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*  Female sperm storage - Wikipedia
Female sperm storage is a biological process and often a type of sexual selection in which sperm cells transferred to a female during mating are temporarily retained within a specific part of the reproductive tract before the oocyte, or egg, is fertilized. The site of storage is variable among different animal taxa and ranges from structures that appear to function solely for sperm retention, such as insect spermatheca and bird sperm storage tubules (bird anatomy), to more general regions of the reproductive tract enriched with receptors to which sperm associate before fertilization, such as the caudal portion of the cow oviduct containing sperm-associating annexins. Female sperm storage is an integral stage in the reproductive process for many animals with internal fertilization. It has several documented biological functions including: Supporting the sperm by: a.) enabling sperm to undergo biochemical transitions, called capacitation and motility hyperactivation, in which they become ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Female_sperm_storage
*  Lipid peroxidation, assessed with BODIPY-C-11, increases after cryopreservation of stallion spermatozoa, is stallion-dependent...
Lipid peroxidation (LPO) of stallion spermatozoa was assessed in fresh semen and in samples of the same ejaculates after freezing and thawing. Particular attention was paid to individual differences in the susceptibility to LPO and its possible relationship with freezability. Innate levels of LPO were very low in fresh spermatozoa but increased after thawing, a change that was largely stallion-dependent. The level of LPO in fresh spermatozoa was not correlated with that of the thawed spermatozoa. Negative correlations existed between LPO and intact membranes post-thaw (r= -0.789, Pless than0.001), and also between LPO and spermatozoa with high mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi m) post-thaw (r= -0.689, Pless than0.001). LPO was also highly and significantly correlated with caspase activity. The correlation between caspase activity in ethidium positive cells and LPO was r=0.772, Pless than0.001. This LPO is unlikely ...
http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:666657
*  Deficiency of the multi-copy mouse Y gene Sly causes sperm DNA damage and abnormal chromatin packaging | Journal of Cell Science
Even relatively minor errors in chromatin remodeling during spermiogenesis are associated with sperm DNA damage and infertility, yet little is known about the etiology. Mice with severe NPYq deletions are infertile due to severe sperm differentiation defects (Ward and Burgoyne, 2006; Yamauchi et al., 2009). We have recently observed that sperm from these mice presented abnormal chromatin packaging and DNA damage. Moreover, when these sperm were injected into the oocytes, a significant increase of oocyte arrest at pronuclei stage and of chromosome aberrations in the fertilized eggs were noted (Yamauchi et al., 2010). Here we provide evidence that the deficiency of NPYq encoded gene Sly is associated with sperm DNA damage and poor sperm chromatin condensation, and propose that SLY plays a role in spermatid-specific chromatin remodeling.. How can Sly/SLY be involved in sperm DNA damage phenotype? SLY protein has been shown to control the postmeiotic expression of ,100 genes, the majority of which ...
http://jcs.biologists.org/content/126/3/803
*  Frontiers | Characterization of the Olfactory Receptors Expressed in Human Spermatozoa | Molecular Biosciences
The detection of external cues is fundamental for human spermatozoa to locate the oocyte in the female reproductive tract. This task requires a specific chemoreceptor repertoire that is expressed on the surface of human spermatozoa, which is not fully identified to date. Olfactory receptors (ORs) are candidate molecules and have been attributed to be involved in sperm chemotaxis and chemokinesis, indicating an important role in mammalian spermatozoa. An increasing importance has been suggested for spermatozoal RNA, which led us to investigate the expression of all 387 OR genes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of OR transcripts in human spermatozoa of several individuals by RNA-Seq. We detected 91 different transcripts in the spermatozoa samples that could be aligned to annotated OR genes. Using stranded mRNA-Seq, we detected a class of these putative OR transcripts in an antisense ...
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmolb.2015.00073/full
*  Sperm-associated antigen 8 - Wikipedia
Sperm-associated antigen 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPAG8 gene. The correlation of anti-sperm antibodies with cases of unexplained infertility implicates a role for these antibodies in blocking fertilization. Improved diagnosis and treatment of immunologic infertility, as well as identification of proteins for targeted contraception, are dependent on the identification and characterization of relevant sperm antigens. The protein encoded by this gene is recognized by sperm agglutinating antibodies from an infertile woman. This protein is localized in germ cells of the testis at all stages of spermatogenesis and is localized to the acrosomal region of mature spermatozoa. Alternatively spliced variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described but the full-length sequences of only two have been determined. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000137098 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000066196 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sperm-associated_antigen_8
*  Sperm-associated antigen elisa and antibody
Shop Sperm-associated antigen ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Sperm-associated antigen Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
https://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=sperm-associated-antigen
*  The Sydney eScholarship Repository: Adjusting cryodiluent composition for improved post-thaw quality of rabbit spermatozoa
Improved fertility following artificial insemination with frozen-thawed spermatozoa would offer rabbit producers faster genetic improvement. Previous work investigating cryoprotectants for rabbit spermatozoa have reported inconsistent results. Semen was collected from three rabbit bucks by artificial vagina and frozen using a standard procedure with varied cryodiluent components. Post-thaw analysis encompassed motility, sperm kinematic parameters and acrosome and membrane integrity. Spermatozoa were evaluated at 0, 2 and 4 h after thawing. Experiment 1 compared diluents with 3.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 1.5% acetamide, 1.75% DMSO + 0.75% acetamide or 3.5% DMSO + 1.5% acetamide. The treatment that resulted in the highest post-thaw motility (P,0.001) and acrosome integrity (P,0.001) was DMSO alone. Experiment 2 compared 3.5, 7 and 10% DMSO in the cryodiluent. The best post-thaw sperm motility (P,0.001) and linearity (P=.002) was in 3.5% DMSO, while 10% DMSO ...
https://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/handle/2123/16434
*  Mitochondrial aquaporin-8-mediated hydrogen peroxide transport is essential for teleost spermatozoon motility
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), cause oxidative cell damage and inhibit sperm function. In most oviparous fishes that spawn in seawater (SW), spermatozoa may be exposed to harmful ROS loads associated with the hyperosmotic stress of axonemal activation and ATP synthesis from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, it is not known how marine spermatozoa can cope with the increased ROS levels to maintain flagellar motility. Here, we show that a marine teleost orthologue of human aquaporin-8, termed Aqp8b, is rapidly phosphorylated and inserted into the inner mitochondrial membrane of SW-activated spermatozoa, where it facilitates H2O2 efflux from this compartment. When Aqp8b intracellular trafficking and mitochondrial channel activity are immunologically blocked in activated spermatozoa, ROS levels accumulate in the mitochondria leading to mitochondrial membrane depolarisation, the reduction of ...
http://bora.uib.no/handle/1956/9416
*  Effect of the Number of Inseminated Spermatozoa on Subsequent Human Embryonic Development in Vitro - Full Text View -...
In order to reach fertilization in the context of IVF, the presence of high concentrations of spermatozoa is associated with a higher degree of sperm metabolism and a higher concentration of sperm degradation products, which may adversely affect not only sperm and oocyte viability and the fertilization rate. The effect of a high concentration of sperm used for oocyte insemination appears also to be negative on embryo development (Dumoulin et al 1992*). If that is true, lowering the sperm concentration for oocyte insemination might improve embryo quality and result in a higher implantation rate per embryo. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the percentage of 8 cell-embryos on day 3 after IVF is significantly higher (40%) after insemination with a low sperm concentration (150 000/ml spermatozoa) than after insemination with a higher sperm concentration (30%; group 600 000/ml spermatozoa ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00710476
*  Beta-chemokine receptor CCR5 in human spermatozoa and its relationship with seminal parameters | IRIS Università degli Studi...
BACKGROUND: Chemokine receptor CCR5, the main HIV-1 coreceptor, is present in the human spermatozoa. This study aimed to investigate (i) whether the percentage of CCR5-positive spermatozoa varies under conditions associated with changes in the membrane architecture, such as capacitation and fixation/permeabilization procedures; (ii) whether there is any relationship between individual variability in sperm CCR5 expression and semen parameters. METHODS AND RESULTS: In cytometric analysis, the percentage of CCR5-positive unfixed spermatozoa varied from approximately 10 to approximately 60%, and it significantly decreased after 5 h capacitation. The percentage of CCR5-positive spermatozoa was increased to more than 90% following fixation and permeabilization, suggesting the existence of large intracellular pools of the receptor. Immunocytochemistry showed positive staining in the anterior region of the sperm head. In ejaculates from male partner ...
https://ricerca.univaq.it/handle/11697/2614
*  Perbandingan Konsentrasi Spermatozoa pada Laki-laki Dewasa Muda dengan Obese I dan Obese II - MCUrepository
Obesitas merupakan suatu keadaan akumulasi lemak yang tidak normal atau berlebihan di jaringan adiposa sehingga dapat mengganggu kesehatan. Pada individu yang menderita obesitas dapat terjadi gangguan pada proses spermatogenesis, salah satunya dapat menyebabkan penurunan konsentrasi spermatozoa. Penurunan konsentrasi spermatozoa dapat mengakibatkan infertilitas. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui apakah obesitas berpengaruh pada penurunan konsentrasi spermatozoa. Desain penelitian observasional dan komparatif. Subjek penelitian terdiri dari 27 orang laki-laki usia 20 - 25 tahun. Dibagi ke dalam 3 kelompok, masing-masing terdiri dari 9 orang laki-laki dengan BMI normal, 9 orang laki-laki dengan BMI 25-29,9, 9 orang lakilaki dengan BMI ≥ 30. Data yang diukur yaitu konsentrasi spermatozoa (juta/ml). Analisis data konsentrasi spermatozoa menggunakan Kruskal Wallis test, yang dilanjutkan Mann Whitney (α=0,05). Hasil ...
http://repository.maranatha.edu/21457/
*  Identification of zona- and fucoidan-binding proteins in guinea-pig spermatozoa and mechanism of recognition | Development
Binding of guinea-pig spermatozoa to the zona pellucida of homologous eggs has been reported to involve 'receptors' on the inner acrosomal membrane (Huang et al. 1981). These receptors can be blocked by sulphated polysaccharides such as fucoidan (Huang and Yanagimachi, 1984). The aims of the present investigation were to identify these putative zona receptors using 125I-fucoidan as a probe and examine their mechanism of recognition. Results show that 125I-fucoidan binds to several proteins extracted from guinea-pig spermatozoa with molecular masses of 95, 60, 48, 34, 30 and 18-20 × 10(3) (K) on SDS-PAGE. The 48K, 34K and 30K components represent proacrosin and two forms of acrosin, respectively. 125I-zona pellucida glycoproteins also bound strongly to the 48K, 34K and 30K sperm proteins. The other high and low mass binding proteins were not positively identified but cytochemical experiments with fluoresceinamine-fucoidan and FITC-soybean trypsin inhibitor indicate that they ...
http://dev.biologists.org/content/109/1/41
*  Spermiogenesis and ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of Wardula capitellata (Digenea, Mesometridae), an intestinal parasite of...
The spermiogenesis process in Wardula capitellata begins with the formation of a differentiation zone containing two centrioles associated with striated rootlets and an intercentriolar body. Each centriole develops into a free flagellum orthogonal to a median cytoplasmic process. Later these flagella rotate and become parallel to the median cytoplasmic process, which already exhibits two electron-dense areas and spinelike bodies before its proximodistal fusion with the flagella. The final stage of the spermiogenesis is characterized by the constriction of the ring of arched membranes, giving rise to the young spermatozoon, which detaches from the residual cytoplasm. The mature spermatozoon of W. capitellata presents most of the classical characters reported in digenean spermatozoa such as two axonemes of different lengths of the 9 + '1' trepaxonematan pattern, nucleus, mitochondrion, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules and granules of glycogen. However, some peculiarities such as ...
http://www.recercat.cat/handle/2072/264739
*  Iso and autoantibodies to spermatozoa in sterile marriages]. - Semantic Scholar
Our clinical catamnestic studies on cases of sterility with a proven sensitization against spermatozoa revealed a statistically significant decrease of pregnancies only in patients with positive spermantibody tests over a period longer than 3 years. A direct spermimunological etiology of sterility can not yet be derived. In the investigated 759 cases a sensitization against spermatozoa was detected in 93 cases. In 11 patients the spermantibodies proved to be positive longer than 3 years. Washed spermatozoa were used as antigen in the applied test methods. It may very well be possible, that the results point in a different direction once we are applying a particular fertility diminishing spermatozoa antigen.
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Iso-and-autoantibodies-to-spermatozoa-in-sterile-Mettler/eccf4b50c1347bdf9ab833f2f3df4cd6f188e205
*  Memoirs: Head Length Dimorphism of Mammalian Spermatozoa | Journal of Cell Science
1. Chromosome dimorphism of the spermatozoa has been shown for a variety of mammals, and in some cases this has been shown to be correlated with dimorphism in the head lengths of the spermatozoa.. 2. In the present paper this correlation has been extended to the spermatozoa of man, the mouse, and the rat, in which chromosome dimorphism of the spermatozoa had previously been shown, and in which head length dimorphism seems to exist.. 3. The interest of these results lies in the probability that the histological difference in the X- and Y-spermatozoa may account for the inequality of the sexes at conception in mammals.. ...
http://jcs.biologists.org/content/s2-67/268/617
*  Effects of cryopreservation on semen quality and the expression of sperm membrane hexose transporters in the spermatozoa of...
This study evaluated the effects of cooling, freezing and thawing on the plasma membrane integrity, kinetics and expression of two sugar transporters glucose transporter-3 and -5 (GLUT-3 and GLUT-5) in spermatozoa from Iberian boars. Semen samples were collected twice weekly from eight young, fertile Iberian boars of the 'Entrepelado' and 'Lampiño' breeds. The samples were suspended in a commercial extender and refrigerated to 17 degrees C for transport to the laboratory (step A), where they were further extended with a lactose-egg yolk-based extender and chilled to 5 degrees C (step B) prior to freezing in the presence of glycerol (3%). Spermatozoa were assessed for plasma membrane integrity and sperm motility at each of the steps, including post-thaw (step C). Aliquots were also prepared for immunocytochemical localisation of the sugar transporters (fixed and thin smears for transmission and scanning electron microscopy levels respectively) and for SDS-PAGE electrophoresis ...
https://www.obs-gyn.ox.ac.uk/publications/512524
*  Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA®): 30 Years of Experience with the SCSA® | Springer for Research & Development
The SCSA®is one of the most widely utilized tests of sperm DNA damage. There are now a number of commercial kits available for testing of sperm DNA fragmentation in which great variations of...
https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4419-6857-9_9
*  Chapter 9 - Medical Terminology Chapter 9 Male Reproductive System Spermatozoon Spermatozoon Sperm cell Flagellum Flagellum...
View Notes - Chapter 9 from HEALTH SCI HLTHST101 at Boise State. Medical Terminology Chapter 9 Male Reproductive System Spermatozoon Spermatozoon Sperm cell Flagellum Flagellum Tail of the sperm
https://www.coursehero.com/file/6400606/Chapter-9/
*  Assessment of DNA degradation in live spermatozoon using laser tweezers raman microspectrometry
Purpose: Sperm nuclear proteins and DNA integrity have been implicated in infertility and treatment failures. High stallion to stallion variability is observed in sperm cryopreservation protocols. The cells are destroyed with harsh chemicals prior to using biochemical assays to test sperm DNA quality. The feasibility of using Raman spectrometry in combination with a laser trap for non-destructive micromanipulation and characterization of DNA damage in motile stallion and human sperm is experimentally investigated in this thesis. Methods: Live stallion sperms were subjected to controlled cellular damage: (a) four grades of chemically induced oxidative stress using Xanthine - Xanthine Oxidase (b) three grades of osmotic stress using PBS and (c) membrane damage using thermal shock. Live human sperm DNA disintegration with time and oxidative stress were explored on fresh, cryopreserved and swim-up categories. The specimens ranged from sub-fertile patients to fertile donors in a limited study. ...
https://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/25706
*  Chromosome architecture in the decondensing human sperm nucleus | Journal of Cell Science
When human sperm nuclei were pretreated with increasing physiological concentrations of heparin, condensed CT unraveled and chromosome arms developed into visible individual domains with traceable intranuclear paths (Fig. 2B-D). This allows sequential exposure of the structural elements of sperm chromosome organization by monitoring relative localization of chromosome arms within the CT. Using a similar approach, Dietzel and co-authors visualized distinct chromosome arms within CTs in human lymphocyte and amniotic fluid cell nuclei (Dietzel et al., 1998).. The procedure of sperm nuclear swelling using heparin and DTT mimics decondensation after fertilization, because both chemicals are analogs of components present in oocyte cytoplasm: disulfide-reducing glutathione (Sutovsky and Schatten, 1997) and heparan sulphate (Romanato et al., 2003). Care was taken to maintain the 3D structure of the nuclei using DNA-protein crosslinking by mild formaldehyde fixation. Similar procedure was shown to be ...
http://jcs.biologists.org/content/118/19/4541.full
*  Low & Nil Sperm treatment in Delhi
Get highly specialized Sperm treatment in Delhi at Dr. P.K. Gupta's clinic. He provides effective & safe Low sperm treatment as well as Nil sperm treatments
http://www.bestsexologistindelhi.in/sperm-treatment.html
*  Usefulness of a triple fluorochrome combination Merocyanine 540/Yo-Pro 1/Hoechst 33342 in assessing membrane stability of...
In a situation where technology allows for the simultaneous measurement of numerous parameters of a single sperm cell, it becomes crucial to choose those parameters which may be useful in estimating in vivo fertility. Sperm membrane destabilization is believed to occur during chilling of semen, although its effect on the post-thaw (PT) fertility of the spermatozoa has not yet been fully assessed. For this reason, we tested a new combination of fluorophores, Merocyanine 540 (M540)/Yo-Pro 1/Hoechst 33342 (H33342), to detect sperm plasma membrane destabilization in bull spermatozoa conventionally processed for artificial insemination (AI). The samples were tested by flow cytometry (FC), both immediately PT and following an in vitro swimup (SU) technique, and results were thereafter compared with conventional sperm quality Measurements (of concentration, motility, morphology, and membrane integrity), including in vivo fertility. Semen samples from six Estonian Holstein (EHF) AI ...
http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:666812
*  Tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in mammalian spermatozoa: molecular and functional aspects.
Abstract During mammalian fertilization, spermatozoa must undergo capacitation and the acrosome reaction. These processes of sperm function are critically associated with various m..
https://www.omicsonline.org/references/tyrosine-phosphorylated-proteins-in-mammalian-spermatozoa-molecular-and-functional-aspects-1289741.html
*  6 Ways to Overcome Infertility Problems in Humans
It was first described by Van Steirteghem and colleagues in 1992 in Belgium. The following conditions cause infertility. Severe oligospermia, obstruction of efferent duct system in male, presence of sperm antibodies, congenital absence of both vasa efferentia and vasa deferentia in male, failure of fertilization in IVF, hardened zona pellucida unexplained infertility, etc.. In this procedure first sperms are obtained through ejaculation. Sperms can be recovered by TESE (Testicular sperm extraction) or by MESA (microsurgical epididymal sperm aspi-ration) techniques.. In this technique one single spermatozoon or even a spermatid is injected directly into the cytoplasm of an oocyte by micropuncture of the zona pellucida. This procedure is done under a high quality inverted operating microscope. Micropipette is used to hold the oocyte while the spermatozoon is injected inside the cytoplasm of the oocyte (ooplasm) by an injecting pipette.. ICSI is very effective as compared to other micromanipulation ...
http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/biology/6-ways-to-overcome-infertility-problems-in-humans/11906
*  DNA damage assessed by qPCR and PARP significance on ruminant spermatozoa « REPROBIO
This research line is funded by a project of the National R&D Plan (Ministry of Science and Innovation), led by Dr. Felipe Martínez-Pastor.. Sperm work has improved animal breeding and allowed semen banks to preserving species and breeds. However, many factors affect the integrity of the genetic material of the spermatozoon, reducing fertility, causing abortions and affecting offspring fitness. In this research line, we are studying ruminant spermatozoa, a group of great economical importance. Whereas artificial reproductive techniques are routine in cattle, they are still developing for most species. In either cases, it is crucial to maintain sperm DNA integrity during manipulation, storage or in vitro techniques. Sperm DNA assessment has been carried out for more than 30 years, but few studies have dealt on fine analysis of DNA damage. DNA in mammal sperm is associated to protamines (PDNA) and histones (HDNA), an organization with likely epigenetic effects. HDNA include important sequences ...
http://reprobio.unileon.es/research-lines/dna-damage-assessment-by-qpcr-and-parp-significance-on-ruminant-spermatozoa/