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*  AID 531413 - Antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes infected in C3H/HeN mouse assessed as...
BioAssay record AID 531413 submitted by ChEMBL: Antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes infected in C3H/HeN mouse assessed as reduction in parasitemia at 1 mg/kg/day, ip treated from day 5 to 10 postinfection measured during acute phase of infection relative to control.
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioassay/531413
*  A simple method to purify biologically and antigenically preserved bloodstream trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi using Deae...
SOUSA, Maria Auxiliadora de. A simple method to purify biologically and antigenically preserved bloodstream trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi using Deae-cellulose columns. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz [online]. 1983, vol.78, n.3, pp.317-333. ISSN 0074-0276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761983000300009.. A method to purify trypanosomastigotes of some strains of Trypanosoma cruzi (Y, CL, FL, F, "Berenice", "Colombiana" and "São Felipe") from mouse blood by using DEAE-cellulose columns was standardized. This procedure is a modification of the Lanham & Godfrey methods and differs in some aspects from others described to purify T. cruzi bloodstream trypomastigotes, mainly by avoidance of prior purifications of parasites. By this method, the broad trypomastigotes were mainly isolated, accounting for higher recoveries obtained with strains having higher percentages of these forms: processing of infected blood ...
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0074-02761983000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  MIF Synergizes with Trypanosoma cruzi Antigens to Promote Efficient Dendritic Cell Maturation and IL-12 Production via p38 MAPK
1. Miles M.A, Llewellyn M.S, Lewis M.D. et al. The molecular epidemiology and phylogeography of Trypanosoma cruzi and parallel research on Leishmania: looking back and to the future. Parasitology. 2009;136(12):1509-28 2. Coura J.R, Dias J.C. Epidemiology, control and surveillance of Chagas disease: 100 years after its discovery. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104(Suppl 1):31-40 3. Ocana-Mayorga S, Llewellyn M.S, Costales J.A. et al. Sex, subdivision, and domestic dispersal of Trypanosoma cruzi lineage I in southern Ecuador. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4(12):e915 4. Parker E.R, Sethi A. Chagas disease: coming to a place near you. Dermatol Clin. 2011;29(1):53-62 5. Junqueira C, Caetano B, Bartholomeu D.C. et al. The endless race between Trypanosoma cruzi and host immunity: lessons for and beyond Chagas disease. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2010;15(12):e29 6. Rodrigues C.M, Valadares H.M, Francisco A.F. et al. Coinfection ...
http://www.ijbs.com/v07p1298.htm
*  Expression and cellular trafficking of GP82 and GP90 glycoproteins during Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclogenesis
Background: the transformation of noninfective epimastigotes into infective metacyclic trypomastigotes (metacyclogenesis) is a fundamental step in the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, comprising several morphological and biochemical changes. GP82 and GP90 are glycoproteins expressed at the surface of metacyclic trypomastigote, with opposite roles in mammalian cell invasion. GP82 is an adhesin that promotes cell invasion, while GP90 acts as a negative regulator of parasite internalization. Our understanding of the synthesis and intracellular trafficking of GP82 and GP90 during metacyclogenesis is still limited. Therefore, we decided to determine whether GP82 and GP90 are expressed only in fully differentiated metacyclic forms or they start to be expressed in intermediate forms undergoing differentiation.Methods: Parasite populations enriched in intermediate forms undergoing differentiation were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, flow cytometry and ...
http://repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/36246
*  Frontiers | The Ly49E Receptor Inhibits the Immune Control of Acute Trypanosoma cruzi Infection | Immunology
The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) circulates in the blood upon infection and invades a variety of cells. Parasites intensively multiply during the acute phase of infection and persist lifelong at low levels in tissues and blood during the chronic phase. Natural killer (NK) and NKT cells play an important role in the immune control of T. cruzi infection, mainly by releasing the cytokine IFN-γ that activates the microbicidal action of macrophages and other cells and shapes a protective type 1 immune response. The mechanisms by which immune cells are regulated to produce IFN-γ during T. cruzi infection are still incompletely understood. Here, we show that urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is induced early upon T. cruzi infection, and remains elevated until day 20 post inoculation. We previously demonstrated that the inhibitory receptor Ly49E, which is expressed, among others, on NK and NKT ...
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2016.00472/full
*  Proteomic Analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Subjected to Heat Shock
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2012/902803/
*  The cytostome-cytopharynx complex of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes disassembles during cell division | Journal of Cell Science
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinson's disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parson's lab at King's College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinson's. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
http://jcs.biologists.org/content/early/2016/08/09/jcs.187419.article-info
*  Sequence diversity and evolution of multigene families in Trypanosoma cruzi | UMIACS
Several copies of genes belonging to three multigene families present in the genome of Trypanosoma cruzi were sequenced and comparatively analyzed across six different strains of the parasite belonging to the T. cruzi I lineage (Colombiana, Silvio X10 and Dm28c), the T. cruzi II lineage (Esmeraldo and JG) and a hybrid strain (CL Brener). For all three gene families analyzed, our results support the division in T. cruzi I and II lineages. Furthermore, in agreement with its hybrid nature, sequences derived from the CL Brener clone clustered together with T. cruzi II sequences as well as with a third group of sequences. Paralogous sequences encoding Amastin, an amastigote surface glycoprotein and TcAG48, an antigenic RNA binding protein, which are clustered in the parasite genome, present higher intragenomic variability in T. cruzi II and CL Brener strains, when compared to T. ...
http://www.umiacs.umd.edu/publications/sequence-diversity-and-evolution-multigene-families-trypanosoma-cruzi
*  AID 523194 - Antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes infected in mouse peritoneal macrophages assessed...
BioAssay record AID 523194 submitted by ChEMBL: Antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes infected in mouse peritoneal macrophages assessed as endocytic index after 4 day.
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioassay/523194
*  Isolation and characterization of a 92-KD surface molecule of Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes recognized by a monoclonal antibody...
The presence of lytic antibodies in the circulation of patients with chronic Chagas' disease might lead to their cure. It has been shown that amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi activate complement and accumulate large amounts of the terminal complement components, but without killing the parasites. One plausible explanation for this observation is that the insertion of the membrane attack complex of complement is prevented by inhibitors present in the parasite membrane. To explore this possibility, we raised a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the surface molecules of T. cruzi amastigotes. One of these, MAb M4C12, induced complement-mediated lysis of amastigotes as detected with a 86Rb-release assay. The antigen molecule from the membrane lysate of amastigotes that was recognized by MAb M4C12 was purified, characterized, and designated M4C12Ag. It is a 92-kD molecule structurally related to Ssp4, a previously characterized amastigote surface ...
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Isolation-and-characterization-of-a-92-KD-surface-Iida-Ley/bb36165c383a726a9c748d066d003c8f5a94f881
*  Eosinophil blood count and anemia are associated with trypanosoma cruzi infection reactivation in chagas' heart transplant...
Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection reactivation is a constant threat for Chagas' heart transplant recipients. The incidence of clinical T. cruzi infection reactivation varies from 27% to 90% and manifestsby paniculitis and/or myocarditis and more rarely by intracerebral Six (43%) out of 14 patients had documented T. cruzi infection reactivation: 3 in the heart, and 3 in the subcutaneous tissue. Six The histological aspect of myocardial T. cruzi infection reactivation (43%) patients had acute myocardial inflammation consistent with on endomyocardial biopsy usually mimics acute graft rejection. This acute rejection graded 3A or more, which had not improved with might lead to inadvertent treatment with steroid pulsotherapy, steroid pulsotherapy, but improved after specific treatment for dissemination of T. cruzi infection, or septicemia due to opportunistic T. cruzi infection ...
http://pdfmedarticles.com/c/cimionline.com.br1.html
*  A novel protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is involved in the transformation of human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi |...
Here we provide evidence for a critical role of PP2As (protein phosphatase 2As) in the transformation of Trypanosoma cruzi. In axenic medium at pH 5.0, trypomastigotes rapidly transform into amastigotes, a process blocked by okadaic acid, a potent PP2A inhibitor, at concentrations as low as 0.1 μM. 1-Norokadaone, an inactive okadaic acid analogue, did not affect the transformation. Electron microscopy studies indicated that okadaic acid-treated trypomastigotes had not undergone ultrastructural modifications, reinforcing the idea that PP2A inhibits transformation. Using a microcystin-Sepharose affinity column we purified the native T. cruzi PP2A. The enzyme displayed activity against 32P-labelled phosphorylase a that was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by okadaic acid. The protein was also submitted to MS and, from the peptides obtained, degenerate primers were used to clone a novel T. cruzi PP2A enzyme by PCR. The isolated gene encodes ...
http://www.biochemj.org/content/374/3/647
*  New Perspectives for Therapeutic Intervention during the Chronic Phase of <i>Trypanosoma Cruzi</i...
The intracellular protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas's disease in humans[1]. About 5 million to 8 million people are infected by T. cruzi around the world[2]. Chagas disease has acquired global relevance because is spreading to non-endemic countries[3], representing a significant economic global burden[4]. The parasite infects many tissues and the presence of the parasite in peripheral neurons and heart muscle cells may be related to some of the pathological findings in the acute and chronic infection[5]. The systemic and tissue-localized immune responses induced during the acute infection are not sufficient to eradicate the pathogen, resulting in chronic infection[6]. Approximately 30 to 40% of the infected patients may develop megacolon, heart failure and cardiomegaly during the chronic phase of the disease, even many years after the acute infection[1]. Yet, the majority (about 60 to 70%) of the patients that progresses to the chronic phase ...
https://www.ommegaonline.org/article-details/New-Perspectives-for-Therapeutic-Intervention-during-the-Chronic-Phase-of-iTrypanosoma-Cruzii-Infection/597
*  The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Biological and Molecular Characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi Strains...
Chagas disease affects between six and seven million people. Its etiological agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, is classified into six discrete typing units (DTUs). The biological study of 11 T. cruzi strains presented here included four parameters: growth kinetics, parasitemia curves, rate of macrophage infection, and serology to evaluate IgM, total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG3. Sequencing of small subunit of ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA)was performed and the T. cruzi strains were classified into three DTUs. When their growth in liver infusion tryptose medium was represented in curves, differences among the strains could be noted. The parasitemia profile varied among the strains from the TcI, TcII, and TcIII groups, and the 11 T. cruzi strains produced distinct parasitemia levels in infected BALB/c. The TcI group presented the highest rate of macrophage infection by amastigotes, followed by TcII and TcIII. Reactivity to immunoglobulins was ...
http://ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0200
*  Infectivity of Trypanosoma cruzi strains is associated with differential expression of surface glycoproteins with differential...
Mammalian cell invasion assays, using metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi G and CL strains, showed that the CL strain enters target cells in several-fold higher numbers as compared with the G strain. Analysis of expression of surface glycoproteins in metacyclic forms of the two strains by iodination, immunoprecipitation and FACS, revealed that gp90, undetectable in the CL strain, is one of the major surface molecules in the G strain, that expression of gp82 is comparable in both strains and that gp35/50 is expressed at lower levels in the CL strain. Purified gp90 and gp35/50 bound more efficiently than gp82 to cultured HeLa cells. However, the intensity of the Ca2+ response triggered in HeLa cells by gp82 was significantly higher than that induced by gp35/50 or gp90. Most of the Ca2+ signalling activity of the metacyclic extract towards HeLa cells was due to gp82 and was inhibitable by gp82-specific monoclonal antibody 3F6. Ca2+ mobilization was also triggered in ...
http://www.biochemj.org/content/330/1/505
*  American Trypanosomiasis
www.MOLUNA.de American Trypanosomiasis [4193081] - Preface.nThe life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi; K.M. Tyler, et al.nNovel cell biology of Trypanosoma cruzi; W.de Souza.nTrypanosoma cruzi surface proteins; A.C.C. Frasch.nSignaling in Trypanosoma cruzi; R. Docampo, S.N.J. Moreno.nGenetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi; O. Fernandes, B. Zengales.nFunctional disection of Trypanosoma cruzi genome: new approaches in a new era; M.C. Taylor,
https://www.moluna.de/buch/4193081-american+trypanosomiasis/
*  The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Prevalence and Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in a...
Abstract. Recent biosurveillance findings at Joint Base San Antonio (JBSA), a large military installation located in south-central Texas, indicate the potential for vector-borne human Chagas disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in highest risk subpopulations on the installation, including students and instructors who work and sleep in triatomine-endemic field settings. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay were performed on enrolled subjects (N = 1,033), none of whom tested positive for T. cruzi or anti-T. cruzi antibodies. Current countermeasures used during field training on JBSA appear to be sufficient for preventing autochthonous human Chagas disease.
http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0109
*  reagents-molecular-assay-infection-parasite-trypanosoma-cruzi-dna
Definition : Molecular assay reagents intended to identify Trypanosoma cruzi, a species of protozoon of the suborder Trypanosomatina, by detecting specific genetic information of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the target parasite. Trypanosoma cruzi parasites cause Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis) in humans, characterized by an erythematous nodule (i.e., chagoma) appearing within a few days at the site of the inoculation. These parasites are transmitted to humans via insects, either from other humans or from animals (e.g., cats, dogs, rodents).. Entry Terms : "Trypanosoma cruzi Reagents, Identification" , "Trypanosoma cruzi Detection/Identification Reagents" , "Trypanosoma Species Reagents, Identification" , "American Trypanosomiasis Diagnostic Reagents" , "Sleeping Sickness Diagnostic Reagents" , "Trypanosomosis Diagnostic ...
http://productguide.optometricmanagement.com/term/7157/reagents-molecular-assay-infection-parasite-trypanosoma-cruzi-dna
*  Proteomic and Bioinformatic Analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi Chemotherapy and Potential Drug Targets: New Pieces for an Old Puzzle...
Title:Proteomic and Bioinformatic Analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi Chemotherapy and Potential Drug Targets: New Pieces for an Old Puzzle. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Rubem Figueiredo Sadok Menna-Barreto, Kele Teixeira Belloze, Jonas Perales and Floriano Paes Silva-Jr. Affiliation:Laboratorio de Bioquimica de Proteinas e Peptideos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil 4365 - 21040-360, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.. Keywords:Bioinformatics, chagas disease, chemotherapy, (chemo) proteomics, drug targets, Trypanosoma cruzi.. Abstract:Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America and is caused by the protozoan hemoflagellate parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Nowadays, it has also been disseminated to non-endemic countries due to the ease of global mobility. The nitroheterocycle benznidazole is currently used to treat this neglected tropical disease, although this drug causes severe side effects and has ...
http://www.eurekaselect.com/115457/article
*  The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Status using Saliva of...
Abstract. Chagas disease has the highest prevalence of any parasitic disease in the Americas, affecting 6-7 million people. Conventional diagnosis requires a well-equipped laboratory with experienced personnel. The development of new diagnostic tools that are easy to use and adapted to the reality of affected populations and health systems is still a significant challenge. The main objective of this study was to measure Trypanosoma cruzi infection status using saliva samples of infected subjects. Blood and saliva samples from 20 T. cruzi-seropositive individuals and 10 controls were tested for T. cruzi infection using two different commercial serological tests. We have shown that detection of T. cruzi infection is possible using saliva samples, supporting the potential use of saliva to diagnose Chagas disease in humans. This method could provide a simple, low-cost but effective tool for the diagnosis of T. ...
http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0141
*  The Liver Plays a Major Role in Clearance and Destruction of Blood Trypomastigotes in Trypanosoma cruzi Chronically Infected...
Author Summary Chagas disease, a Latin American illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, has only rare spontaneous cure, and in most patients a small number of parasites persists for life in the blood and tissues, leading to chronic disorders such as cardiomyopathy. In a murine model of chronic T. cruzi infection we observed that the liver plays an important role in the clearance of blood-circulating parasites. Moreover, parasite accumulation in this organ is followed by their elimination, an effect that is not immediate but seems to depend on the recruitment of leukocytes and on the local production of IFN-γ, a cytokine known to increase the T. cruzi-killing capacity of phagocytes. Our findings contribute to the knowledge of T. cruzi-host interaction, showing the participation of a non-lymphoid organ in parasite control. In addition, they contribute to understanding the multifaceted role the liver plays ...
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0000578
*  Metacyclic Trypomastigote - Stock Image C004/8689 - Science Photo Library
Illustration of metacyclic trypomastigote. Trypanosomes are protozoan parasites that cause American trypanosomiasis, or Chagas disease. The disease is spread by the Chagas beetle. The identical-looking trypomastigotes of T. cruzi are found in the blood of people with sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis). - Stock Image C004/8689
http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/112899/view
*  share via email
Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes changed their pattern of surface proteins when the temperature of growth rose from 30°C to 34°C. Challenge of mice with blood-form trypomastigotes produced high parasitemias when animals were immunized with surface proteins from epimastigotes cultured at 30°C and with Nonidet P-40-extracted epimastigotes pellets cultured at 34°C. However, low parasitemias were recorded after immunization with surface proteins from epimastigotes cultured at 34°C or Nonidet P-40-extracted epimastigotes pellets at 30°C. The lowest parasitemia, together with the longest survival time and absence of immunosuppression, was observed after immunization of mice with the product extracted with non-ionic detergent from epimastigotes grown at 30°C and treated with tosyl-L-lysine-chloromethyl ketone.
http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1990.43.44
*  Miocarditis y miocardiopatía dilatada por Trypanosoma cruzi: Reporte de un caso
MORENO-MEDINA, EVA; VALERIO-CAMPOS, IDALIA e GOYENAGA-CASTRO, PABLO. MYOCARDITIS AND DILATED MYOCARDIOPATHY BY Trypanosoma cruzi: CASE REPORT. Parasitol. latinoam. [online]. 2007, vol.62, n.3-4, pp.148-153. ISSN 0717-7712. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-77122007000200008.. The agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, is one of the major causes of myocarditis and dilated myocardiopathy in America. In Costa Rica, the latest studies revealed that the improvement of the general live conditions, has decreased the Chagas disease incidence in this country and its deadly complications. We described the clinical history and the autopsy findings of an infrequent case of death by this disease in Costa Rica, represented by myocarditis and dilated myocardiopathy manifestations caused by T. cruzi, where the diagnosis was made post-mortem.. Palavras-chave : Trypanosoma cruzi; myocarditis; dilated ...
http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0717-77122007000200008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Diverse Inhibitor Chemotypes Targeting Trypanosoma cruzi CYP51
Author Summary Chagas Disease is the leading cause of heart disease in Latin America and an emerging infection in Europe and North America. The clinical presentation of Chagas Disease arises from infection by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which leads to progressive cardiomyopathy. No vaccine is available and chemotherapeutic options are limited to the drugs benznidazole and nifurtimox, which are used during the acute phase but may cause severe gastrointestinal and neurological side effects and are not commonly used in the chronic phase. Neither drug is approved by the FDA for use in the United States. The need for effective new therapy is urgent. A validated therapeutic target in T. cruzi is CYP51, an essential enzyme in the sterol biosynthesis pathway. We report results of high-throughput screening of small molecules directly against CYP51, confirmed by in vitro medium-throughput screening of the hits against T. cruzi-infected ...
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0001736