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*  Electrophysiological properties of strial pericytes and the effect of aspirin on pericyte K+ channels
The present study was designed to investigate the electrophysiological properties of strial pericytes and the effect of aspirin on pericyte K+ channels. Pericytes were identified by determining their morphological characteristics and using pericyte‑associated immunofluorescence techniques. The electrophysiological properties of strial pericytes were observed with a whole‑cell patch‑clamp technique. Alterations in the outward current of cochlear pericytes in the stria vascularis of guinea pigs were examined following the application of K+ channel retardants. The effects of aspirin on pericyte K+ channels were also evaluated with the whole‑cell patch‑clamp technique. The results demonstrated that pericytes were desmin positive, and their nuclei were large and surrounded by a small proportion of the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic processes gradually declined in size as branches grew parallel to the capillary axis. Thus, capillaries ...
https://spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/mmr.2017.8194
*  Retinal pericytes and cytomegalovirus infectivity: implications for HCMV-induced retinopathy and congenital ocular disease |...
The expression profiles of normal human brain and retinal pericytes are shared with respect to several cytoskeletal, cellular adhesion and proinflammatory biomarkers. This suggests that pericytes from different vascular beds within the CNS are similar and that their physiology may be governed by their respective microenvironments. We found that brain and retinal pericytes were equally permissive for HCMV lytic replication by both laboratory adapted and clinical strains of virus. In IBRB, retinal pericytes were most permissive for HCMV infection when compared to retinal microvascular endothelial cells and Müller cells. HCMV infection elicited an angiogenic and proinflammatory cytokine response in pericytes after infection. From these studies we proposed a disease model (Figure 11) for HCMV dissemination across the IBRB into the retina that is similar to the model we proposed for HCMV dissemination across the BBB into the ...
https://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12974-014-0219-y
*  Morphology and Topography of Retinal Pericytes in the Living Mouse Retina Using In Vivo Adaptive Optics Imaging and Ex Vivo...
Retinal circulation is made up of various-sized vessels that deliver, exchange, and return a constant stream of metabolites and nutrients to the inner retina. The smallest of these vessels are the capillaries, which provide both metabolite exchange and act as the primary barrier between blood and surrounding tissue. Capillaries are composed of a thin tube of endothelial cells ensheathed by a vascular-associated cell type: the pericyte. Pericytes are a heterogeneous population of cells that send out long, dendritiform processes that ensheathe the endothelial tube. Although pericytes are believed to belong to the same cell lineage as vascular smooth muscle cells, their intimate association with the endothelial basement membrane makes them phenotypically distinct from smooth muscle cells. 1 They distinctively are embedded in the vascular basement membrane of endothelial cells and contribute to the integrity of the blood retinal barrier. 2 Pericytes are found ...
http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2128085
*  Human kidney pericytes produce renin. - Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics
Pericytes, perivascular cells embedded in the microvascular wall, are crucial for vascular homeostasis. These cells also play diverse roles in tissue development and regeneration as multi-lineage progenitors, immunomodulatory cells and as sources of trophic factors. Here, we establish that pericytes are renin producing cells in the human kidney. Renin was localized by immunohistochemistry in CD146 and NG2 expressing pericytes, surrounding juxtaglomerular and afferent arterioles. Similar to pericytes from other organs, CD146(+)CD34(-)CD45(-)CD56(-) renal fetal pericytes, sorted by flow cytometry, exhibited tri-lineage mesodermal differentiation potential in vitro. Additionally, renin expression was triggered in cultured kidney pericytes by cyclic AMP as confirmed by immuno-electron microscopy, and secretion of enzymatically functional renin, capable of generating angiotensin I. Pericytes ...
https://www.dpag.ox.ac.uk/publications/646112
*  Increased Pericyte Coverage Mediated by Endothelial-Derived Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and Interleukin-6 Is a Source of Smooth...
Pericytes are found around precapillary arteries, capillaries, and postcapillary venules, and they occupy a strategic position at the interface between circulating blood and interstitial space and are at close proximity to ECs and SMCs. Herein, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time increased pericyte coverage of distal pulmonary arteries in experimental and human PAH. In PAH, we obtained evidences that pulmonary endothelial-derived FGF-2 and IL-6 partly contributes to this vascular abnormality. We found that both FGF-2 and IL-6 enhanced pulmonary pericyte migration in culture and that FGF-2 was a pericyte mitogen. In addition, we showed that exogenous FGF-2 or IL-6 increased the vascular pericyte coverage in a mouse model of retinal angiogenesis. Finally, using iPAH human and NG2DsRedBAC mouse lung tissues, we demonstrated that this increased pericyte coverage contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling as a source of SM-like cells. Furthermore, we found that FGF-2, ...
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/15/1586.full
*  Cells | Free Full-Text | Pericytes, Mesenchymal Stem Cells and the Wound Healing Process
Pericytes are cells that reside on the wall of the blood vessels and their primary function is to maintain the vessel integrity. Recently, it has been realized that pericytes have a much greater role than just the maintenance of vessel integrity essential for the development and formation of a vascular network. Pericytes also have stem cell-like properties and are seemingly able to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts and granulocytes, leading them to be identified as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). More recently it has been suggested that pericytes play a key role in wound healing, whereas the beneficial effects of MSCs in accelerating the wound healing response has been recognized for some time. In this review, we collate the most recent data on pericytes, particularly their role in vessel formation and how they can affect the wound healing process.
http://mdpi.com/2073-4409/2/3/621
*  Identification and Functional Characterization of Hypoxia-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulating lncRNA (HypERlnc)in...
Rationale: Pericytes are essential for vessel maturation and endothelial barrier function. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate many cellular functions, but their role in pericyte biology remains unexplored. Objective: Here we investigate the effect of Hypoxia-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulating lncRNA (HypERlnc, also known as ENSG00000262454) on pericyte function in vitro and its regulation in human heart failure and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods and Results: RNA sequencing in human primary pericytes (hPCs) identified hypoxia regulated lncRNAs, including HypERlnc. Silencing of HypERlnc decreased cell viability, proliferation and resulted in pericyte de-differentiation, which went along with increased endothelial permeability in co-cultures consisting of hPC and human coronary microvascular endothelial cells. Consistently, Cas9-based transcriptional activation of HypERlnc was associated with increased expression of pericyte marker genes. ...
http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/early/2017/06/13/CIRCRESAHA.116.310531
*  Pericytes Development in the Splanchnic Mesoderm - LifeMap Discovery
Pericytes are associated with the smallest diameter blood vessels (arterioles, capillaries, and venules) and share their basal membrane with the endothelium. Pericytes are either solitarily associated with the endothelial cell tube or form a single, often discontinuous, cell layer around it ...
https://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/lateral-plate-mesoderm/splanchnic-mesoderm/pericytes
*  Pericytes support neutrophil subendothelial cell crawling and breaching of venular walls in vivo.
Neutrophil transmigration through venular walls that are composed of endothelial cells (ECs), pericytes, and the venular basement membrane is a key component of innate immunity. Through direct analysis of leukocyte-pericyte interactions in inflamed tissues using confocal intravital microscopy, we show how pericytes facilitate transmigration in vivo. After EC migration, neutrophils crawl along pericyte processes to gaps between adjacent pericytes in an ICAM-1-, Mac-1-, and LFA-1-dependent manner. These gaps were enlarged in inflamed tissues through pericyte shape change and were used as exit points by neutrophils in breaching the venular wall. The findings identify previously unknown roles for pericytes in neutrophil transmigration in vivo and add additional steps to the leukocyte adhesion cascade that supports leukocyte trafficking into sites of inflammation ...
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/14750
*  Infantile hemangiomas exhibit neural crest and pericyte markers. - PubMed - NCBI
Ann Plast Surg. 2015 Feb;74(2):230-6. doi: 10.1097/SAP.0000000000000080. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=24401806
*  This Will Not Affect Your Eyesight, But It Needs To Be Carefully Monitored. | Blog Sadie Stewart
He notes that it's not yet clear whether endothelial cells, which line blood vessels throughout the body, have IL-6 receptors in other environs. The new grant is enabling the MCG scientists to further explore in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes the effects of trans-signaling on the endothelial cells as well as pericytes in the eye. Pericytes are contractile cells that wrap around endothelial cells, enhancing the strength of the smallest blood vessels, like where the arterial system and venous system come together so oxygen- and nutrient-rich blood can nourish the eye then depleted blood can exit. In diabetic retinopathy, pericytes are damaged and destroyed; blood vessels walls unnaturally thicken; and blood passageways narrow. Eventually, endothelial cells also die. The eyes will attempt to grow new blood vessels as a fix, but the new vessels are ultimately dysfunctional and leaky and instead further destroy vision. The scientists also are looking to see if ...
http://blogsadiestewart.beatthetrain.org/2017/01/03/this-will-not-affect-your-eyesight-but-it-needs-to-be-carefully-monitored/
*  Leicester Research Archive: Novel morphological features of developing white matter pericytes and rapid scavenging of reactive...
Capillary endothelia and pericytes form a close morphological arrangement allowing pericytes to regulate capillary blood flow, in addition to contributing to vascular development and support. Vascular changes associated with oxidative stress are implicated in important pathologies in developing whiter matter, but little is known about the vascular unit in white matter of the appropriate age or how it responds to oxidative stress. We show that the ultrastructural arrangement of post-natal day 10 (P10) capillaries involves the apposition of pericyte somata to the capillary inner basement membrane and penetration of pericyte processes onto the abluminal surface where they form close connections with endothelial cells. Some pericytes have an unusual stellate morphology, extending processes radially from the vessel. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were monitored with the ROS-sensitive dye 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCF) in the endothelial cells. Exposure to ...
https://lra.le.ac.uk/handle/2381/25962
*  Cerebral microvascular rarefaction induced by whole brain radiation is reversible by systemic hypoxia in mice | Heart and...
Pericytes are a heterogeneous population of mural cells associated with the microvasculature (3, 34) having important roles in endothelial proliferation (45), blood-brain barrier integrity (19), contraction of capillaries, and regulation of capillary blood flow (43). Several different markers have been used to identify pericytes, including SMA (19, 21, 36, 37, 39), NG2 (21, 38, 49), desmin (21), endosialin (49), and PDGFR-β (17, 38, 49). In this study, putative pericytes were identified by their morphology and expression of SMA, NG2, and PDGFR-β, as well as their association to blood vessels with a diameter ,10 μm. Pericytes have been shown to guide and precede proliferating endothelial cells during embryonic angiogenesis (49) and also function in stabilizing newly formed blood vessels, maintaining the endothelial cells in a quiescent state (32). In tumor vasculature, entire endothelial-free vessel tubes consisting only of ...
http://ajpheart.physiology.org/content/300/3/H736.long
*  Plus it
Background: Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been proposed as the cell of origin of sarcoma. In soft tissues, the microvascular pericyte has been recently shown to have MSC properties (Crisan et al, Cell Stem Cell 3:301). We have previously reported the isolation of benign mesenchymal cultures from sarcoma surgical samples. These cells have the immunophenotype (CD45‐CD31‐ CD73+CD105+CD90+) and in vitro differentiation potential characteristic of MSCs. We hypothesized that these sarcoma‐associated MSCs (SA‐MSCs) are derived from pericytes associated with the sarcoma vasculature.. Methods: We examined whether benign SA‐MSCs have surface markers characteristic of pericytes and cooperate with endothelial cells in tube formation assays. We also examined expression of CD146, a pericyte marker, and CD105, an MSC marker, in sarcoma archived tissue by IHC.. Results: Benign SA‐MSCs indeed demonstrated properties of pericytes, such as characteristic cytoplasmic ...
http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/8/12_Supplement/C250
*  Pericytes of Multiple Organs Do Not Behave as Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vivo | Bhaskar Chanda
Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Guimarães-Camboa et al. permanently labeled pericytes and vascular smooth muscle of multiple organs in vivo and followed the fate of these cells in aging and injury models. Their analyses showed that, in vivo, pericytes did not behave as stem cells, challenging the current view of pericytes as tissue-resident multipotent progenitors.. from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/2iO5lbi ...
https://bhaskarchandatoronto.wordpress.com/2017/01/19/pericytes-of-multiple-organs-do-not-behave-as-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vivo/
*  Pericytes are progenitors for coronary artery smooth muscle | eLife
Progenitor cells for the muscle layer around the coronary arteries have been identified revealing a key step in how the embryo forms these important blood vessels.
https://elifesciences.org/articles/10036
*  Transplantation of Human Pericyte Progenitor Cells Improves the Repair of Infarcted Heart Through Activation of an Angiogenic...
The present study newly shows the prolonged therapeutic benefit of SVPs from coronary artery disease patients in a mouse model of MI. Furthermore, we report for the first time that miR-132 is constitutively expressed and released by human SVPs and implicated in SVP proangiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. Hence, this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of human PCs being therapeutically beneficial through an miR-132-mediated mechanism.. Recent findings from our laboratory indicate that human SVPs can build new vessels in ischemic limbs more efficiently than endothelial progenitor cells.20 The present study extends the application to a mouse model of MI and, in line with recommendations of advisory boards (Somatic Cell Therapy for Cardiac Disease, http://www.fda.gov), establishes the optimal dosage and long-term therapeutic benefit of SVP transplantation on clinical, hemodynamic, and mechanistic endpoints. At variance with MSCs, which reportedly differentiate into multiple cell ...
http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/109/8/894
*  Researchers pinpoint sources of fibrosis-promoting cells that ravage organs
Recruitment from the bone marrow, EMT and EndMT appear to rely on transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-B1) to differentiate into myofibroblasts.. Pericytes are not involved. Some earlier descriptive studies implicated pericytes - connective, contractile cells that surround blood vessels - in the creation of myofibroblasts. The researchers tested pericytes via fate-mapping and found that they're not involved in myofibroblast generation.. Deleting pericytes did not improve kidney fibrosis or change the recruitment of myofibroblasts.. While their research focused on kidney fibrosis, the scientists believe their findings will be applicable to other types of fibrosis.. "Recruitment of fibroblasts is heterogonous. The sources are likely to be the same for lung or liver fibrosis, but the ratios may be different," Kalluri said. "Now we need to go into those other organs and establish a baseline of what we're facing like we did in kidney ...
http://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/medicine-health/researchers-pinpoint-sources-fibrosis-promoting-216419.html
*  Publications | Attie Lab | Biochemistry | UW-Madison
J. Neurosci. 30, 13110-13115. PMID: 20881129 [PDF]. Lavine JA and Attie AD. (2010) Gastrointestinal hormones and the regulation of beta-cell mass. Ann NY Acad Sci. 12,41-58. [PDF]. Neto EC, Keller MP, Attie AD, and Yandell BS. (2010) Causal graphical models in systems genetics: A unified framework for joint inference of causal network and genetic architecture for correlated phenotypes. Ann Appl Stat. 4(1):320-339. [PDF]. Newgard CB, Attie AD. (2010) Getting biological about the genetics of diabetes. Nat Med. 16(4):388-91. [PDF]. Richards OC, Raines SM, Attie AD. (2010) The role of blood vessels, endothelial cells, and vascular pericytes in insulin secretion and peripheral insulin action. Endocr Rev. 31(3):343-63. [PDF] supplemental: [PDF]. Zhao E, Keller MP, Rabaglia ME, Oler AT, Stapleton DS, Schueler KL, Neto EC, Moon JY, Wang P, Wang IM, Lum PY, Ivanovska I, Cleary M, Greenawalt D, Tsang J, Choi YJ, Kleinhanz R, Shang J, Zhou YP, Howard AD, Zhang BB, Kendziorski C, Thornberry NA, Yandell ...
https://biochem.wisc.edu/labs/attie/publications-attie-lab
*  JCI - Disruption of lineage specification in adult pulmonary mesenchymal progenitor cells promotes microvascular dysfunction
The findings from these studies expand our understanding of the role lung MPCs, and the pericytes derived from them, play during pulmonary microvascular homeostasis and adaptive angiogenesis following injury. We demonstrate that ABCG2+ MPCs directly influence lung microvascular function. Specifically, this work delineates that the coordinated regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in ABCG2+ mesenchymal pericyte progenitors, autonomously or downstream of BMPR/TGF-β signaling, is a key determinant of lung microvascular integrity and is intimately linked with the alveolar epithelium. Indeed, increased canonical Wnt signaling enhanced ABCG2+ MPC proliferation and promoted the specification of these cells to functionally deficient, proangiogenic pericytes, in lieu of their active contribution to myofibroblast accumulation with fibrosis (Figure 6). Importantly, these findings affirm that maintaining a proper balance of Wnt signaling in lung ABCG2+ MPCs promotes proper pericyte ...
https://www.jci.org/articles/view/88629
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*  Plus it
One of the underlying features leading to neuroinflammation associated with HANDs is the breach of the cerebrovascular unit. Various reports implicate disruption of this unit during HIV-1 infection (Masiá et al., 2010; McArthur et al., 2010), with a prominent role of the viral protein HIV-1 Tat in this process (Banks et al., 2005). Although the information on endothelium and astrocyte dysfunction in HANDs is extant (Toborek et al., 2003; Eugenin et al., 2011; Ramirez et al., 2013), relatively little is known about the role of the pericytes, the less studied but a very important cell type of the cerebrovascular unit in this process. Pericytes play a crucial role in maintaining the functions of microvessels, controlling the capillary diameter, and in preserving the integrity of the BBB. More recently, an additional role of pericytes has been identified: that of promoting HIV replication (Nakagawa et al., 2012). Furthermore, similar to glial cell activation by ...
http://www.jneurosci.org/content/34/35/11812
*  Plus it
Background: Endothelial cells (ECs) express IP (prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) specific receptor) and are playing important role in tumor angiogenesis. We have reported that the PGI2-IP system is necessary for vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. Additionally, we have reported that the knockdown of IP increases tumor metastasis in mouse models.. Objectives: In this study, we examined whether the activated PGI2-IP signaling could enhance EC-PC interactions and suppress tumor metastasis.. Materials & Methods: Mouse-derived Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells were used for a mouse lung metastatic model, and were injected from the tail vein of mice (c57BL/6J). Beraprost sodium (BPS; PGI2 analog) was continuously administered for 3 weeks. Tumor metastasis to lung was assessed by using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The a-SMA and the NG2 as a pericyte marker and the endomucin as an endothelial cell marker were analyzed by immunofluorescence to evaluate angiogenesis in metastatic lung tumors. The structure of the ...
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/73/8_Supplement/371
*  Plus it
Polymorphism in TCF7L2, a component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, has a strong association with β-cell dysfunction and type 2 diabetes through a yet to be defined mechanism. β-Cells rely on cells in their microenvironment, including pericytes, for their proper function. Here, we show that Tcf7l2 activity in pancreatic pericytes is required for β-cell function. Transgenic mice in which Tcf7l2 was selectively inactivated in their pancreatic pericytes exhibited impaired glucose tolerance due to compromised β-cell function and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Inactivation of pericytic Tcf7l2 was associated with impaired expression of genes required for β-cell function and maturity in isolated islets. In addition, we identified Tcf7l2-dependent pericytic expression of secreted factors shown to promote β-cell function, including BMP4. Finally, we show that exogenous BMP4 is sufficient to rescue the impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of ...
http://hw-f5-diabetes.highwire.org/content/early/2017/12/14/db17-0697
*  Determine maximal passage number - Tissue and Cell Culture - BioForum
Determine maximal passage number - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Hey guys, I am doing some cell culture work right now and we have different cell lines (human pericytes, astrocytes and endothelial cells). My supervisor told me I should not culture them more then passage number 10 or 11. How would you determine the maximal passage number for a specific cell line? Thank you for your help
http://www.protocol-online.org/forums/topic/35887-determine-maximal-passage-number/