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*  Acetylcholinesterase
For acetylcholine esterase (AChE), reversible inhibitors are those that do not irreversibly bond to and decactivate AChE. Drugs ... It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as ... It has a very high catalytic activity - each molecule of AChE degrades about 25000 molecules of acetylcholine (ACh) per second ... The esteratic subsite, where acetylcholine is hydrolyzed to acetate and choline, contains the catalytic triad of three amino ...
*  Tubocurarine chloride
Without intervention, acetylcholine (ACh) in the peripheral nervous system activates skeletal muscles. Acetylcholine is ... Tubocurarine chloride acts as an antagonist for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChr), meaning it blocks the receptor ... α-latrotoxin causes the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap, including acetylcholine. Bites are usually not ... Bowman WC, Webb SN (1972). "Neuromuscular blocking and ganglion blocking activities of some acetylcholine antagonists in the ...
*  Neuromuscular junction
Acetylcholine diffuses into the synaptic cleft and can bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the motor endplate, ... Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter synthesized from dietary choline and acetyl-CoA (ACoA), and is involved in the stimulation ... Toxins are also used to determine the location of acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. α-Bungarotoxin is a ... Botulinum toxin (aka botulinum neurotoxin, BoNT, and sold under the trade name Botox) inhibits the release of acetylcholine at ...
*  Nicotinic agonist
A nicotinic agonist is a drug that mimics the action of acetylcholine (ACh) at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The ... The development of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists has come a long way since then. The nicotinic acetylcholine ... Agonist Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor Muscarinic agonist Muscarinic antagonist Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor Nicotinic ... Acetylcholine on the other hand induced a much longer opening time of the receptor though anatoxin is more potent. The results ...
*  Acetylcholine
... is now used by bacteria, fungi, and a variety of other animals. Interestingly, many of the uses of acetylcholine ... Nicotine binds to and activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, mimicking the effect of acetylcholine at these receptors. ... Substances that interfere with acetylcholine activity are called anticholinergics. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter used ... and allow for acetylcholine to dynamically regulate physiological processes. Acetylcholine is synthesized in certain neurons by ...
*  Acetylcholine receptor
An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of acetylcholine, a ... Although all acetylcholine receptors, by definition, respond to acetylcholine, they respond to other molecules as well. ... Acetylcholine receptor: PMAP The Proteolysis Map-animation Acetylcholine Receptors at the US National Library of Medicine ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR, also known as "ionotropic" acetylcholine receptors) are particularly responsive to ...
*  Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
Acetylcholine itself binds to both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. As ionotropic receptors, nAChRs are ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ... The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor likewise gets its name from a chemical that selectively attaches to that receptor - ... In muscle-type nAChRs, the acetylcholine binding sites are located at the α and either ε or δ subunits interface. In neuronal ...
*  Vesicular acetylcholine transporter
Varoqui H, Erickson JD (Nov 1996). "Active transport of acetylcholine by the human vesicular acetylcholine transporter". The ... "Search for the acetylcholine and vesamicol binding sites in vesicular acetylcholine transporter: the region around the lumenal ... Acetylcholine transport utilizes a proton gradient established by a vacuolar ATPase. This gene is located within the first ... Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
*  Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor
... s, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-receptor complexes in the cell ... The somatic nervous system uses a nicotinic receptor to acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Muscarinic acetylcholine ... where they are involved in the regulation of acetylcholine release. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors belong to a class of ... Here acetylcholine is again used as a neurotransmitter, and muscarinic receptors form the principal receptors on the innervated ...
*  Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1, is a muscarinic receptor that ... "Acetylcholine receptors (muscarinic): M1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and ... Allard WJ, Sigal IS, Dixon RA (1988). "Sequence of the gene encoding the human M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor". Nucleic ... Ishizaka N, Noda M, Yokoyama S, Kawasaki K, Yamamoto M, Higashida H (1998). "Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the ...
*  Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, also known as cholinergic/acetylcholine receptor M3, or the muscarinic 3, is a ... "Diversity of mRNA expression for muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ... "Acetylcholine receptors (muscarinic): M3". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and ... acetylcholine bethanechol carbachol L-689,660 (mixed M1/M3 agonist) oxotremorine pilocarpine (in eye) atropine hyoscyamine ...
*  Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2, is a muscarinic acetylcholine ... "Diversity of mRNA expression for muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ... "Acetylcholine receptors (muscarinic): M2". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and ... Obara K, Arai K, Miyajima N, Hatano A, Tomita Y, Takahashi K (2000). "Expression of m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mRNA ...
*  Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4
Activation of M4 receptors inhibits acetylcholine release in the striatum. The M2 subtype of acetylcholine receptor functions ... "Diversity of mRNA expression for muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ... The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 4 (CHRM4), is a protein that, in ... acetylcholine carbachol oxotremorine LY-2033298 VU-0152100 (ML-108) VU-0152099 AFDX-384 (mixed M2/M4 antagonist, N-[2-[2-[( ...
*  Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5
1999). "Diversity of mRNA expression for muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine ... The human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5, encoded by the CHRM5 gene, is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor ... Bonner TI, Young AC, Brann MR, Buckley NJ (1990). "Cloning and expression of the human and rat m5 muscarinic acetylcholine ... Binding of the endogenous ligand acetylcholine to the M5 receptor triggers a number of cellular responses such as adenylate ...
*  Choline acetyltransferase
The protein encoded by this gene synthesizes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine acts at two classes of receptors ... The role of acetylcholine at the nicotinic receptor is still under investigation. It is likely implicated in the reward/ ... Choline Acetylcholine It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for motor neurons (motoneurons). Mutants of ChAT have ... The concentrations of acetylcholine and ChAT are remarkably reduced in the cerebral neocortex and hippocampus. Although the ...
*  Excitatory synapse
J. Rand (2007). "Acetylcholine". Stephen Gislason (1995). "Neurotransmitter - Serotonin". Brain Mind Center at Alpha Online. R ... Acetylcholine (ACh) is an excitatory, small-molecule neurotransmitter involved in synaptic transmission at neuromuscular ...
*  Neurotransmitter
Acetylcholine also operates in many regions of the brain, but using different types of receptors, including nicotinic and ... "Acetylcholine Receptors". Ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 25 August 2014. Schacter, Gilbert and Weger. Psychology.United States of America ... Acetylcholine was the first neurotransmitter discovered in the peripheral and central nervous systems. It activates skeletal ... Nicotine, a compound found in tobacco, is a direct agonist of most nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, mainly located in ...
*  Functional Ensemble of Temperament
Neurotransmitter systems: 5-HT: serotonin; DA: dopamine; NE: noradrenalin; ACh: acetylcholine; Glu: glutamate; GH: Growth ... acetylcholine and neuropeptide systems, whereas the three emotionality-related traits emerge as a dysregulation of opioid ... This neurochemical component of the FET hypothesis was upgraded in 2015 by underlying a key role of acetylcholine and ... Differential regulation of fronto-executive function by the monoamines and acetylcholine. Cerebral Cortex 17 (Suppl 1):151-160 ...
*  Neuron
Cholinergic neurons-acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is released from presynaptic neurons into the synaptic cleft. It acts as a ... Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl coenzyme A. GABAergic neurons-gamma aminobutyric acid. GABA is one of two ... Weakness is typically caused by circulating antibodies that block acetylcholine receptors at the post-synaptic neuromuscular ... motor neurons in the spinal cord that release acetylcholine, and "inhibitory" spinal neurons that release glycine. The ...
*  Metalearning (neuroscience)
High levels of Acetylcholine would thus allow for very rapid learning and remodelling of synaptic connections, with the ... Acetylcholine is proposed to facilitate the balance between memory storage and memory renewal, finding an optimal balance ... Acetylcholine thus modulates plasticity in the Hippocampus, Cerebral Cortex and Striatum to facilitate ideal learning ... Hasselmo, Michael (1993). "Acetylcholine and memory". Trends in Neurosciences. Retrieved 2013-08-04. Doya, K. (2002). " ...
*  Alex Karczmar
Brain acetylcholine and animal electrophysiology. In: Brain Acetylcholine and Neuropsychiatric Disease, K. L. Davis and P. A. ... Brain acetylcholine and seizures. In: Psychobiology of Convulsive Therapy, M. Fink, S. Kety, J. McGaugh and T. A. Willimas, Eds ... of the United States National Academy of Sciences and he is recipient of a Festschrift on neurobiology of acetylcholine, 1985. ...
*  Neuregulin
ARIA plays a role in synapse development, influencing the upregulation of acetylcholine receptor genes beneath the endplate ... Included in the family are heregulin; neu differentiation factor; acetylcholine receptor synthesis stimulator; glial growth ... or acetylcholine receptor inducing activity (ARIA) Type II NRG1; alternative name: Glial Growth Factor-2 (GGF2); Type III NRG1 ... after mammalian motor neurons have made synaptic contact with muscle fibres, hence its name ARIA = Acetylcholine Receptor ...
*  Parasympathetic nervous system
"Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors" (PDF). www.ucl.ac.uk/. University College London. Retrieved 4 March 2015. ... The net effect of innervated M3 receptors on blood vessels is vasodilation, as acetylcholine causes endothelial cells to ... The parasympathetic nervous system uses chiefly acetylcholine (ACh) as its neurotransmitter, although peptides (such as ...
*  Nicotine
Acetylcholine released by preganglionic sympathetic fibers of these nerves acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, causing ... Nicotine acts as an agonist at most nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), except at two nicotinic receptor subunits ( ... By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain, nicotine elicits its psychoactive effects and increases the ... Additionally, specific types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors- eg, alpha 7 receptors, which are stimulated by nicotine-are ...
*  Phantasmidine
336-337). Phantasmidine is a nicotinic agonist that acts at acetylcholine receptors. It mimics the effects of acetylcholine on ... This influx of positive charge induces the release of acetylcholine into the body to interact with the parasympathetic nervous ... Phantasmidine is characterized in the same class as epibatidine, which is a similar nicotinic acetylcholine agonist derived ... Phantasmidine is selective for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) containing ß4 subunits; however, responses in ...