphosphate, where the two phosphate groups are attached in a chain to the 5' carbon atom in ... bisphosphate is a form of an adenosine nucleotide with two phosphate groups attached to different carbons in the ribose ring. ... Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate is produced as a product of sulfotransferase enzymes from the donation of a sulfate group from the ... This product is then hydrolysed by 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase to give adenosine monophosphate, which can then be ...
*  NUDT9
ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NUDT9 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... "Entrez Gene: NUDT9 nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 9". Lin S, Gasmi L, Xie Y, et al. (2002). "Cloning ... expression and characterisation of a human Nudix hydrolase specific for adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (ADP-ribose)". Biochim. ... 2004). "Interaction of C17orf25 with ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase NUDT9 detected via yeast two-hybrid method". Sheng Wu Hua Xue ...
*  Cytidine monophosphate
As a substituent it takes the form of the prefix cytidylyl-. CMP can be phosphorylated to cytidine diphosphate by the enzyme ... CMP consists of the phosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase cytosine; hence, a ribonucleoside ... CMP kinase, with adenosine triphosphate or guanosine triphosphate donating the phosphate group. Since cytidine triphosphate is ...
*  Adenosine thiamine triphosphate
In E. coli AThTP is synthesized from thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) according to the following reaction catalyzed by thiamine ... ADP-ribose) polymerase-1(PARP-1) activity". J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 57 (2): 192-6. PMID 21697640. Makarchikov AF, Brans A ... Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate, is a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide. It ... diphosphate adenylyl transferase: ThDP + ATP (ADP) ↔ AThTP + PPi (Pi) The molecule is made up of thiamine and adenosine joined ...
*  Adenosine
... and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Adenosine itself is ... Adenosine is a purine nucleoside composed of a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule (ribofuranose) moiety ... In the US, Adenosine is marketed as Adenocard. In India Adenosine is sold as Adenoscan (Cipla) All adenosine receptor subtypes ... When adenosine enters the circulation, it is broken down by adenosine deaminase, which is present in red cells and the vessel ...
*  Outline of cell biology
Important molecules: ADP - Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (Adenosine pyrophosphate (APP)) is an important organic compound in ... a sugar backbone attached to a molecule of adenine and two phosphate groups bonded to the 5 carbon atom of ribose. ATP - A ... Often called "cellular power plants", mitochondria generate most of cells' supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the body's ... and mediating biochemical reactions that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is a major energy intermediate in living ...
*  ATP phosphoribosyltransferase
ATP and diphosphate, whereas its two products are ATP and 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate. This enzyme belongs to the ... Other names in common use include phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphorylase, adenosine triphosphate phosphoribosyltransferase, ... diphosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ATP + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate Thus, the two substrates of this ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)-ATP:diphosphate phospho-alpha-D-ribosyl-transferase. ...
*  Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency type 1
Cellular processes, especially muscles, then convert the ATP into adenosine diphosphate (ADP), freeing the energy to do work.[ ... nucleotidase removes the ribose and phosphorus from AMP, increasing levels of adenosine measured in muscle cells by ~16-25×, ... Adenosine mediates pain through adenosine receptors. MADD causes an increase of free adenosine during heavy activity which may ... In the brain, excess adenosine decreases alertness and causes sleepiness. In this way, adenosine may play a role in fatigue ...
*  Thiamine
Adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP) or thiaminylated adenosine diphosphate exists in small amounts in vertebrate liver, but ... a major route for the biosynthesis of the pentose sugars deoxyribose and ribose. The mitochondrial PDH and OGDH are part of ... and adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP). While the coenzyme role of thiamine diphosphate is well-known and extensively ... Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP) or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate has recently been discovered in Escherichia ...
*  Vidarabine
... is an analog of adenosine with the D-ribose replaced with D-arabinose. As you can see from figure 1.1 that it is a ... This prevents the reduction of nucleotide diphosphates, causing a reduction of viral replication. Vidarabine is more toxic and ... The use of an inhibitor of adenosine deaminase to increase the half-life of vidarabine has also been tried, and drugs such as ... This is where ara-ATP is incorporated into the DNA strand replacing many of the adenosine bases. This results in the prevention ...
*  Nucleoside-diphosphatase
Horecker BL, Hurwitz J, Heppel LA (1957). "The synthesis of ribose 5-pyrophosphate and ribose 5-triphosphate". J. Am. Chem. Soc ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is nucleoside-diphosphate phosphohydrolase. Other names in common use include ... thiaminpyrophosphatase, UDPase, inosine diphosphatase, adenosine diphosphatase, IDPase, ADPase, adenosinepyrophosphatase, ... GIBSON DM, AYENGAR P, SANADI DR (1955). "A phosphatase specific for nucleoside diphosphates". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 16 (4): ...
*  Nucleic acid metabolism
The nucleoside, adenosine, is then deaminated and hydrolyzed to form hypoxanthine via adenosine deaminase and nucleosidase ... The conversion of a nucleoside-diphosphate (NDP) to a nucleoside-triphosphate (NTP) is catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate ... DNA, however, requires deoxyribose, which is missing the 2'-hydroxyl (-OH group) on the ribose. The reaction to remove this -OH ... This enzyme converts NDPs (nucleoside-diphosphate) to dNDPs (deoxynucleoside-diphosphate). The nucleotides must be in the ...
*  Ticagrelor
Like the thienopyridines prasugrel, clopidogrel and ticlopidine, ticagrelor blocks adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptors of ... Ticagrelor is a nucleoside analogue: the cyclopentane ring is similar to the sugar ribose, and the nitrogen rich aromatic ring ... system resembles the nucleobase purine, giving the molecule an overall similarity to adenosine. The substance has low ...
*  Metabolism
... causing the active site of the synthase domain to change shape and phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate - turning it into ATP. ... Each nucleotide is composed of a phosphate attached to a ribose or deoxyribose sugar group which is attached to a nitrogenous ... Individual nucleosides are made by attaching a nucleobase to a ribose sugar. These bases are heterocyclic rings containing ... One central coenzyme is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the universal energy currency of cells. This nucleotide is used to ...