For a description of melanin-related disorders, see melanin and ocular melanosis. Melanism related to the process of adaptation ... is an adaptation for the prehistoric movement of humans away from equatorial regions, as there is less exposure to sunlight at ... or a high-altitude adaptation, since black fur absorbs more heat. The Silkie chicken commonly exhibits this trait. In April ...
"Subterranean mammals show convergent regression in ocular genes and enhancers, along with adaptation to tunneling". eLife. 6. ... The fusiform bodyshape (a tube tapered at both ends) adopted by many aquatic animals is an adaptation to enable them to travel ... The prior existence of suitable structures has been called pre-adaptation or exaptation. Kirk, John Thomas Osmond (2007). ... As a sensory adaptation, echolocation has evolved separately in cetaceans (dolphins and whales) and bats, but from the same ...
This is what is referred to as VOR adaptation. Ethanol consumption can disrupt the VOR, reducing dynamic visual acuity. This ... The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is a reflex, where activation of the vestibular system causes eye movement. This reflex ... The vestibulo-ocular reflex needs to be fast: for clear vision, head movement must be compensated almost immediately; otherwise ... In comatose patients, once it has been determined that the cervical spine is intact, a test of the vestibulo-ocular reflex can ...
Melatonin has been shown to accelerate the adaptation of the circadian system to a nighttime work schedule.[26] Melatonin may ... Bright light treatment is not recommended for patients with light sensitivity or ocular disease. ... "Dark goggles and bright light improve circadian rhythm adaptation to night-shift work". Sleep. 17 (6): 535-43. doi:10.1093/ ... or blue-blocking goggles during the morning commute home from work can improve circadian adaptation. For workers who want to ...
This form of therapy is thought to promote habituation, adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, and/or sensory substitution ... Nystagmus (flickering of the eye, related to the Vestibulo-ocular reflex [VOR]) is often seen in patients with an acute ... This is called the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Movement of fluid in the semicircular canals signals the brain about the ... an adaptation to the injury. Although the patient's balance is restored, the balance system injury still exists. Benign ...
... an adaptation (also termed gain adaptation) widely seen as a simple form of motor learning, possibly driven by an effort to ... ocular tremor, ocular drift and smooth pursuit). Velocity-based algorithms are a common approach for saccade detection in eye ... This effect was first observed in humans with ocular muscle palsy. In these cases, it was noticed that the patients would make ... On the other hand, opsoclonus or ocular flutter are composed purely of fast-phase saccadic eye movements. Without the use of ...
... suggesting that this adaptation was selected for in response to increased endurance running. Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs): ... This adaptation, which allows humans to absorb great shock and force applied to the skeleton, is not seen in australopithecine ... These adaptations, described below, are all evidence for selection for endurance running. Many researchers compare the skeletal ... This was an important adaptation for running because it allowed Homo to see more clearly during the rough pitching motion that ...
Adaptation (eye) Ohba N, Ohba A (December 2006). "Nyctalopia and hemeralopia: the current usage trend in the literature". Br J ... Hemeralopia is known to occur in several ocular conditions. Cone dystrophy and achromatopsia, affecting the cones in the retina ... It can be described as insufficient adaptation to bright light. It is also called heliophobia and day blindness. In hemeralopia ... Rarely it may have ocular complications such as hemeralopia, pigmentary chorioretinitis, optic atrophy or retinal/iris coloboma ...
At least one clinical trial on readaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex undertaken by Dr Mingjia Dai from Mount Sinai ... Space adaptation syndrome (Space flight "zero-g" and return) Cha YH (2009). "Mal de debarquement". Semin Neurol. 29: 520-7. doi ... Dai M, Cohen B, Smouha E, Cho C (2014). "Readaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex relieves the mal de debarquement syndrome ... The protocol involves a physical manipulation of the patient intended to readapt the vestibulo-ocular reflex. While the program ...
Spastic ataxia-corneal dystrophy syndrome Spider lamb syndrome Splenic flexure syndrome Split hand syndrome Spondylo-ocular ... scapula syndrome Sneddon's syndrome Solipsism syndrome somatostatinoma syndrome Sopite syndrome Sotos syndrome Space adaptation ... Noonan syndrome Norman-Roberts syndrome Northern epilepsy syndrome Nutcracker syndrome Occipital horn syndrome Ocular ischemic ... Potter sequence Prader-Willi syndrome Pre-excitation syndrome Precordial catch syndrome Premenstrual syndrome Presumed ocular ...
... ocular MeSH G11.697.716.154 --- adaptation, ocular MeSH G11.697.716.154.371 --- dark adaptation MeSH G11.697.716.182 --- ... ocular MeSH G11.697.677.330 --- evoked potentials, visual MeSH G11.697.677.340 --- eye color MeSH G11.697.677.360 --- figural ... ocular MeSH G11.697.677.911 --- vision MeSH G11.697.677.911.500 --- phosphenes MeSH G11.697.677.911.700 --- vision, binocular ... vestibulo-ocular MeSH G11.561.730.869 --- startle reaction MeSH G11.561.796.255 --- gravity perception MeSH G11.561.796.263 ...
... visual adaptation, motion perception, and ocular function and accommodation (eye). The first version of the LEA test was ...
The vestibular system also relays information on head movement to the eye muscle, forming the vestibulo-ocular reflex to retain ... VRT works by causing the brain to use already existing neural mechanisms for adaptation, neuroplasticity, and compensation. ... aimed at assisting the eye to fixate during head rotation without the input from the lost canal vestibulo-ocular reflex) An ...
... including delayed ocular adaptation to darkness and impaired color vision, a disulfiram-like alcohol intolerance (19%), ...
Ocular motility study (95.16) P32 and other tracer studies of eye (95.2) Objective functional tests of eye (95.21) ... Dark adaptation study (95.09) Eye examination, not otherwise specified (95.1) Examinations of form and structure of eye (95.11 ...
Ocular autohemorrhaging has also been documented in other lizards, which suggests blood-squirting could have evolved from a ... so it appears as though the species incapable of squirting blood have lost the adaptation for reasons yet unstudied. To avoid ... While previous thought held that compounds were added to the blood from glands in the ocular sinus cavity, current research has ... Sherbrooke, W. C. (2000). "Sceloporus jarrovii (Yarrow's spiny lizard) Ocular Sinus Bleeding". Herpetological Review. 31: 243. ...
The raptor's adaptations for optimum visual resolution (an American kestrel can see a 2-mm insect from the top of an 18-m tree ... cone oil droplets and ocular media in four species of estrildid finch" (PDF). Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 186 (7-8): ... Adaptations to night vision include the large size of the eye, its tubular shape, large numbers of closely packed retinal rods ... The cost of this adaptation is that they have myopia in the lower part of their visual field. Birds with relatively large eyes ...
Afterimage human eye Eye movements Fixational eye movement Neural adaptation Visual perception. ... The first description of what is now known as ocular microtremor was made in 1934 (5). It is contentious whether ocular ... 2001). "Ocular microtremor: a tool for measuring depth of anaesthesia?" Br J Anaesth 86(4): 519-22. 4. Bolger, C., S. Bojanic, ... 1993). "Ocular microtremor measurement system: design and performance." Med Biol Eng Comput 31(3): 205-12. 2. Coakley, D. and J ...
In ocular physiology, adaptation is the ability of the eye to adjust to various levels of darkness and light. The human eye can ... Dark adaptation is far quicker and deeper in young people than the elderly. A minor mechanism of adaptation is the pupillary ... London: Macmillan Academic and Professional Ltd.; 1990 Adaptation, Ocular at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Insufficiency of adaptation most commonly presents as insufficient adaptation to dark environment, called night blindness or ...
2010). Prism exposure promotes the resetting of the ocular-motor system in the brain and results in improved higher order ... Prism adaptation is a sensory-motor adaptation that occurs after the visual field has been artificially shifted laterally or ... prism adaptation has been suggested to improve spatial deficits in patients with unilateral neglect. During prism adaptation, ... was included to compare with the prism adaptation treatment. It was found that only prism adaptation yields significant long- ...
These fish are blind; no ocular tissue is found in their eye sockets except for a little black spot in each of the eyes. An ... Neuromasts (sensory papillae or pit organs) are interesting adaptations that this species of fish have developed to deal with ...
The main medical use emerging in this field is for research on eye development and ocular diseases. New research studies on ... "Cephalopod sense organs, nerves and the brain: Adaptations for high performance and life style." Marine and Freshwater Behavior ... meaning there would be similar expression of ocular disease in both organisms' eyes. An advantage of cephalopod eye ... ocular gene expression are being performed using cephalopod eyes due to the evidence of their convergent evolution with the ...
1999). "Mutations in the gene encoding 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase cause delayed dark adaptation and fundus albipunctatus". ... with steroids and retinoids and expression of its mRNA in extra-ocular human tissue". Biochem. J. 338 (Pt 1): 23-7. doi:10.1042 ...
Therefore, postnatal maturation of the retinal structures has led to strong light adaptations for infants. Vision problems in ... Part 6: Growth curves of ocular axial length and its components (author's transl)". Nippon Ganka Gakkai zasshi. 83 (9): 1679- ...
This is called the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The balance system works with the visual and skeletal systems (the muscles ... This causes a form of motion sickness called space adaptation syndrome. This overview also explains acceleration as its ...
Adaptations of coins and banknotes so that the value can be determined by touch. For example: *In some currencies, such as the ... is a category of vision loss or visual impairment that is caused by factors unrelated to refractive errors or coexisting ocular ... They use a combination of vision and other senses to learn, although they may require adaptations in lighting or the size of ... inflammatory ocular hypertension syndrome (IOHS); 2) severe uveitic angle closure; 3) corticosteroid-induced; and 4) a ...