Loading...
*  Pattern recognition receptor - Wikipedia
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a crucial role in the proper function of the innate immune system. PRRs are germline-encoded host sensors, which detect molecules typical for the pathogens. They are proteins expressed, mainly, by cells of the innate immune system, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils and epithelial cells, to identify two classes of molecules: pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are associated with microbial pathogens, and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are associated with components of host's cells that are released during cell damage or death. They are also called primitive pattern recognition receptors because they evolved before other parts of the immune system, particularly before adaptive immunity. PRRs also mediate the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune response and release of inflammatory cytokines The ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pattern_recognition_receptor
*  Damage-associated molecular pattern - Wikipedia
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), also known as danger-associated molecular patterns, danger signals, and alarmin, are host biomolecules that can initiate and perpetuate a noninfectious inflammatory response. In contrast, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) initiate and perpetuate the infectious pathogen-induced inflammatory response. A subset of DAMPs are nuclear or cytosolic proteins. When released outside the cell or exposed on the surface of the cell following tissue injury, they move from a reducing to an oxidizing milieu, which results in their denaturation. Also, following necrosis (a kind of cell death), tumor DNA is released outside the nucleus, and outside the cell, and becomes a DAMP. Two papers appearing in 1994 presaged the deeper understanding of innate immune reactivity, dictating the subsequent nature of the adaptive immune response. The first came from transplant surgeons who conducted a prospective randomized ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damage-associated_molecular_pattern
*  Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly)
Pattern recognition receptors are the main sensors of the innate immune response. Their function is to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which are molecules essential for the survival of microbial pathogens, but are not produced by the host. The recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by pattern recognition receptors leads to the expression of cytokines, chemokines, and co-stimulatory molecules that eliminate pathogens, such as viruses, for the activation of antigen presenting cells and for the activation of specific adaptive immunity. Among the most thoroughly studied pattern recognition receptors implicated in viral infections, there are the toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the RNA helicase-type retinoic acid-inducible gene-1 receptors [or RIG-like receptors (RLRs)]. Moreover, other proteins such as PKR, 2'-5' OAS, and ADAR also ...
http://www.bioline.org.br/abstract?id=rc10054&lang=es
*  Activation of host pattern recognition receptors by viruses
Viral recognition by the host innate immune system has become an exciting and growing area of research focus in recent years. It is now apparent that multiple pattern recognition receptor (PRR) families, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs), contribute significantly to viral detection by sensing viral proteins and nucleic acids, leading to induction of cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs). Of particular current interest is the sensing of viral DNA within infected cells, since the PRRs responsible for this are only partially defined. Recently RNA polymerase III (Pol III) was shown to transcribe some viral DNAs into RNA for detection by RIG-I, leading to IFN induction. Another novel mechanism of viral DNA recognition unveiled, leading to proinflammatory cytokine production, involves the PYHIN family member AIM2 ...
http://www.tara.tcd.ie/handle/2262/68039
*  The pattern-recognition receptor NOD1 promotes production of inflammatory mediators in rheumatoid arthritis synovial...
OBJECTIVE: Previously, we reported that pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) such as TLRs and NOD2 contribute to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Now, we analyzed the expression, regulation and function of the PRR NOD1 in RA synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) and its interaction with other PRRs. METHODS: Expression of NOD1 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in RA, psoriasis arthritis, gout and OA synovial tissues. RASFs and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) were stimulated with Tri-DAP, Pam3, PIC, LPS, heat inactivated bacteria, TNF-α or IL-1β. IL-6, CCL5, MMPs, NODs and TLRs were measured by Real-time PCR and/or ELISA. NOD1 and NOD2 were silenced with target specific siRNA. Phosphorylation of IRAK1 was measured by Western blot. RESULTS: In RA synovium, expression of NOD1 protein was significantly increased compared to OA synovium. There was similar basal expression of NOD1 in RASFs, OASFs, healthy controls PBMCs and MDMs. TLR3 stimulation further up-regulated ...
http://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/52993/
*  PGRP-SD, an Extracellular Pattern-Recognition Receptor, Enhances Peptidoglycan-Mediated Activation of the Drosophila Imd Pathway
Activation of the innate immune response in Metazoans is initiated through the recognition of microbes by host pattern-recognition receptors. In Drosophila, diaminopimelic acid ( DAP)-containing peptidoglycan from Gram-negative bacteria is detected by the transmembrane receptor PGRP-LC and by the intracellular receptor PGRP-LE. Here, we show that PGRP-SD acted upstream of PGRP-LC as an extracellular receptor to enhance peptidoglycan-mediated activation of Imd signaling. Consistent with this, PGRP-SD mutants exhibited impaired activation of the Imd pathway and increased susceptibility to DAP-type bacteria. PGRP-SD enhanced the localization of peptidoglycans to the cell surface and hence promoted signaling. Moreover, PGRP-SD antagonized the action of PGRP-LB, an extracellular negative regulator, to fine-tune the intensity of the immune response. These data reveal that Drosophila PGRP-SD functions as an extracellular receptor similar to mammalian CD14 and ...
https://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/225041
*  Targeting intracellular mediators of pattern-recognition receptor signalling to adjuvant vaccination. - The Kennedy Institute...
PRR (pattern-recognition receptor) signalling is involved early in the immune response and therefore would be attractive to target during vaccination. The use of PRR ligands has shown some success; however, toxicity and non-specificity are issues with this strategy. The targeting of PRR intracellular signalling networks would allow for greater specificity and reduced systemic toxicity. The present review examines the successes seen with overexpression or repression of PRR signalling molecules.
https://www.kennedy.ox.ac.uk/publications/224916
*  OPUS at UTS: RAGE and TLRs: relatives, friends or neighbours? - Open Publications of UTS Scholars
The innate immune system forms the first line of protection against infectious and non-infectious tissue injury. Cells of the innate immune system detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns or endogenous molecules released as a result of tissue injury or inflammation through various innate immune receptors, collectively termed pattern-recognition receptors. Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family of pattern-recognition receptors have well established roles in the host immune response to infection, while the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern-recognition receptor predominantly involved in the recognition of endogenous molecules released in the context of infection, physiological stress or chronic inflammation. RAGE and TLRs share common ligands and signaling pathways, and accumulating evidence points towards their co-operative ...
https://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/handle/10453/26807
*  Regulation of cytosolic pattern recognition receptor signaling in macrophages - Christian Stehlik
Invading pathogens are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system as a first line of defense. Activation of PRRs from the Nu...
http://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R01-AI099009-01A1
*  Pattern Recognition Receptor Antibodies | Bio-Rad
Pattern recognition receptor antibodies play a key role in the innate immune response by recognizing pathogen associated molecular patterns derived from a diverse collection of microbial pathogens.
https://www.bio-rad-antibodies.com/pattern-recognition-receptor-antibodies.html
*  Most recent papers with the keyword Pattern Recognition Receptors | Read by QxMD
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the best characterised families of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and play a critical role in the host defence to infection. Accumulating evidence indicates that TLRs also participate in maintaining tissue homeostasis by controlling inflammation and tissue repair, as well as promoting antitumour effects via activation and modulation of adaptive immune responses. TLR agonists have successfully been exploited to ameliorate the efficacy of various cancer therapies. In this chapter, we will discuss the rationales of using TLR agonists as adjuvants to cancer treatments and summarise the recent findings of preclinical and clinical studies of TLR agonist-based cancer therapies ...
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/keyword/96647
*  Molecular Basis of DNA Recognition in the Immune System | The Journal of Immunology
The innate immune system is the first line of defense against infectious agents. Germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including TLRs, NOD-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid inducible-I (RIG-I)-like receptors, and C-type lectins, recognize a wide range of microbial products, often referred to as microbe-associated molecular patterns (1). Recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns by these surveillance receptors turns on signaling pathways that coordinate transcription of hundreds of inflammatory genes, the products of which control infection directly and marshal the T and B cells of the adaptive immune system (2). In addition to classical microbial products, such as bacterial LPS or lipoproteins, microbial nucleic acids have emerged as major triggers of innate immune defenses.. The best-characterized nucleic acid sensors are a subset of TLRs, type I transmembrane receptors localized to the ...
http://www.jimmunol.org/content/190/5/1911
*  transmembrane protein 173 | Other pattern recognition receptors | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. transmembrane protein 173 - Other pattern recognition receptors. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=2902&familyId=929&familyType=OTHER
*  Genomics of Pattern Recognition Receptors: Applications in Oncology and Cardiovascular Diseases: Kutikhin, Anton G. and...
Genomics of Pattern Recognition Receptors: Applications in Oncology and Cardiovascular Diseases by Kutikhin, Anton G. and Yuzhalin, Arseniy E. available in Trade Paperback on Powells.com, also read sy
http://www.powells.com/book/genomics-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-9783034807944
*  Buecher Medizin
In carefully selected chapters, the author addresses eight major topics dedicated to (1) early appreciation in the 1990s of the injured allograft as an acutely inflamed organ reflecting first clues to the existence of innate alloimmunity, (2) oxidative allograft injury as revisited at the beginning of the new millennium, (3) recognition by various pattern recognition receptors of damage-associated molecular patterns, the DAMPs that, for didactic reasons, are divided into four different classes, (4) role of pattern recognition receptors in mediating oxidative tissue injury via activation of dendritic cells, innate lymphocytes, and T lymphocytes, (5) experimental and clinical findings in direct and indirect support of the existence of innate alloimmunity, (6) chronic allograft dysfunction in terms of a model disease of innate immunity, (7) principles and options of pharmaceutics, biologics, and genetic ...
http://www.pabst-publishers.de/Medizin/buecher/9783899677386.htm
*  Mitochondrial DAMPs associated immune responses | Frontiers Research Topic
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) became a fascinating new topic of the study in the field of immunology. Both DAMPs and Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) initiate and perpetuate the inflammatory responses via the same pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), with DAMPs being involved in non-infectious, and PAMPs in infectious responses. Our group recognized that seriously injured trauma patients develop sepsis-like syndrome, while no bacteria were detected in the body. We hypothesized that mitochondria (originating from saprophytic bacteria) damaged and released from the injured tissues may contain molecules that are recognized by the immuneologic system as
https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/4292/mitochondrial-damps-associated-immune-responses
*  New pattern-recognition receptor signalling modalities in vascular inflammation - The Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology
Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) such as toll-like receptors (TLR) are microbial and damage sensors that shape tissue-specific inflammatory responses. TLRs in cardio-vascular tissues and diseases (CVD) are expressed by a variety of vascular and immune cell types in the vessel wall. TLRs have a very similar signaling modality to IL-1. Very recently an IL-1beta cytokine blocker has been shown to lower cardiovascular risks in patients surviving a heart attack, opening the way to a whole new range of therapeutic approaches targeting inflammation in cardiovascular disease, a major killer worldwide. Our group has demonstrated that TLRs situated on the extracellular membrane such as TLR2 (1-2) are pro-atherogenic but the TLRs placed inside the cell such as TLR3 and TLR7 protect against atherogenesis and arterial injury (4). TLR signaling can either be protective or detrimental in atherosclerosis depending on the sensing (extracellular vs. endosomal) compartment. The aim of this ...
https://www.kennedy.ox.ac.uk/study-with-us/kennedy-trust-prize-studentships/projects/new_pattern-recognition_receptor_signalling_modalities_in_vascular_inflammation
*  Research projects
Innate immunity employs Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nod-like receptors (NLRs), both families of so-called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), to detect a variety of different exogenous and endogenous insults. Exogenous insults include bacteria, viruses and fungi.. Upon engagement of their cognate microbe-derived molecular ligands, PRRs initiate distinct intracellular signalling pathways via receptor-proximal adaptor molecules, and subsequent NF-kB- and IRF-mediated gene transcription activates immediate innate immune responses and primes adaptive immunity. Since the discovery of human TLRs in 1997, other families of mainly cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) have been described, for example, the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), Nod/NACHT-LRR-like receptors (NLRs) and AIM2-like receptors (ALRs). Together with TLRs, these PRR fulfill the important function of immune surveillance in the innate immune system and mark the first line ...
http://www.immunology-tuebingen.de/groups/alexander-nr-weber/research-projects.html
*  5: Virulence Factors that Promote Colonization - Biology LibreTexts
Virulence factors are molecules expressed and secreted by that enable them to colonize the host, evade or inhibit the immune responses of the host, enter into or out of a host cell, and/or obtain …
https://bio.libretexts.org/TextMaps/Map%3A_Microbiology_
*  The Role of NOD-like Receptors in Recognition of Pathogen-associated Molecular Patterns of Infectious Pathogens and in...
The Role of NOD-like Receptors in Recognition of Pathogen-associated Molecular Patterns of Infectious Pathogens and in Development of Inflammation
http://childshealth.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/89939
*  Stress perception and transduction at the plasma membrane
The plasma membrane (PM) represents a boundary of plants to sense changes in their biotic and abiotic environment. The PM is therefore the place of plants to recognise stress or potentially harmful conditions. Plant colonising microbes are recognised by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) at the PM. These PRRs perceive, in a highly specific manner, microbial molecules such as bacterial flagellin or fungal chitin, which are defined as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Upon recognition, PRRs apparently share various signalling pathways to trigger plant immune responses resulting in biotic stress adaptation (Fig. 3). Research in my lab revealed that plants do not necessarily distinguish between microbial life styles and besides pathogens, beneficial microbes depend on immunosuppressive strategies to colonise plants. In deed, we observed a broad immunosuppressive activity exerted by the mutualist Piriformospora indica to colonise ...
https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/lifesci/research/mutualsymb/biotrophy/
*  Секция морфология на микроорганизмите и електронна микроскопия
Публикации. Tropcheva R., Lesev N., Danova S., Stoitsova S., Kaloyanova S. , 2015. Novel cyanine and homodimeric styryl dyas as fluorescent probes for assessment of lactic acid bacteria cell viability. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1011134415000068 Doumanov J.; Mladenova K.; Topouzova-Hristova T.; Stoitsova S.; Petrova S., 2015. Vipoxin and its components affect proliferation and cell death in HepG2 cells, Toxicon 94, 36-44. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2014.12.009. PMID: 25534906. Stoitsova S., Paunova-Krasteva Ts., Pavlova V., Nikolova E., 2014. Stimulated gut differentiation and the risks of bacterial infection. Compt. rend. Acad. bulg. Sci. 67(2), 211-216. Paunova-Krasteva Ts., Pavlova V., DeCastro C., Ivanova R., Molinaro A., Nikolova E., Stoitsova S., 2014. Cyclic enterobacterial common antigens from Escherichia coli O157 as microbe-associated molecular patterns. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 60, 173-176. Doi ...
http://obuch.info/sekciya-morfologiya-na-mikroorganizmite-i-elektronna-mikroskop-v2.html
*  Innate & Adaptive Immune Responses - QIAGEN
The innate immune system initially recognizes pathogens via both the complement system and pattern recognition receptors. The complement system, also part of humoral immunity, is a family of proteins that recognize and bind pathogens, marking them for phagocytosis. Pattern recognition receptors include 3 families of receptors (toll-like, NOD-like, and RIG-I-like), each of which initiate the type I interferon response upon activation by specific pathogen classes. This interferon response activates adaptive immunity, a major part of cell-mediated immunity including B cells and T cells. The conclusion of adaptive immunity results in memory T cells, which express receptors for antigens, and memory B cells, which produce antibodies to recognize pathogens. These cells allow the adaptive immune system to mount a stronger response upon the next exposure to the pathogen. Innate and adaptive immunity were originally thought to be two separate arms of ...
https://www.qiagen.com/ca/shop/genes-and-pathways/complete-biology-list/innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses/
*  Innate & Adaptive Immune Responses - QIAGEN
The innate immune system initially recognizes pathogens via both the complement system and pattern recognition receptors. The complement system, also part of humoral immunity, is a family of proteins that recognize and bind pathogens, marking them for phagocytosis. Pattern recognition receptors include 3 families of receptors (toll-like, NOD-like, and RIG-I-like), each of which initiate the type I interferon response upon activation by specific pathogen classes. This interferon response activates adaptive immunity, a major part of cell-mediated immunity including B cells and T cells. The conclusion of adaptive immunity results in memory T cells, which express receptors for antigens, and memory B cells, which produce antibodies to recognize pathogens. These cells allow the adaptive immune system to mount a stronger response upon the next exposure to the pathogen. Innate and adaptive immunity were originally thought to be two separate arms of ...
https://www.qiagen.com/cn/shop/genes-and-pathways/complete-biology-list/innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses/
*  Leicester Research Archive: The roles of pathogen-associated molecular patterns in atherosclerosis.
Stimulation of Toll-like receptors, which serve to initiate inflammatory signaling in response to the detection of conserved microbial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), has been shown to play a central role in the development of atherosclerosis. In this review, the recent evidence supporting a role for both infection- and commensal-derived PAMPs in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis will be discussed. Potential sources of PAMPs, their routes of delivery to the artery wall and the mechanisms by which PAMPs may affect vascular function independently of bacteremia or infection of the artery wall with viable organisms will be examined. Finally, the recent evidence that obesity and high-fat diets may each promote translocation of commensal-derived endotoxin from the gut into the circulation to induce inflammation, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis will be discussed ...
https://lra.le.ac.uk/handle/2381/17636