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Hypocotyl images were captured with a Nikon dissecting microscope, and the hypocotyl length was measured with ImageJ software. ... Hypocotyl elongation was induced by 0.5 to 50 μM IAA but was completely unaffected by oxIAA, even at high concentrations (up to ... Root and Hypocotyl Elongation Assays. To determine the effects of auxin on root elongation, 5-d-old Arabidopsis Col-0 seedlings ... To further explore the activity of oxIAA in vivo, we examined the effect of the compound on root and hypocotyl elongation in ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/25/10/3858
*  Dual Role of TOC1 in the Control of Circadian and Photomorphogenic Responses in Arabidopsis | Plant Cell
We next examined the possible involvement of TOC1 in the light-dependent control of hypocotyl growth. Hypocotyl length was ... and long hypocotyls (data not shown). These results exclude the possibility that the long-hypocotyl phenotypes are attributable ... A) to (F) Inhibition of hypocotyl extension at the indicated intensities of blue light (BL; [A] and [B]), red light (RL; [C] ... For hypocotyl length analysis, seeds were stratified on 3% Suc- Murashige and Skoog (1962) plates in the dark at 4°C for 4 days ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/15/1/223?ijkey=aa7c1b366e03597974a75668efc0df92f528635e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
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A) Hypocotyl growth inhibition under hourly pulses of FR. One-day-old seedlings of wild type Columbia (Col), of the pks1, pks2 ... Three days later, hypocotyl length was measured to the nearest 0.5 mm with a ruler in the 10 longest seedlings of the 15 sown ... The pks1 hypocotyl growth phenotype under pulses of FR is consistent with this view (Figure 6). Moreover, the ring-like ... In the hypocotyl, PKS1 RNA and protein accumulation are maintained only under prolonged incubation in far-red light, the ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/15/12/2966
*  SPINDLY and GIGANTEA Interact and Act in Arabidopsis thaliana Pathways Involved in Light Responses, Flowering, and Rhythms in...
The Effect of spy-4 and gi-2 on Hypocotyl Elongation.. Hypocotyl length, mean ± se (n ≥ 15), of 6-d-old seedlings grown in ... When grown under red light, gi-2 seedlings have a long hypocotyl (Huq et al., 2000; Figure 3). The hypocotyl length of both spy ... The effects of spy on hypocotyl length are complex. spy decreases hypocotyl length in the dark and increases it under far-red ... When grown under red light, gi-2 plants have a long hypocotyl. This hypocotyl phenotype was suppressed in spy-4 gi-2 double ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/16/6/1550.full
*  RPT2 Is a Signal Transducer Involved in Phototropic Response and Stomatal Opening by Association with Phototropin 1 in...
We suppose that both RPT2 and NPH3 are expressed in hypocotyls and RPT2 in guard cells. We confirmed the expression of RPT2 and ... Our data show that RPT2 mRNA was expressed at almost the same level in hypocotyls and guard cells (Figures 6A and 6B). RPT2 ... We collected hypocotyls 1-cm long under cotyledons. To check the transcriptional level in guard cells of mature leaves under ... Analyses by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene showed that RPT2 is expressed in hypocotyls and guard cells, as expected by its ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/16/4/887?ijkey=a5f6c6f779f5538135cc08740495b1468f36b930&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
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G) Hypocotyl (light gray) and root (dark gray) length measurements of 3-d-old dark-grown Col-0, ein5-1, xrn4-3, ctr1-1, ctr1-1 ... D) Hypocotyl (light gray) and root (dark gray) length measurements of 3-d-old dark-grown Col-0, ebf1-1 ebf2-1, ein5-1, and ein5 ... C) Hypocotyl (light gray) and root (dark gray) length measurements of 3-d-old dark grown Col-0, ein5-1, Col-0∷EBF1ox, and ein5- ... B) Hypocotyl (light gray) and root (dark gray) length measurements of 4-d-old dark-grown Col-0, xrn4-3, and ein5-1 seedlings ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/18/11/3047
*  A Reduced-Function Allele Reveals That EARLY FLOWERING3 Repressive Action on the Circadian Clock Is Modulated by Phytochrome...
C) Hypocotyl length of 7-d-old seedlings in DD and under ShD and Rc, respectively. Average hypocotyl length (±sd; cm). Mean ... Hypocotyl elongation growth is a developmental process that is diurnally regulated (Nozue et al., 2007). In the absence of ELF3 ... For hypocotyl assays, seedlings were grown from germination on Murashige and Skoog medium (2.2 g/L, pH 5.7) without Suc, as ... 2000). Independent action of ELF3 and phyB to control hypocotyl elongation and flowering time. Plant Physiol. 122: 1149-1160. ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/23/9/3230.long
*  The Embryo MADS Domain Protein AGAMOUS-Like 15 Directly Regulates Expression of a Gene Encoding an Enzyme Involved in...
h, hypocotyl; c, cotyledons. Bars in (A) to (D) and (H) = 100 μm; in (K) and (L) = 0.5 mm. ... Volmaro, C., Pontin, M., Luna, V., Baraldi, R., and Bottini, R. (1998). Blue light control of hypocotyl elongation in etiolated ... using petiole and hypocotyl length, and cotyledon epinasty (Fernandez et al., 2000). GUS activities of individual seedlings in ... hypocotyl explants, GA inhibits early stages of somatic embryogenesis, whereas uniconazole, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/16/5/1206?ijkey=a33e5a468e092da58210cff4068fdf5eca6dbe7e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
*  Alternative Splicing Substantially Diversifies the Transcriptome during Early Photomorphogenesis and Correlates with the Energy...
Subsequently, we determined hypocotyl lengths of seedlings grown in red light or darkness (Figure 3D). Median hypocotyl lengths ... D) Violin plots showing the distribution of the relative hypocotyl lengths measured in red light (∼10 µmol m−2 s−1) for rrc1-2 ... 2012b) and the role of RRC1 as a positive regulator of light signaling, rrc1-2 had longer hypocotyls than the wild type (Figure ... For hypocotyl assays, seeds were plated singly on plates without sucrose. After the initial 2 h light exposure, plates were ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/28/11/2715.long
*  Cellular and Subcellular Localization of Phototropin 1 | Plant Cell
As with the hypocotyl, the fluorescence signal in roots was strongest in the elongation zone (Figures 2D and 3E) and much ... The fluence rate used (2 μmol·m−2·s−1) is insufficient to induce phot2-mediated hypocotyl curvature (Sakai et al., 2001). ... As shown in Figure 3D, phot1 was found at both apical and basal ends of the cortical cells in the etiolated hypocotyl. ... Like the etiolated hypocotyl, the growing inflorescence stem shows a positive phototropic response to unilateral light (Fukaki ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/14/8/1723?ijkey=18c028b40d0b78ba681b436afc36f743511ef953&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
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4-DB inhibited elongation of wild-type and control hypocotyls. By contrast, the hypocotyls of PNC1/2 RNAi seedlings exhibited ... Root and Hypocotyl Growth Response to IBA and 2,4-DB.. (A) Effect of IBA and 2,4-DB on primary root elongation. Seedlings of ... Hypocotyl cells were visualized by microscopy. A and C, bright-field images; B and D, Nile Red fluorescence. Bars = 35 μm. ... B) Effect of IBA and 2,4-DB on elongation of hypocotyls in the dark. Seedlings of two representative PNC1/2 RNAi lines and of ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/20/12/3241
*  A Gain-of-Function Mutation in IAA28 Suppresses Lateral Root Development | Plant Cell
Roots (B) and hypocotyls (C) were measured after 5 days (1 day in the light, 4 days in the dark) for dark-grown plants and ... Roots and hypocotyls of dark-grown seedlings were measured after 1 day in light followed by 4 days in darkness. Root hairs were ... 1982). Isolation of cloned cDNAs to auxin-responsive poly(A)+ RNAs of elongating soybean hypocotyl. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ... 1998). High temperature promotes auxin-mediated hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 7197-7202. ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/13/3/465?ijkey=2aed3932ce579735f362a9ac5d59678d8a120870&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
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LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY; At1g01060), PHYTOCHROME A (PHYA; At1g09570), ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3; At3g20770), RGA-LIKE3 ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/23/9/3101
*  Genome Sequencing of Arabidopsis abp1-5 Reveals Second-Site Mutations That May Affect Phenotypes | Plant Cell
abp1-5 hypocotyls were significantly shorter than wild-type hypocotyls under Dc conditions (P ≤ 1 × 10−6) in two-tailed t tests ... abp1-5 hypocotyls were significantly longer than wild-type hypocotyls under Wc, Rc, and Bc conditions (P ≤ 0.005) in two-tailed ... reduced hypocotyl elongation in dark-grown seedlings (Paque et al., 2014), and long hypocotyls when grown under low red:far-red ... abp1-5 also displays shorter hypocotyls than the wild type when grown in darkness and longer hypocotyls than the wild type ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/27/7/1820.full
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D) Hypocotyl elongation of seedlings grown at 29°C is given in percentage relative to seedlings grown at 20°C. ... 1998). High temperature promotes auxin-mediated hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 7197-7202. ... A) to (D) Physiological auxin responses of 20 Arabidopsis accessions were determined in root growth inhibition and hypocotyl ... Root lengths were quantified after an additional 5 d (IAA) or 3 d (2,4-D and NAA). Hypocotyl growth was quantified in seedlings ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/22/7/2184
*  Analysis of Transcription Factor HY5 Genomic Binding Sites Revealed Its Hierarchical Role in Light Regulation of Development |...
Ethylene Promotes Hypocotyl Growth and HY5 Degradation by Enhancing the Movement of COP1 to the Nucleus in the Light ... COP1 conveys warm temperature information to hypocotyl thermomorphogenesis. Young-Joon Park, Hyo-Jun Lee, Jun-Ho Ha, Jae Young ... Sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in darkness depends on the presence of gibberellins ... The photomorphogenic factors UV-B RECEPTOR 1, ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5, and HY5 HOMOLOGUE are part of the UV-B signalling pathway ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/19/3/731/tab-article-info
*  Modulation of Phototropic Responsiveness in Arabidopsis through Ubiquitination of Phototropin 1 by the CUL3-Ring E3 Ubiquitin...
A) Hypocotyl phototropism in seedlings exposed to 4 h of low-intensity unilateral BL (0.1 μmol m−2 s−1). Col, the wild type. ... C) Hypocotyl phototropism in seedlings exposed to high-intensity unilateral BL (120 μmol m−2 s−1) for 2 (white bars), 4 (gray ... B) Hypocotyl gravitropism in etiolated seedlings. Seedlings were germinated and grown on agar-solidified 0.5× MS medium in ... CUL3 Function Is Necessary for Normal Hypocotyl Phototropism, but Not Gravitropism, in Arabidopsis. ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/23/10/3627?ijkey=c5db11999cc4cf8e0e3b9f573139cd850d83d2af&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
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Both dark- and light- grown mutant seedlings exhibit normal hypocotyl lengths, and apical hypocotyl hook morphology is normal ( ... they exhibit normal hypocotyl lengths as well as normal apical hypocotyl hook, root waving, and adult phenotypes (Figure 3A and ... Hypocotyl cantharidin sensitivity in pp2aa2-2 and pp2aa3-2 seedlings is normal (Figure 3D), as it is in pp2aa2-1 and pp2aa3-1 ... Hypocotyl diameters also were measured (B). The genotypes indicated were confirmed by PCR analysis of a randomly chosen subset ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/16/3/709
*  Arabidopsis Phytochrome A Is Modularly Structured to Integrate the Multiple Features That Are Required for a Highly Sensitized...
A) Hypocotyl lengths of seedlings grown under R (3.3 μmol/m2/s) for 5 d. The hypocotyl lengths are presented relative to the ... A) Hypocotyl lengths of seedlings grown under weak R (0.005 μmol/m2/s) for 5 d. The hypocotyl lengths are presented relative to ... A) Hypocotyl lengths of seedlings grown under continuous FR (18 μmol/m2/s) for 5 d. The hypocotyl lengths are presented ... Inhibition of Hypocotyl Elongation under Continuous R. phyB but not phyA is the primary photoreceptor mediating the hypocotyl ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/24/7/2949.full
*  Autophagy-Related Proteins Are Required for Degradation of Peroxisomes in Arabidopsis Hypocotyls during Seedling Growth | Plant...
Expression of ATG7 Is Induced in Hypocotyls but Not in Cotyledons. In contrast with the results we obtained with hypocotyl ... The atg7-2 hypocotyls after 3 DOI contained a higher level of ICL transcripts than did the wild-type hypocotyls. After 5 DOI, ... mainly in hypocotyls. Thus, we hypothesized that autophagy is induced in wild-type hypocotyls after ~5 DOI when the number of ... ICL was barely detectable in wild-type hypocotyls, and a higher level of ICL was detectable in atg7-2 and atg5-1 hypocotyls ( ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/25/12/4956.full
*  Plant Circadian Rhythms | Plant Cell
Dowson-Day, M.J., and Millar, A.J. (1999). Circadian dysfunction causes aberrant hypocotyl elongation patterns in Arabidopsis. ... and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY), playing roles in each loop. TOC1, the founding member of a family of pseudo-response ... Arabidopsis also exhibits a circadian rhythm in the rate of hypocotyl elongation (Dowson-Day and Millar, 1999) and in the ... The late elongated hypocotyl mutation of Arabidopsis disrupts circadian rhythms and the photoperiodic control of flowering. ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/18/4/792.full
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After 24 h, plants were washed with drug-free liquid one half MS medium; their leaves, hypocotyl, and roots were removed; and ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/31/7/1579
*  Role of a COP1 Interactive Protein in Mediating Light-Regulated Gene Expression in Arabidopsis | Plant Cell
A) Hypocotyl elongation under various light conditions. Twenty-five to 50 seedlings were grown for 5 days under far-red light ... Collected hypocotyls and cotyledons were ground using a mortar and pestle, and total RNA was extracted as described previously ... 1997). The Arabidopsis HY5 gene encodes a bZIP protein that regulates stimulus-induced development of root and hypocotyl. Genes ... Because antisense CIP7 plants have no effect on the light-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, we suggest that COP1 ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/10/7/1083?ijkey=3de24ae5dc41e133ae67d78ddea74c03ed129d31&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
*  Blue Light Receptors and Signal Transduction | Plant Cell
... for nonphototropic hypocotyl) that is impaired in both hypocotyl curvature and root curvature in response to light (Liscum and ... cry2 mutant seedlings developed long hypocotyls (Lin et al., 1998). The long-hypocotyl phenotype of cry2 mutants is relatively ... Because the hypocotyl inhibition response is easy to monitor and measure, it has become the most widely used assay in the study ... In addition to hypocotyl inhibition, cryptochromes have also been shown to mediate blue light regulation of other aspects of de ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/14/suppl_1/S207.full?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&author1=lin&andorexacttitle=and&andorexacttitleabs=and&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT
*  The A-Type Cyclin CYCA2;3 Is a Key Regulator of Ploidy Levels in Arabidopsis Endoreduplication | Plant Cell
Gendreau, E., Traas, J., Desnos, T., Grandjean, O., Caboche, M., and Hofte, H. (1997). Cellular basis of hypocotyl growth in ... Unlike in cotyledons and first leaves, the ploidy level in etiolated hypocotyls was not affected significantly by the mutation ... Phytochrome controls the number of endoreduplication cycles in the Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl. Plant J. 13, 221-230. ... the ploidy levels of Arabidopsis hypocotyls vary depending on growth conditions, with levels of 2C to 8C under normal light ...
http://www.plantcell.org/content/18/2/382?iss=2