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*  Retinal haemorrhages and convulsions | Archives of Disease in Childhood
Forceful contraction of the thoracoabdominal muscles may occur from trauma, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, vomiting, seizures, or spells of coughing.1 It causes a sudden increase in intrathoracic pressure, with a consequent rise in intracranial pressure, and leads to an increase in retinal venous pressure. These sudden, transient changes in pressure may result in cerebral and retinal haemorrhages.1 10 Such a mechanism is theoretically possible after both cardiopulmonary resuscitation and convulsions.1 2 10 11 (The sagittal venous pressure measured during tonic seizures in status epilepticus has been noted to be three to four times normal.12) There have been a number of case reports incriminating both in the generation of retinal haemorrhages.6 7 11 Evidence for the role of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the genesis of retinal haemorrhages is sparse and Gayle et al concluded that even if cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been administered, ...
http://adc.bmj.com/content/76/5/449
*  Visual field loss with capillary non-perfusion in preproliferative and early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. | British...
Thirty two eyes of 19 patients with capillary non-perfusion from preproliferative and early proliferative diabetic retinopathy underwent visual field testing on the 30-2 program of the Humphrey visual field analyser. The mean defect (MD) p value was , 5% in 30 (94%) eyes and the corrected pattern standard deviation (CPSD) was , 10% in 31 (97%) eyes. Areas of capillary non-perfusion demonstrated by fundal fluorescein angiography were closely associated with areas of reduced retinal sensitivity in these 31 eyes. More severe visual field defects were present in non-insulin dependent diabetics and in older patients. MD and CPSD p values of less than 0.5% and 1% respectively were found to be associated with non-insulin dependent diabetes (p , 0.05 and p , 0.01 respectively) and with the older age group (p , 0.05). There was no correlation between severity of field defects with hypertension and degree of retinopathy. ...
http://bjo.bmj.com/content/77/11/726
*  Review of suspected non-accidental head injury cases at Batson Children's Hospital | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Purpose: Retinal hemorrhage has been reported to occur in association with various types of non-accidental head injury (NAHI). These include subdural hemorrhage (SDH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), epidural hemorrhage (EDH), and skull fracture. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the association between the presence of retinal hemorrhage and the presence of various types of NAHI and to evaluate the association between the presence of extra-cranial skeletal fracture and retinal hemorrhage. We tested the hypotheses that there would be an association between the presence of retinal hemorrhage and SDH and an association between the presence of extra-cranial skeletal fracture and retinal hemorrhage in patients suspected to be victims of NAHI.. Methods: This was a retrospective ...
http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2336152
*  Retinal Hemorrhages Following Traumatic Venous Obstruction | JAMA Ophthalmology | The JAMA Network
L. W. WILEY. Retinal Hemorrhages Following Traumatic Venous Obstruction. Arch Ophthalmol. 1967;77(1):128-129. doi:10.1001/archopht.1967.00980020130028. ...
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaophthalmology/article-abstract/628680?redirect=true
*  Retinal Hemorrhages - Lifetime Eye Care Lewiston
A compression type of injury can knock the retina loose and cause bleeding underneath. These examples show both retinal hemorrhage and retinal detachment. Both can result in blindness to the affected eye. Immediate examination and subsequent treatment is needed in these type of injuries.. ...
http://lifetimeeyecarelewiston.com/ocular-trauma/retinal-hemorrhages/
*  Treatment of Submacular Hemorrhage
Submacular hemorrhage is a rare but devastating sequel of choroidal neovascularization, which is a frequent complication of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
https://www.news-medical.net/health/Treatment-of-Submacular-Hemorrhage.aspx
*  Subretinal hemorrhages with or without choroidal neovascularization in the maculas of patients with pathologic myopia |...
We examined 20 patients (24 eyes) who had refractive errors of - 8 diopters or more and subretinal hemorrhages at the initial visit. They were divided into two groups according to fluorescein angiogra
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00920048
*  Peripheral retinopathy associated with Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia | Postgraduate Medical Journal
An asymptomatic non-diabetic 69-year-old man with no medical history was referred for incidental bilateral retinal haemorrhages. Visual acuities were 20/20 in both eyes. Anterior segment examination was unremarkable. Funduscopy revealed normal optic discs and maculae and bilateral peripheral blot haemorrhages and microaneurysms (figure 1A,B). Wide-field fluorescein angiography showed peripheral retinal vessel wall staining with capillary non-perfusion and scattered microaneurysms (figure 1C,D). Blood … ...
http://pmj.bmj.com/content/93/1104/641
*  Dr. Kenneth Sparks - Retinal Bleeding
The blood vessels around the retina can become damaged by injury or disease and may bleed, causing temporary or permanent loss of visual accuracy. Because the cells of the retina are so dense and sensitive, even small injuries to the blood vessels can translate into vision problems. Diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure also affect the blood vessels of the eye. Retinal hemorrhages can be caused by injuries, usually forceful blows to the head during accidents and falls, as well as by many health conditions. In infants, retinal hemorrhage is frequently associated with child abuse and has been termed shaken baby syndrome. People with high blood pressure (hypertension) may develop hypertensive retinopathy, where blood vessels in the retina become damaged from increased blood pressure ...
http://laretinasurgeon.com/retinal-bleeding.aspx
*  Retinal haemorrhages in a young patient with homocysteinuria | British Journal of Ophthalmology
The precise mechanism of action of homocysteine on the vascular tree is not well understood. Elevated homocysteine levels can cause endothelial disruption, structural damage by toxic effects on the intima and media, increased oxidation of low density lipoproteins, and alterations of clotting factors leading to a hypercoagulable state.2. Histopathological data derived primarily from animal models demonstrate smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the arteries.3 Postmortem studies of hyperhomocysteinaemic patients have shown intimal and medial thickening with disruption of the internal elastic lamina of small and large vessels.4 Histopathology of small arteries reveal focal proliferation of connective tissue with increased fibroblasts, collagen, and irregular elastic fibres.4 These changes may contribute to the fragility of small arteries and capillaries.. Valsalva retinopathy sometimes occurs with general anaesthesia. We do not believe this patient experienced this mainly because ...
http://bjo.bmj.com/content/89/10/1381
*  Can a child suffer from retinal hemorrhage from falling off the sofa? - Answered by top doctors on HealthTap
Simple impact, especially from the low height of a typical couch cushion to the floor wouldn't do it. There is an extensive scientific literature about this and some controversy about alternative explanations for the bleeding, all too detailed to summarize here. Would you like to video or text chat with me? ...
https://www.healthtap.com/user_questions/181484-can-a-child-suffer-from-retinal-hemorrhage-from-falling-off-the-sofa
*  Selected Papers on Ultrashort Laser Pulse Bioeffects | (2003) | Roach | Publications | Spie
613 In-vivo imaging of the development of linear and non- linear retinal laser effects using optical coherence tomography in correlation with histopathological findings Reginald Birngruber, Michael R. Hee, Stephen A. Boppart, James G. Fujimoto, Eric A. Swanson, Cynthia A. Toth, Cheryl D. DiCarlo, Clarence P. Cain, Gary D. Noojin, William P. Roach (in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S.L. Jacques, editor, 1995 ...
http://www.spie.org/Publications/Book/482848?&origin_id=x113901&tech=12&view_as=grid
*  Ultrashort Laser Pulses Reduce Off-Target Effects of Radiotherapy | Labcritics
Researchers from the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in India have developed an innovative technique to cause DNA damage in a controlled
http://www.labcritics.com/ultrashort-laser-pulses-reduce-off-target-effects-of-radiotherapy-6554/
*  EURETINA Official | Official EURETINA Website | European Society of Retina Specialists
Subretinal hemorrhage may cause retinal damage through a number of mechanisms. Sub-RPE hemorrhages have well-defined borders attributed to the tight cell junctions among RPE cells. Good visual outcome is sometimes possible in selected patients with submacular hemorrhage managed without surgical intervention. The OCT is an important tool to localize the level of the hemorrhage. The recover of the visual acuity of the present case is probably due to the healthy retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors prior to the hemorrhage.. Back to previous ...
http://www.euretina.org/nice2015/programme/free-papers-details.asp?id=4212&day=0
*  Macular Pre-Retinal Hemorrhage - Retina Gallery ~ Full Sized Retina Images
Macular Pre-Retinal Hemorrhage 127 viewsPatient complains of loss of vision in his left eye. Patient is diabetic. VA was 20/20, right eye and 20/150, left eye with no improvement pinhole. Fundus exam reveals very large pre retinal hemorrhage in the left eye. Embolism located inferior, nasally just off the optic nerve in the left eye. Patient underwent PRP for treatment of the hemorrhage. ...
http://retinagallery.com/thumbnails.php?album=758
*  SBS research
What they did was an observation of routine practice and not research (they did not research into the causes, they just pointed out at the coexistence and research NEEDS to be done now). Two thirds of the babies (both neonates and fetuses) had subdural haemorrhage and the majority of those also had brain hypoxia (lack of oxygen). They do not know about the retinas in these cases but they know that Retinal Haemorrhages have been seen after 31 and 58 days post partum (the latter in a ventouse extraction). The significance of the observation is that there are many more natural occurrences of at least 2 of the triad together in young babies which should make society cautious about the causes. In many of their cases they were not sure as to the cause and we think that in the others there is a variety of causes ...
http://johnhemming.blogspot.com/2009/02/sbs-research.html
*  Warfarin Versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction (WARCEF) Trial - Study Results - ClinicalTrials.gov
Rate/100 patient-years of major hemorrhage. Includes all major hemorrhages in any patient. Major hemorrhage was defined as intracerebral, epidural, subdural, subarachnoid, spinal intramedullary, or retinal hemorrhage; any other bleeding causing a decline in the hemoglobin level of more than 2 g per deciliter in 48 hours; or bleeding requiring transfusion of 2 or more units of whole blood, hospitalization, or surgical intervention. Event rate per 100 patient years = 100*(number of major hemorrhage events)/patient-years of follow-up. Patient years of follow-up = sum(date of conclusion of follow-up - date of randomization + 1) of all randomized patients / 365.25 ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT00041938?sect=Xh0156&view=results
*  Sleeveless-extrusion cannula for levitation of dislocated intraocular lens | British Journal of Ophthalmology
Results The technique involved suction levitation of a 3-piece acrylic foldable IOL in six cases, 1-piece acrylic foldable IOL in three cases and a plate haptic IOL in one case. The IOL was exchanged in four eyes whereas the same IOL was repositioned in six eyes with sulcus repositioning in two eyes and glued intrascleral fixation in four eyes. Intraoperative suction loss and a subsequent IOL dislocation were reported in 1 (10%) eye. Early preoperative complications included pigment dispersion in 1 (10%) eye, grade 2 anterior chamber cellular reaction in 2 (20%) eyes and intraoperative corneal oedema in 1 (10%) eye which resolved with medical line of management. Intermediate and late complications included macular oedema in one patient (10%) which resolved considerably with medical line of management. No incidence of postoperative vitreous or retinal haemorrhage, retinal break or retinal detachment was reported.. ...
http://bjo.bmj.com/content/early/2014/02/07/bjophthalmol-2013-304700
*  Traumatic shaking - The role of the triad in medical investigations of suspected traumatic shaking
Limited scientific evidence (low quality evidence) represents a combined assessment of studies of high or moderate quality which disclose factors that markedly weaken the evidence. It is important to note that limited scientific evidence for the reliability of a method or an effect does not imply complete lack of scientific support.. Insufficient scientific evidence (very low quality evidence) represents either a lack of studies, or situations when available studies are of low quality or show contradictory results.. Evaluation of the evidence was not based on formal grading of the evidence according to GRADE but on an evaluation of the total scientific basis.. 1 Three components of a whole. The triad associated with SBS usually comprises subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhages and encephalopathy.. ...
http://www.sbu.se/en/publications/sbu-assesses/traumatic-shaking--the-role-of-the-triad-in-medical-investigations-of-suspected-traumatic-shaking/
*  CLINICAL APPROACH TO ANEMIA | Hematology in Clinical Practice, 5e | AccessHemOnc | McGraw-Hill Medical
CASE HISTORY • Part 1 A 48-year-old man with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes is referred for evaluation of a worsening anemia. He reports a long-standing history of general fatigue and poor exercise tolerance, which he feels have worsened of late. Complications of his diabetes include severe retinopathy, peripheral vascular disease with one flight claudication, and worsening neuropathy. On physical examination, he appears chronically ill with a sallow complexion and pale conjunctiva. Findings include bilateral retinal hemorrhages, diminished pulses, and impaired sensation and position sense in both feet.. CBC: Hematocrit/hemoglobin - 29%/9.5 g/dL (IU - 95 g/L). MCV - 91 fL MCH - 30 pg MCHC - 33 g/dL. RDW-CV - 13.5%. RDW-SD - 48 fL. WBC count - 8,800/μL. Platelet count - 150,000/μL. ...
http://hemonc.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1802§ionid=124976687
*  Bleeding of the Retina in the Eye in Cats | petMD
Retinal hemorrhage is a condition of the innermost lining of the eye in which there is a local or generalized area of bleeding into the innermost lining of the eye. Learn more about causes and treatment of bleeding of the retina in cats on PetMD.com.
https://www.petmd.com/cat/conditions/eyes/c_ct_retinal_hemorrhage
*  DAMMIT JANET!: No Apologies Please, We're Catholic
She consulted three ophthalmologists, who each concluded her eyesight would be further damaged if she carried the pregnancy to term. But they refused to issue a certificate for the pregnancy to be terminated on medical grounds, despite Tysiac's requests. . . . After the delivery, her eyesight deteriorated considerably as a result of what was diagnosed as a retinal hemorrhage ...
http://scathinglywrongrightwingnutz.blogspot.com/2009/09/no-apologies-please-were-catholic.html
*  Jay Patel, MD CR FIRM C. Initial Evaluation What are the vitals? EKG Is this new or old? What has the rate of increase been? Is...
Acute Hypertension Is it urgent or emergent? Urgent  SBP >180 or DBP >120 Emergent  Urgent + End-organ damage End-organ damage Cardiac: pulmonary edema, ACS, aortic dissection Renal: ARF, proteinuria, hematuria  ATN Neuro: cerebral edema, CVA, TIA, ICH Many patients will have headache from hypertensive urgency but no other end organ damage. Ophtho: retinal hemorrhage/exudate, papilledema
http://slideplayer.com/slide/3021670/
*  Not all unexplained injuries are caused by the parents by Christina England
In his paper he highlights two cases both of which were described as SBS cases. Both babies were formula fed and both babies had mothers who smoked. In case one the mother had a urinary tract infection and iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy. She was treated with antibiotics and ferrous sulphate. At the babies routine two month check the babies navel had not healed and some bright red discharge was noted. The baby was given routine vaccinations which included DtaP, Hib and Hep B. These were repeated two months later. The night after the second set of vaccinations the baby was admitted to ER not breathing and although baby survived examination revealed evidence of an intracranial bleed and bilateral retinal hemorrhages, also after a skeletal survey,findings consistent with a nondisplaced fracture of the distal left tibia was revealed and two weeks later the report stated, the previously noted nondisplaced left distal tibial fracture is not well seen. Injures were attributed ...
http://www.whale.to/vaccine/england2.html
*  EURETINA Official | Official EURETINA Website | European Society of Retina Specialists
A 38 and 19-year -old- female patients, presented for unilateral acute blurred vision. Visual acuity was 20/20 for the first patient and was reduced to light perception for the second patient. Fundus examination showed multiple, predominantly deep, retinal macular hemorrages in the two patients. Fluorescein angiography showed hypofluorescence because of blockage from the haemorrhages in both eyes, with normal transit. SD-OCT showed retinal thickening in areas of haemorrhage. There was no history of Valsalva maneuver, trauma or strenuous exercise. The work-up performed was normal. Both patients showed progressive resolution of the intraretinal haemorrhages with a partial improvement of visual acuity for the second patient ...
http://www.euretina.org/barcelona2017/programme/posters-details.asp?id=14037