*  "Purinergic Receptors in the Circumvallate Papillae of Rats" by Alana Marselle Montoya
P2X2 receptors and P2Y4 receptors are ATP-activated cell surface receptors that gate movement of K+, Na+, and Ca2+. We used immunocytochemistry for P2X2 and P2Y4 receptors as well as taste cell type markers to learn if P2X2 immunoreactivity (IR) is present in nerve processes in close apposition to Type II and/or Type III taste cells. We also tested to see if P2Y4 IR is present in Type II and/or Type III taste cells. Our results indicate that P2X2 is present only in intragemmal nerve processes. P2X2-LIR nerve processes form close contacts with Type II and Type III taste cells. P2Y4 IR is present in Type II cells that also display IP3R3 IR, and in Type III cells with Syntaxin-1 IR and 5-HT IR. These data suggest that ATP stimulates P2X2 receptors on nerve processes and P2Y4 ...
*  How Exactly Do Our Taste Buds Work? | Junior's Book
Our taste buds are contained in the mucous membrane of the epiglottis at the base of the tongue, of the tip, sides and root of the tongue and of the soft palate in the roof of the mouth. They are shaped rather like barrels with an outer covering of flattened cells.. These enclose a bundle of spindle-shaped cells which end in thin, hair-like threads and are joined at the base with the nerves of taste. The taste buds transmit taste to the nerves which in turn send the message to the brain. Tastes can be divided into four groups: sour, salt, bitter and sweet. To these classifications are sometimes added metallic and alkaline tastes.. In most cases, the flavor depends upon smell almost as much as taste. The taste buds seem to be in special groups designed to recognize different tastes; for the tastes are not equally easy to arouse in all parts of the mouth. Sweet things are tasted better at the tip of the tongue, and bitter things at the back.. The average person has about ...
*  Amiloride-sensitive channels in type I fungiform taste cells in mouse | BMC Neuroscience | Full Text
In the present study, physiological responses to amiloride were examined in defined subsets of mouse fungiform taste cells. The principal finding is that amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels, thought to be required for amiloride-sensitive NaCl transduction, appear to be functionally expressed in taste cells lacking voltage-dependent inward currents. These cells are likely to be the Type I taste cells, thought previously to have only a support function in the taste bud [3-5]. However, it is also possible that cells lacking inward currents are developing taste cells that have not yet reached the taste pore. Developing taste cells have slowly activating outward currents compared to mature receptor cells [48]. Indeed, we recorded from a small number of taste cells that had slowly activating outward currents typical of developing taste cells, but ...
*  Taste buds, light micrograph - Stock Image C023/5945 - Science Photo Library
Taste buds on the tongue. Light micrograph of a section through several papillae on the surface of a human tongue, showing taste buds. Each papilla is covered with a squamous epithelium many cell layers thick (pink) and hardened with keratin. In the cleft on the side of each papilla, can be seen taste buds which resemble fans of paler, elongated cells. Each taste bud opens onto the surface through an aperture, the gustatory pore, visible as a dark spot. Taste buds contain gustatory sensory cells and serve to detect sweet, salty, sour, or bitter chemicals. Magnification: x110 when printed at 10cm wide. - Stock Image C023/5945
*  How many taste buds are on the human tongue? | Reference.com
According to KidsHealth, the average human tongue has about 10,000 taste buds. In many people, there is a regular turnover every two weeks and all the taste buds are replaced....
*  Humor By Bill Frazer - It's All About Taste Buds - The LaFayette Sun
I am trying to figure out the "bud' in "taste buds." My sorry son-in-law #2 is a Bud, but he has good "taste buds" as he helps out the old man. I know what a plant "bud" is as it shows up every spring. Anyway, my "buddies" Jim Frank and Monroe Smith say they like pickled pig feet which makes them have bad taste buds.. I do not know how the subject came up, but one of my classmates (and sadly there only a few left from the LaFayette High 1947 graduating class) told me that she liked pomegranates, which I think is like eating a mock orange. Incidentally, she is on my jealous list, as Miriam Anne Kirkwood Syler made all us look dumb in reading and literature classes. A couple of months ago the Cobb Memorial Library put a plaque honoring her on one of the rooms. As a tribute to her poor "taste bud," I left her a mock orange that I found lying along the stream at the West Point Park. I wanted her "taste buds" to sample it before I risked trying it out myself. I never heard from her but I assume that ...
*  Taste Centers - BioSolutions
The taste centers are in the cortex and in the thalamus of the brain. The organ of taste is the tongue. The surface of the tongue is covered with thousands of tiny fronds or papillae, which give it a velvety sheen. The taste buds, the primary organs of taste, are found within these papillae. There are four type of papillae-filiform, fungiform, foliate and vallate. Filiform and fungiform papillae are found on the front half of the tongue, and foliate papillae at the back. Filiform are threadlike in shape and more numerous than the mushroom-shaped fungiform type. Vallate papillae form a V across the back of the tongue. The base of the tongue is devoid of papillae, but is covered with nodules of lymphoid tissue, which make up the lingual tonsil. A taste bud consists of taste cells, with hairs that project into the moats surrounding the papillae, supporting cells and nerves. The salivary glands are connected by nerves to the taste buds. Stimulation of the taste ...
*  Inflamed Taste Buds - Causes And Treatment Of Swollen Taste Buds
Inflamed taste buds can be caused due to a number of reasons. With this article, explore the different causes of swollen taste buds and also find out its treatment.
*  Membrane currents in taste cells of the rat fungiform papilla. Evidence for two types of Ca currents and inhibition of K...
Taste buds were isolated from the fungiform papilla of the rat tongue and the receptor cells (TRCs) were patch clamped. Seals were obtained on the basolateral membrane of 281 TRCs, protruding from the intact taste buds or isolated by micro-dissection. In whole-cell configuration 72% of the cells had a TTX blockable transient Na inward current (mean peak amplitude 0.74 nA). All cells had outward K currents. Their activation was slower than for the Na current and a slow inactivation was also noticeable. The K currents were blocked by tetraethylammonium, Ba, and 4-aminopyridine, and were absent when the pipette contained Cs instead of K. With 100 mM Ba or 100 mM Ca in the bath, two types of inward current were observed. An L-type Ca current (ICaL) activated at -20 mV had a mean peak amplitude of 440 pA and inactivated very slowly. At 3 mM Ca the activation threshold of ICaL was near -40 mV. A transient T-type current (ICaT) activated at -50 mV ...
*  Plus it
The body encounters tastants in the oral cavity, where they act on taste buds, which are sensory structures located in the lingual epithelium. Taste buds have specialized cells, taste receptor cells, that detect putative nutritive substances (sugars, proteins, fat, salt) at submolar concentrations and potentially harmful compounds (toxins, drugs) at submicromolar concentrations, thus preparing the gastrointestinal tract for digestion or for rejection and expulsion of the oral content compounds (14, 18). The distinction among tastants is important for survival and nutrition. For instance, bitter taste might serve as a warning signal protecting against the ingestion of toxic substances, like toxins (26), by inducing nausea and vomiting or by impairing gastric emptying resulting in delayed delivery of toxins to the gut. By contrast, sweet or palatable taste might stimulate saliva as well as gastric and pancreatic secretions, thus preparing for digestion and absorption. Taste ...
*  palomponhealthanddiseases: Salty Taste and Upset Stomach
The influence of saliva on the taste of food is really quite complex. Our taste buds are constantly stimulated by saliva. For example, there is enough sodium and chloride, the two ingredients of salt, in our saliva to stimulate our taste receptors for salt. But because the amount of salt in the saliva is relatively constant, our taste buds adapt to our usual level of salivary salt and therefore our own saliva does not normally taste salty ...
*  Retrain Your Taste Buds: 3 Tips for Enjoying Straight Tea - Dominion Tea
It is possible to retrain your taste buds to enjoy tea without milk or sugar. You are not so much retraining your taste buds but your brain.
*  Signaling in Taste Cells - Nirupa Chaudhari
Recent findings indicate that taste buds are much more complex than previously held. Mature taste cells display diverse properties and may communicate among the...
*  Study: Obese Kids Have Less Sensitive Taste Buds | TIME.com
Everyone's taste buds are different. That's why some people can swallow the spiciest peppers while others have no fondness for sweet desserts (gasp!). Now a recent study suggests that taste-bud sensitivity may have something to do with the risk of obesity in children.
*  Immunolocalization of different forms of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in rat taste buds - Nelson - 2004 - The Journal...
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
*  Swollen taste buds and metallic taste in mouth. Is this a typical response to treatment ? - Doctor's insight on HealthcareMagic
Question - Swollen taste buds and metallic taste in mouth. Is this a typical response to treatment ?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Oral thrush, Ask an ENT Specialist
*  Letting taste buds be the judge
'So you think you can taste orange juice?' we asked international dancer and choreographer Harold van Buuren, a judge on SABC1's successful new show So You Think You Can Dance. Van Buuren tried five different kinds of orange juice to judge which one would get your taste buds dancing. 'You've got the right person here because I love orange juice and I love to judge,' says Harold, taking his first sip of The Real Juice Company's Pure Crushed Orange Juice.
*  Plus it
The present study is the first thorough analysis of serotonin receptor subtype expression in TRCs. An initial screening using RT-PCR with 14 5-HT receptor subtype-specific primers demonstrated the presence of 5-HT1A and 5-HT3 receptor mRNAs in pure taste bud total RNA. Additionally, data suggest the expression of 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT1E, 5-HT1F, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT4, 5-HT5A, 5-HT5B, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7, in rat posterior TRCs to be unlikely. Because these primers were first optimized on rat positive control tissue, even low-level expression of these subtypes in rat taste buds would likely have been detected. However, if some tissue-specific postgenomic modification, such as alternative splicing, exists in TRCs, detection of these mRNAs might not have been evident with these primer sets. Moreover, our 14 primer sets comprise a minority of all serotonin receptor subtypes, whose exhaustive exploration would be a prohibitively large undertaking. Also, it is always possible that rare expression ...
*  Burning taste buds
Most of us know the feeling of scalding our taste buds from hot foods or beverages. Read how it affects our mouths and how burning tongue syndrome comes into the picture.
*  What are some ways to treat swollen taste buds? | Reference.com
Treatments for swollen taste buds include antiseptic mouthwashes, gargling sea salt solution, swashing honey, treating the underlying cause and applying baking soda, according to Healcure.org. Other...
*  Life of an Army Wife: 09/01/2015 - 10/01/2015
E's taste buds are quite developed I think. She loves my cooking. I made a Shepard's pie the other night using lamb and beef with carrots, peas, red skin potatoes, gravy and various herbs and spices and she loved it. How many kids at this age love Lamb? I made a casserole with Chorizo in two weeks ago and also a week before that and both weeks she ate it. When I cook it is like she can never get enough of my cooking. She eats all the food off of her plate and starts eating off of her dad's plate next! Oh and she loves the left overs too. She also loved the cranberry meatballs I made a few weeks ago. Tomorrow night I'm going to make Swedish meatballs using ground turkey. The only dish my daughter has yet to like is the Sauerbraten. It was a little to sour for her taste buds ...
*  Top 9 Delicacies to Enhance Your Taste Buds on This Diwali
We have listed so many dishes for you people, which gives you an idea that what you have to prepare for Diwali 2015. So, have look over them.
*  Sugar = Sugar = Sugar | Whole9
Nick: That's EXACTLY what we're talking about. People become so conditioned to the artificially flavored chemical sweet/savory/salty/sour tastes in processed foods that they can't appreciate the gorgeous subtleties of the REAL foods they're eating. Sweet potato, strawberries, even carrots are PLENTY sweet, but until the taste buds are reconditioned, those flavors are lost on some. It's a crying shame - but the good news is that just 30 days of the Whole30 starts to fix that! Lots of testimonials to that effect, in fact. Thanks for sharing.. @Ronna: Good for you! Glad to hear you're feeling better and stronger. (And yes, it IS fun to dream… which is why I scope the wine list at every restaurant, without ever ordering a glass.). Fruits are one of those tricky foods. Fruit isn't the enemy by any means - it's loaded with good nutrition, and delicious to eat! But we have referred to them as "nature's candy" from time to time, so if eating a handful of grapes sends you running for the nearest Krispy ...
*  Review of Progress in Sensory Physiology 6. :: PsycCRITIQUES
Reviews the book, Progress in Sensory Physiology 6 by D. Ottoson, H. Autrum, D. Ottoson, E. R. Perl, R. F. Schmidt, H. Shimazu, W. D. Willis (Eds." T. Sato, K. B. Doving, J. A. Coles, and S. Mense (1986). This is the sixth edition in a continuing series on sensory physiology. The four chapters explore receptor potential in rat taste cells, functional properties of the fish olfactory system, homeostasis of extracellular fluid in retinas of invertebrates and vertebrates, and slowly conducting afferent fibers from deep tissues: neurobiological properties and central nervous actions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved) ...
*  Taste Buds Less Sensitive in Obese Kids | Medpage Today
Obese children and adolescents were less sensitive to salty, bitter, and umami tastes than those of normal weight, researchers reported.