Testing the hardness of water- Learn Chemistry
Soap solution is used to measure the hardness of rain water, temporarily hard water and sea-water. The effect of boiling the ... Testing the hardness of water. Class practical. Soap solution. is used to measure the hardness. of rain water. , temporarily ... whether sea water contains permanent hardness, temporary hardness or a mixture of both.. ... not to overcome hardness. This volume should be subtracted from the other volumes before the relative hardnesses are compared. ...http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/resource/res00000426/
Advances in anti-scale magnetic water treatment - Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology (RSC Publishing) DOI:10...
4. Water hardness. Water hardness comes from the reaction between multivalent cations (e.g. Ca2+ and Mg2+) and anions (e.g. HCO ... Table 2 shows a grouping of water by concentration of dissolved salts and degree of hardness. Table 2 Hardness levels of water ... The efficiency of MF treatment increases with hardness of water.87 Donaldson and Grimes,3 on the other hand, reported that at ... The results of an approach to handle the hardness ion effect on bitumen extraction have been described by Amiri.84 The author ...http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2015/ew/c5ew00052a?page=search
Practical Chemistry resources from the Nuffield Foundation - Learn Chemistry
The hardness, melting point... Teacher 14 to 16 years Subjects: Practical chemistry,Industrial... ...http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/resource/listing?searchtext=&fcategory=all&filter=all&reference=nuffpract&Keyword=KCN00000009
The generalized maximum hardness principle revisited and applied to atoms and molecules - Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics ...
... we revisit the Maximum Hardness Principle (MHP), formulated by Pearson in 1987, and an equivalent Minimum Polarizability ... The generalized maximum hardness principle revisited and applied to atoms and molecules W. Grochala, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., ... The generalized maximum hardness principle revisited and applied to atoms and molecules ... In this perspective contribution, we revisit the Maximum Hardness Principle (MHP), formulated by Pearson in 1987, and an ...http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2017/cp/c7cp03101g/unauth
Robust PEDOT films by covalent bonding to substrates using in tandem sol-gel, surface initiated free-radical and redox...
Film hardness was determined according to ASTM D 3363-00 standard test method for film hardness by pencil test. 4. Conclusion. ... The film hardness, evaluated by a pencil test (ASTM D 3363-00), was found higher than 6H, while that of the PEDOT/PSS films was ... The resulting films show superior adhesion, solvent resistance and hardness. Consequently, it was also demonstrated that their ... Finally, VDOT-EDOT films were evaluated for their electrical conductivity, adhesion and hardness in comparison to PEDOT/PSS ...https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2012/JM/C1JM12563J
Carbon - Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table
Its hardness and inert nature suggest applications as protective coatings against abrasion, chemical corrosion and radiation ...http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/6/carbon
Amorphous polyphosphate, a smart bioinspired nano-/bio-material for bone and cartilage regeneration: towards a new paradigm in...
Basically as expected and also intended, the hardness dropped during a ,5 d incubation period. The cells showed distinct ... and restored the hardness of the new tissue to normal. It might be noted that the regeneration capacity of these particles is, ...https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2018/tb/c8tb00241j
Molybdenum - Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table
It is used in steel alloys to increase strength, hardness, electrical conductivity and resistance to corrosion and wear. These ...http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/42/molybdenum
Mechanical properties of anhydrous oxalic acid and oxalic acid dihydrate - Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (RSC Publishing)
The three forms of oxalic acid are highly anisotropic ductile materials having low hardness and bulk moduli. The three ... ductility and hardness indices, and mechanical anisotropy values of these materials were reported. ...https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/cp/c8cp07188h/unauth
Joint Earth Science Education Initiative - limestone weathering- Learn Chemistry
The activity can lead onto subsequent investigations into testing other properties of rocks, such as hardness, permeability and ...http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/resource/res00000486/limestone-weathering?cmpid=CMP00000556
Light triggered self-healing of polyacrylate polymers crosslinked with 7-methacryloyoxycoumarin crosslinker - Polymer Chemistry...
Hardness tests were used as a measure of the mechanical properties of the cross-linked polymer films, both before and after ...http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2017/py/c7py01385j
Curriculum for Excellence Early to Second level guide- Learn Chemistry
... hardness, shiny appearance, can be moulded. The sources of some of the Earth's resources can be explored e.g. wood, soil, water ... hardness, texture, smell, shape, weight/mass). The basic properties of metals can be explored and related to their uses e.g. ... hardness, resistance to water). This is further developed in SCN 1-15a, where learners explore a more extensive range of ...http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/resource/res00002239/curriculum-for-excellence-early-to-second-level-guide
Superhard-driven search of the covalent network in the B3NO system - RSC Advances (RSC Publishing)
The search for new superhard materials with a Vickers hardness larger than 40 GPa remains a considerable experimental and ... Further hardness calculations showed that the two structures are superhard materials with a Vickers hardness above 45 GPa, ... The search for new superhard materials with a Vickers hardness larger than 40 GPa remains a considerable experimental and ...http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2015/ra/c5ra02606g/unauth
Exploring physical and chemical properties in new multifunctional indium-, bismuth-, and zinc-based 1D and 2D coordination...
... hardness and elasticity). The solid-state photoluminescence (SSPL) properties were also studied in terms of excitation, ...http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2017/dt/c7dt04287f
In-situ Eutectic Remelting and Oxide Replacement Reaction to Superior Thermoelectric Performance of InSb - Journal of Materials...
Moreover, the Vickers hardness of InSb also increases largely (~210 Hv) deriving from the strengthening effects by introduced ...https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2018/ta/c8ta04876b/unauth
A preliminary investigation to group disparate batches of licit and illicit diazepam tablets using differential scanning...
Cases J/K, M/O and L/P could be paired on visual appearance and Cases B/C/E/G and J/K/L/P on tablet hardness (17-23 and 80-89 N ... weight and hardness), drug type, drug quantity (HPLC) and thermal properties (DSC). Raw DSC data was further processed using ...https://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2015/AY/C5AY01711D
The effect of gel structure on the in vitro digestibility of wheat starch-Mesona chinensis polysaccharide gels - Food &...
... to be the most effective polysaccharide in reducing wheat starch digestion in comparison to starch gels of similar hardness ... to be the most effective polysaccharide in reducing wheat starch digestion in comparison to starch gels of similar hardness ...https://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/FO/2019/C8FO01501E
Shape-memory effect in an organosuperelastic crystal - Chemical Science (RSC Publishing) DOI:10.1039/C5SC04057D
As the temperature increased, Young's modulus (E), which concerns the elastic hardness of a solid, changed from 0.5 GPa at −30 ... resulting in getting a tentative hardness of the β phase crystal with an increase in the tolerance toward crystal compression ...http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2015/sc/c5sc04057d
Statistical generation of training sets for measuring NO 3 − , NH 4 + and major ions in natural waters using an ion selective...
... hardness (Mg2+ and Ca2+), NH4+, and NO3−. Sensors marketed for the measurement of CO32− and SO43− were also purchased and used ...http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2016/em/c6em00043f?page=search
Atomic/molecular layer deposited thin-film alloys of Ti-4,4′-oxydianiline hybrid-TiO2 with tunable properties - Dalton...
... and hardness depending on the relative number of TiO2 and Ti-ODA cycles employed. ...http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2012/DT/c2dt31026k
Study on a reliable epoxy-based phase change material: facile preparation, tunable properties, and phase/microphase separation...
Phase change and mechanical properties characterized by DSC, DMA, hardness test, and tensile test can be easily tuned by ...http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2017/ta/c7ta02816d
Molybdenum sulfide hydrogen evolution catalysts - Chemical Science Blog
Transition metals are known for their ability to conduct electricity, their hardness, high density, malleability (a material ...http://blogs.rsc.org/sc/2011/04/14/molybdenum-sulfide-hydrogen-evolution-catalysts/
What ions cause hardness in water?- Learn Chemistry
What ions cause hardness in water?. Class practical. Hardness. in water indicates an inability to form a lather. with soap ... What ions cause hardness in water? Description. In this experiment the effect of dissolved salts, containing several different ... Hardness of water is usually attributed to calcium and magnesium salts but any cation with two or more charges can cause it (eg ... Intermediate students should be able to track the cause of hardness down to these cations and say that the anions make no ...http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/resource/res00001788/what-ions-cause-hardness-in-water?cmpid=CMP00005298
Titration screen experiment- Learn Chemistry
The titration screen experiment is an interactive resource which allows you to run your own experiment. Each of the four levels take approximately 30 minutes to complete and are designed to be used as pre-lab activities in class or as homework.http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/resource/res00002077/titration-screen-experiment
Key stage 2 Welsh national curriculum guide- Learn Chemistry
Compare and group together everyday materials on the basis of their properties, including hardness, solubility, transparency, ...http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/resource/res00002380/key-stage-2-welsh-national-curriculum-guide