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*  British Library EThOS: Biofunctionalised electrospun scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering
The field of tissue engineering has advanced and evolved to focus on biomimetic strategies to meet the rise in demands of tissue replacements for surgical reconstruction. One of the key strategies focuses on developing growth factor delivery systems, by incorporating growth factors into tissue scaffolds. While growth factors are crucial cell-inducing components, their limitations such as short half-lives and dose related adverse effects remain a challenge. To overcome these challenges, this thesis is focused on the development of a novel biomimetic tissue scaffold concept incorporating cell-mediated activation of growth factors for cartilage regeneration. The latent transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was selected as a model latent protein due to its well established effects on cartilage as well as its ubiquity in many other tissue types. The thesis first focused on the development and characterisation of ...
http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.538200
*  Multifunctional Biomaterials from the Sea: Assessing the effects of Chitosan incorporation into Collagen Scaffolds on...
Natural biomaterials such as collagen show promise in tissue engineering applications due to their inherent bioactivity. The main limitation of collagen is its low mechanical strength and somewhat unpredictable and rapid degradation rate; however, combining collagen with another material, such as chitosan, can reinforce the scaffold mechanically and may improve the rate of degradation. Additionally, the high cost and the risk of prion transmission associated with mammal-derived collagen has prompted research into alternative sources such as marine-origin collagen. In this context, the overall goal of this study was to determine if the incorporation of chitosan into collagen scaffolds could improve the mechanical and biological properties of the scaffold. In addition the study assessed if collagen, derived from salmon skin (marine), can provide an alternative to collagen derived from bovine tendon (mammal) for tissue engineering applications. Scaffold ...
https://3bs.uminho.pt/content/multifunctional-biomaterials-sea-assessing-effects-chitosan-incorporation-collagen-scaffolds
*  Decellularizing Tissue Engineering Scaffolds with Carbon Dioxide - College of Engineering and Computing | University of South...
Many strategies for tissue engineering of replacement structures, such as heart valves, depend in part on preparing a tissue scaffold from a natural tissue matrix. An essential step in tissue scaffold fabrication is decellularization of the matrix. The objective of any decellularization method is twofold: (1) the preservation of the physical and biochemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and (2) the removal of all cellular material. Decellularization is currently done by contacting xenographic tissue with a combination of chemical detergents and biological agents. These processes can alter ECM structure and composition, which can trigger host immune response and inflammation. Currently, there are no accepted quantitative standards against which to certify the viability of the decellularized material. However, future standards will certainly include characteristics like removal of nuclear material, biochemical ...
http://sc.edu/study/colleges_schools/engineering_and_computing/study/biomedical_engineering/our_research/Matthews2_tissue.php
*  Combining electrospun scaffolds with electrosprayed hydrogels leads to three-dimensional cellularization of hybrid constructs |...
A common problem in the design of tissue engineered scaffolds using electrospun scaffolds is the poor cellular infiltration into the structure. To tackle this issue, three approaches to scaffold design using electrospinning were investigated: selective leaching of a water-soluble fiber phase (poly ethylene oxide (PEO) or gelatin), the use of micron-sized fibers as the scaffold, and a combination of micron-sized fibers with codeposition of a hyaluronic acid-derivative hydrogel, Heprasil. These designs were achieved by modifying a conventional electrospinning system with two charged capillaries and a rotating mandrel collector. Three types of scaffolds were fabricated: medical grade poly(ε-caprolactone)/collagen (mPCL/Col) cospun with PEO or gelatin, mPCL/Col meshes with micron-sized fibers, and mPCL/Col microfibers cosprayed with Heprasil. All three scaffold types supported attachment and proliferation of human fetal osteoblasts. However, ...
http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/66973
*  Characterisation and Design of Tissue Scaffolds by Paul Tomlins - Le Camp de Raborak E-books
2002). The tortuosity of scaffolds fabricated using solvent casting is not controllable because it requires the contact of the particulates during the fabrication procedure, which is a random process facilitated by using high humidity. Similarly, poor interconnectivity of pores is reported for scaffolds produced using gas foaming techniques, where only 10%À30% of the scaffold's pores are connected (Hutmacher, 2001). Control of pore size distribution in scaffolds fabricated using freeze-drying is an interesting research topic. 2010. The acellular matrix (ACM) for bladder tissue engineering: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. Magn. Reson. Med. 64 (2), 341À348. 22404. , 2014. One-pot synthesis of macromesoporous bioactive glasses/polylactic acid for bone tissue engineering. Mater. Sci. Eng. C Mater. Biol. Appl. 43, 367À374. 1016/j. 042. Epub 2014 Jul 19. , 2014. Designer functionalised selfassembling peptide ...
http://raborak.com/index.php/lib/characterisation-and-design-of-tissue-scaffolds
*  Improved angiogenic cell penetration in vitro and in vivo in collagen scaffolds with internal channels. - Nuffield Department...
Porous scaffolds are limited in volume due to diffusion constraint and delay of vascular network formation. Channels have the potential to speed up cellular penetration. Their effectiveness in improving angiogenic cell penetration was assessed in vitro and in vivo in 3-D collagen scaffolds. In vitro, channelled and non-channelled scaffolds were seeded with vascular smooth muscle cells. Results demonstrated that the scaffolds supported angiogenic cell ingrowth in culture and the channels improved the depth of cell penetration into the scaffold (P | 0.05). The cells reside mainly around and migrate along the channels. In vivo, channels increased cell migration into the scaffolds (P | 0.05) particularly angiogenic cells (P | 0.05) resulting in a clear branched vascular network of microvessels after 2 weeks in the channelled samples which was not apparent in the non-channelled samples. Channels could aid production of ...
https://www.ndorms.ox.ac.uk/publications/401951
*  Design of Hierarchical Three-Dimensional Printed Scaffolds Considering Mechanical and Biological Factors for Bone Tissue...
Computational approaches have great potential for aiding clinical product development by finding promising candidate designs prior to expensive testing and clinical trials. Here, an approach for designing multilevel bone tissue scaffolds that provide structural support during tissue regeneration is developed by considering mechanical and biological perspectives. Three key scaffold design properties are considered: (1) porosity, which influences potential tissue growth volume and nutrient transport, (2) surface area, which influences biodegradable scaffold dissolution rate and initial cell attachment, and (3) elastic modulus, which influences scaffold deformation under load and, therefore, tissue stimulation. Four scaffold topology types are generated by patterning beam or truss-based unit cells continuously or hierarchically and tuning the element diameter, unit cell length, and number of unit cells. Parametric comparisons ...
http://mechanicaldesign.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2618334
*  Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT): New Tissue Scaffold Regrows Cartilage And Bone | BioSpace
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT): New Tissue Scaffold Regrows Cartilage And Bone - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
https://www.biospace.com/article/massachusetts-institute-of-technology-mit-new-tissue-scaffold-regrows-cartilage-and-bone-/
*  Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research ®
Composites of biodegradable polymers and bioactive ceramics are candidates for tissue-engineered scaffolds that closely match the properties of bone. We previously developed a porous, three-dimensional poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA)/nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) scaffold as a potential bone tissue engineering matrix suitable for high-aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor applications. However, the physical and cellular properties of this scaffold are unknown. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of n-HA in modulating PLAGA scaffold properties and human mesenchymal stem cell (HMSC) responses in a HARV bioreactor.. ...
http://clinorthop.org/categories/Symposium:%20Nanoscience%20in%20Musculoskeletal%20Medicine
*  Engineering of a dermal equivalent: seeding and culturing fibroblasts in PEGT/PBT copolymer scaffolds.
The engineering of dermal skin substitutes, using autologous fibroblasts, requires high seeding efficiencies, a homogeneous cell distribution in the scaffolds, and optimal culture conditions. Dynamic seeding in spinner flasks was used to seed and subsequently culture fibroblasts in three-dimensional scaffolds. Several seeding and culture variables were investigated. Simulation of medium movement with microspheres showed that three different regions existed in medium (outer, middle, and inner), where overall particle movement was different. In the middle region the flow was turbulent and scaffolds were best placed in this region. After fibroblast seeding, methylene blue staining and scanning electron microscopy analysis of the scaffolds showed that at a low stirring speed (20 rpm) fibroblasts attached mainly onto the upper part of the scaffold, and at 40 and 60 rpm fibroblasts attached and spread throughout the scaffolds. ...
http://repository.ubn.ru.nl/handle/2066/140006
*  Nanopatterned natural biological scaffold for stem cells may allow for softer engineered tissues | KurzweilAI
Highly aligned nanofibers created by fibroblasts form a biological scaffold that could prove an ideal foundation for engineered tissues. Stem cells placed on
http://www.kurzweilai.net/nanopatterned-natural-biological-scaffold-for-stem-cells-may-allow-for-softer-engineered-tissues
*  Poly lactic acid based scaffolds as graft for small-diameter arterial replacement. | IRIS Università degli Studi di Palermo
Vascular Tissue engineering (VTE) has emerged as a promising approach to develop blood vessel substitutes. Investigators have explored the use of arterial tissue cells combined with various types of natural and synthetic scaffolds to make tubular constructs in order to develop a functional small-diameter arterial replacement graft. The grafts must mimic the unique viscoelastic nature of an artery and be non-disruptive to blood ?ow. Moreover, after implantation, the scaffold must be gradually populated by cells and replaced by extra cellular matrix; with this respect, it is crucial that this replacement takes place with a well-defined timescale. In this work tubular scaffolds for VTE were produced via Diffusion Induced Phase Separation. Several PLA/ PLLA blends (100/0, 90/10, 75/25 wt/wt) were utilized in order to tune the crystallinity of the scaffolds and thus the rate of biodegrada- tion. In-Vitro biological tests were ...
https://iris.unipa.it/handle/10447/65045
*  New tissue scaffold tested | The American Ceramic Society
[caption id='attachment_3690' align='aligncenter' width='300' caption='SEM of n-HA/CS/CMC composite scaffold harvested after implantation in muscle at (a) two weeks and (b) four weeks. Credit: Liuy
http://ceramics.org/ceramic-tech-today/biomaterials/new-tissue-scaffold-tested
*  Use of magnetically oriented orthogonal collagen scaffolds for hemi-corneal reconstruction and regeneration | OptiStem
We recently showed that the highly organized architecture of the corneal stroma could be reproduced using scaffolds consisting of orthogonally aligned multilayers of collagen fibrils prepared using a high magnetic field. Here we show that such scaffolds permit the reconstruction in vitro of human hemi-corneas (stroma + epithelium), using primary human keratocytes and limbal stem cell derived human keratinocytes. On the surface of these hemi-corneas, a well-differentiated epithelium was formed, as determined both histologically and ultrastructurally and by the expression of characteristic markers. Within the stroma, the keratocytes aligned with the directions of the fibrils in the scaffold and synthesized a new extracellular matrix with typical collagen markers and small, uniform diameter fibrils. Finally, in vivo experiments using a rabbit model showed that these orthogonally oriented multi-layer scaffolds could be used to repair the anterior region of the ...
http://optistem.org/our-research/publications/use-magnetically-oriented-orthogonal-collagen-scaffolds-hemi-corneal-recon
*  Most recent papers with the keyword Tissue scaffold | Read by QxMD
PURPOSE: The increasing awareness on the role of subchondral bone in the etiopathology of articular surface lesions led to the development of osteochondral scaffolds. While safety and promising results have been suggested, there are no trials proving the real potential of the osteochondral regenerative approach. Aim was to assess the benefit provided by a nanostructured collagen-hydroxyapatite (coll-HA) multilayer scaffold for the treatment of chondral and osteochondral knee lesions. METHODS: In this multicentre randomized controlled clinical trial, 100 patients affected by symptomatic chondral and osteochondral lesions were treated and evaluated for up to 2 years (51 study group and 49 control group ...
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/keyword/80512
*  Scaffold variability and cell response | Interface Focus
Rapid prototyping techniques have demonstrated their feasibility to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with controllable architecture [20]. However, limitations of these techniques can affect the final local geometry altering the mechanical environment at the cell level. In this study, five commercial PCL scaffolds from 3D Biotek were used first to investigate the capability of the fabrication method to replicate the original design and reproduce the same geometry from sample to sample and secondly to quantify variations in the local mechanical stimuli due to the resulting geometry. The five µCT-image-based reconstructed samples do not replicate the CAD internal microstructure due to the fabrication process; PCL is preheated to a semi-molten temperature and then extruded through a nozzle depositing the fibres in a layer-by-layer manner. The limitation of this technique is the effect of gravity on the deposited fibres when solidifying plus the need of the ...
http://rsfs.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/5/2/20140097
*  Download Rna Scaffolds Methods And Protocols
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http://rennasonic.com/Iberdrola/freebooks/download-rna-scaffolds%3A-methods-and-protocols.html
*  Institute of Cancer Research Repository - Applications of Systematic Molecular Scaffold Enumeration to Enrich Structure...
Establishing structure activity relationships (SARs) in hit identification during early stage drug discovery is important in accelerating hit confirmation and expansion. We describe the development of En Core, a systematic molecular scaffold enumeration protocol using single atom mutations, to enhance the application of objective scaffold definitions and to enrich SAR information from analysis of high-throughput screening output. A list of 43 literature medicinal chemistry compound series, each containing a minimum of 100 compounds, published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry was collated to validate the protocol. Analysis using the top representative Level 1 scaffolds this list of literature compound series demonstrated that EnCore could mimic the scaffold exploration conducted when establishing SAR. When EnCore was applied to analyze an HTS library containing over 200 000 compounds, we observed that over 70% of the molecular scaffolds matched extant ...
http://publications.icr.ac.uk/15697/
*  Scaffold Trend Explorer
Scaffolds are a core concept in medicinal chemistry and they can be the focus of multiple independent development efforts, over an extended period. Thus, scaffold associated properties can vary over time, possibly showing consistently increasing or decreasing trends. We posit that such trends characterize the attention that the community pays to a scaffold.. This application allows you to query ChEMBL for a scaffold (represented as a SMILES) and visualize properties of the compounds containing the scaffold over time. This functionality is analogous to Google Trends.. Currently the properties considered are. ...
https://tripod.nih.gov/ste/about
*  Newly discovered scaffold supports turning pain off
(Medical Xpress) -- Johns Hopkins scientists have discovered a 'scaffolding' protein that holds together multiple elements in a complex system responsible for regulating pain, mental illnesses and other complex neurological ...
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2012-07-newly-scaffold-pain.html
*  CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute
This multi-layered scaffold could be applicable for tissue engineering/regeneration, drug delivery and wound dressing. This process may be used for phase-wise delivery of the growth factors which would be suitable for the studies of developmental biology. The novelty disclosed is the various ratios of the therapeutics/pharmaceuticals like antimicrobial agents, analgesics, antioxidants, antiallergic, growth factors and/or other signaling molecules like Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), either in free form or microparticles encapsulated or combination of both can be taken to formulate the multi-layered porous scaffold with different concentrations of natural or chemically modified collagen. Microparticles comprise minimum of two types of polymers e.g. gelatin, chitosan, alginate, casein, PLGA, PCL and multi-layer scaffold contains at least two layers out of which one may be thin film layer without therapeutics, may act as a protective layer, which is desirable for wound dressing. The multi-layered ...
http://www.clri.org/Patents.aspx?P=14
*  OSA | Polarization-maintaining optical microfiber
We have successfully demonstrated a polarization-maintaining (PM) fused silica microfiber by adiabatically tapering a conventional PM fiber. Compared to standard single-mode microfibers, the proposed PM microfibers exhibit robust polarization, preserving characteristics under the presence of external perturbations, such as bending. A polarization-extinction ratio of ...
https://www.osapublishing.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-35-12-2034
*  Scaffold Provides Biodegradable Structure -- COMPAMED Trade Fair
Materials scientists have built a three-dimensional scaffold out of a natural material that mimics the binding sites for stem cells, allowing the cells to reproduce on a clean, biodegradable structure.
https://www.compamed-tradefair.com/cgi-bin/md_compamed/lib/pub/tt.cgi/Scaffold_Provides_Biodegradable_Structure.html?oid=19027&lang=2&ticket=g_u_e_s_t