###### Spreading of mood in social networks | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

Appendix A.

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/282/1813/20151180/**Likelihood****functions**. The following**likelihood****function**was constructed for the development of the 'depressive ... Appendix A outlines the construction of the**likelihood****functions**used in the fitting process. Competing models were assessed ... An equivalent**likelihood****function**was constructed for the 'recovery from depressive symptoms' scenario:. with yk corresponding ... by minimizing the negative log-**likelihood**-log(L) with respect to p and q using the MATLAB fmincon().**function**. Confidence ...###### Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

Model fits were estimated using maximum

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1735/2012.full**likelihood**(ML) with a logit-link**function**. Pungency was determined by tasting in the ... b) The proportion of pungent plants in each population increases as a**function**of precipitation (r2 = 0.83, F1,19 = 100.5, p ≪ ... which**function**concomitantly or even synergistically [20,21]. Such interactions make it difficult to ascribe fitness ...###### A quantitative test of the relationship between parasite dose and infection probability across different host-parasite...

The

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1636/853**likelihood****functions**defined above were programmed in the R language (R Development Core Team 2005), and maximum-**likelihood**... The**likelihood****function**for all three models can be defined as,. (2.6) ... These dynamics are described by the following population survival**function**:. (2.5). This survival**function**for the ... The optimization of the**likelihood**is technically easier done on its logarithm, the log**likelihood**,. (2.7) ...###### Trophic cascade: apex predator to soil | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

Rainfall events

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1854/20170111**function**as a 'trigger' for 'pulses' of plant growth. Flows of wind and water 'transfer' materials and ... 2006 A better lemon squeezer? Maximum-**likelihood**regression with beta-distributed dependent variables. Psychol. Methods 11, 54 ... Models were performed using the lme and lmer**functions**from the 'nlme' package [38] and 'lme4' package [39], respectively. A ... We fitted a beta regression model to predict the proportion of dingo scats containing kangaroo as a**function**of kangaroo ...###### Speciation along a depth gradient in a marine adaptive radiation | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological...

This

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/278/1705/613**function**is used to calculate the**likelihood**of ψ and given X, λ, μ, and the tree [30,35]. ... where X is the vector of species means and 1 is a column vector of ones [35]. The**likelihood****function**is the multivariate ... To calculate the**likelihoods**of values of ψ and , I first calculated the phylogenetic variance-covariance matrix V for the ... Results of**likelihood**analysis of speciational versus gradual evolution. ML estimates of and ψ are shown for each character. ...###### Ecological correlates of extra-group paternity in mammals | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

Models were fit using restricted maximum

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/274/1607/219**likelihood**, GLS analyses were carried out using the**function**gls. in the nlme. package ... using**likelihood**-ratio tests to see if including phylogeny improved model fit (Pagel 1997; Pinheiro & Bates 2000).**Likelihood**- ... 2002 Extra pair paternity in birds: a review of interspecific variation and adaptive**function**. Mol. Ecol. 11, 2195-2212. doi: ...###### Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

d) Cumulative survival

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/280/1771/20131691.short**functions**for Orco1 females.**Likelihood**ratio tests revealed no significant difference in remating ... b) Cumulative survival**functions**for wild-type females.**Likelihood**ratio tests revealed a significant difference in remating ... 1975 Individual odor differences and their social**functions**in insects. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 7, 2824-2828. (doi:10.1073/ ... The survival curves were compared using the**likelihood**ratio test. We used a general LM to test the difference in remating ...###### History of Plumage Carotenoids | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

Furthermore, each family MRCA has a proportional

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/281/1788/20140806**likelihood**for plumage carotenoids, although we note that these**likelihood**...**function**in the 'ape' package [31]; hidden rates reconstructions were calculated using the 'corHMM'**function**in the 'corHMM' ... nodes had proportional**likelihood**values that were more than 0.5. Nodes with high proportional**likelihoods**for carotenoid- ... proportional**likelihoods**for (0) and (1) were the sum of proportional**likelihoods**in each rate category. ...###### Sexual isolation through imprinting | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

... as well as father behaviour in a generalized linear model with a binomial distribution and logit link

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/278/1718/2604**function**with family as a ... We tested the significance of interactions between father traits and mate species using**likelihood**ratio tests. Mate throat ... an ethological analysis of cranial nerve**functions**regarding nest fanning activity and the zigzag dance. Behaviour 86, 100-166 ... Significance was determined via**likelihood**ratio tests. We included as fixed factors the father's identity (conspecific, ...###### Microscale laser surgery reveals adaptive **function** of male intromittent genitalia | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London...

The null hypothesis of equal mating frequency between experimental categories was evaluated with a

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2010/01/05/rspb.2009.1720**likelihood**ratio test, ... 2001**Function**of the mating plug in Drosophila hibisci Bock. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 49, 196-205. (doi:10.1007/s002650000281). ... Microscale laser surgery reveals adaptive**function**of male intromittent genitalia Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Thus, the current view being promulgated is that the genital spines in D. bipectinata and related Drosophila species**function**...###### Continental Carnivore Radiation | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

In Carnivoran evolution: new views on phylogeny, form, and

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/282/1817/20151952**function**(eds A Goswami, AR Friscia), pp. 311-341. Cambridge, UK: ... of diversification can also derive from increased extinction as population sizes diminish thus increasing the**likelihood**of ... it can be modelled as a non-homogeneous Poisson process in which the rate parameter is a**function**of time and the expected ... can experiment with different forms and**functions**. ...###### Cooperative breeding and monogamy | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

2009 Structure and

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1736/2151**function**in mammalian societies. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 364, 3229-3242. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0120 (doi: ...**Likelihoods**for all different models were estimated using 25 optimization attempts per run. Significance of results was ... The tree was pruned to match the species in the dataset using**functions**of the package 'APE' [26] in R. Reconstruction of ... Models assuming a dependent model were considered significant at α = 0.05 if the respective**likelihood**was 4.75 lower than the ...###### Electroreception in the Guiana dolphin | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

1995 Structure and

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2011/07/21/rspb.2011.1127**function**of the vibrissae of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida). In Sensory systems of aquatic mammals (eds ... We therefore suggest that the electroreceptors on the dolphin's rostrum maximize the**likelihood**of close distance prey ... Like the gel in ampullary electroreceptors of fish, it is rich in glycoproteins and thus could**function**as an electrically ... we developed the hypothesis that the vibrissal crypts**function**as electroreceptors. We tested this hypothesis in a ...###### Ecological drivers of influenza in birds | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

... using Laplace approximation of the maximum-

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2011/09/09/rspb.2011.1417**likelihood**and a logit link**function**. We used an information-theoretic procedure and ... For each model i, we computed the Akaike weight (ωi) which can be interpreted as the**likelihood**that model i is the best model ... Models were run with the 'glmer'**function**in the 'lme4' package in the R environment, ... were considered as cyclic and were modelled using a cosine**function**of the form logit(prevalence) = a + cos(2πt/365). All the ...###### Thermal plasticity of quail bills | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

... and all models were fitted using a restricted maximum-

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/280/1767/20131436**likelihood****function**in JMP v. 10.0 (JMP, v. 10. SAS Institute Inc., Cary ... We tested whether the bill and tarsus of Japanese quail exhibit plasticity in growth and**function**in response to the post-hatch ... It remains unknown whether bill size and thermal**function**are reversibly plastic. We raised Japanese quail in warm (30°C) or ... parallels the morphological trends in terms of thermoregulatory**function**, but also retains a signal of the environmental ...###### Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

Figure 5 shows the results of the simulations (PACC, HACC and HREJ) as a

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2011/12/06/rspb.2011.2047.short?rss=1**function**of p, the probability of parasite detection ... In every case, as p increases, and with it the**likelihood**of multiple parasitism, acceptors enjoy increasingly higher own egg ...**function**describing the loss to a host's reproductive output caused by rearing a given number of parasite nestlings. Simply put ... while some fraction occurs with a lower**likelihood**per day during incubation, as is the case for shiny cowbirds parasitizing ...###### Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

... vaginal morphologies of waterfowl

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/12/18/rspb.2009.2139.short?rss=1**function**in physically restricting forced intromission and reducing consequent**likelihood**of ... In Form and**function**in birds (eds King A. S., McLelland J.), pp. 107-148. New York, NY: Academic Press. ... The two spiral tubes we used differ only in the chirality of the spiral, supporting an antagonistic**function**for vaginal ... The curved, flexible penis of male waterfowl apparently**functions**in the navigation of the inside of the folded female vagina ...###### Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

However, we do know that because of anisogamy, male preference

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/276/1659/1083.long**functions**may diverge from female preference**functions**: under ... 1993 Generalized linear mixed models-a pseudo-**likelihood**approach. J. Statist. Comput. Simulation. 48, 233-243. doi:10.1080/ ... Information theory and an extension of the maximum**likelihood**principle. In Proceedings of the second international sumposium ... All analyses were performed using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) with restricted maximum-**likelihood**(REML) estimation ...###### Resource availability and fitness traits | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

Generalized mixed effects models using the 'glmer'

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/282/1817/20151279**function**with a binomial error distribution and logit link**function**in the ' ... Non-significant factors were removed from the model and tests of significance were based on**likelihood**-ratio tests following a ... 2003 Carotenoid modulation of immune**function**and sexual attractiveness in zebra finches. Science 300, 125-127. (doi:10.1126/ ... In detail, linear mixed effects models were fitted using the 'lme'**function**of the 'nlme' package. Models were constructed ...###### Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination reduces the severity and progression of tuberculosis in badgers | Proceedings of the Royal...

The purpose of the analyses was to identify any effect of vaccination on the

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2010/11/24/rspb.2010.1953**likelihood**that an individual would change its ... The binomial data were analysed using a generalized linear model with a logit (log odds ratio) link**function**and binomial ... IM BCG in free-living, wild badgers significantly reduced their**likelihood**of yielding a positive result to a serological test ... errors, fitted by maximum quasi-**likelihood**with provision for over-dispersion (i.e. greater than expected binomial variability ...###### Antibody-mediated malaria vaccines | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

When fitting the model using Hill

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/278/1710/1298**functions**, an exponential**function**was retained for the LSA-1 dose-response curve as this was ... For individuals infected in the trial, the**likelihood**of them developing infection at time ti is ɛbi e−ɛbi(ti−tL) while for ... For a Hill**function**, dose-response in individual i with antibody titre to antigen j of xij, the probability that a sporozoite ... 95 per cent CI were estimated by calculating the inverse hessian of the log-**likelihood**surface at the maximum-**likelihood**...###### Genetic variation and covariation of susceptibility to parasitoids in the aphid Myzus persicae: no evidence for trade-offs |...

We used this approach that is provided by the pvals.fnc

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1638/1089**function**in the languageR library of R. The same**function**also provides ... We therefore tested their significance by running models with and without the effects and calculating**likelihood**ratio ...###### Vertical transmission as the key to the colonization of Madagascar by fungus-growing termites? | Proceedings of the Royal...

... by using the penalized

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/277/1680/359**likelihood****function**implemented on the program r8s v. 1.7 (Sanderson 2002). The analysis was based on ... 2002 Estimating absolute rates of molecular evolution and divergence times: a penalized**likelihood**approach. Mol. Biol. Evol. ... Long-distance dispersal is a stochastic process and the**likelihood**that the disperser arrives, survives and reproduces to ... Stationarity was confirmed by analysis of the log**likelihoods**and the consistency between runs. ...###### SIV transmission in a primate population | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

The

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2012/06/01/rspb.2012.0963**likelihood**of any model is the product of the probability of the individual histories and written as a**function**of the ... Yet, understanding the**functioning**of pathogen populations and that of their hosts within an ecosystem is crucial for ... For rM, we assumed that the frequency of mating in males was a Gaussian**function**:. ... Because we had access to quasi-exhaustive data on the SIVmnd-1 status of each individual, the**likelihood**of each transmission ...###### A seasnake's colour affects its susceptibility to algal fouling | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological...

d) Survival rates as a

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2010/04/06/rspb.2010.0255**function**of snake colour. We used the program MARK (White & Burnham 1999) to estimate survival rates of ...**Likelihood**ratio tests from a logistic regression with algal score as the dependent variable showed significant annual ... 2004 The evolution, maintenance and adaptive**function**of genetic colour polymorphism in birds. Biol. Rev. 79, 815-848. (doi: ... d) Survival rates as a**function**of snake colour. Our mark-recapture data reveal temporal stability in morph frequencies; the ...