*  "Deciphering the Multi-tiered Regulatory Network That Links Cyclic-di-G" by Xiaochen Yuan
Bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger that regulates multiple cellular behaviors in most major bacterial phyla. C-di-GMP signaling in bacterial often includes enzymes that are responsible for the synthesis and degradation of c-di-GMP, effector proteins or molecules that bind c-di-GMP, and targets that interact with effectors. However, little is known about the specificity of c-di-GMP signaling in controlling virulence and bacterial behaviors. In this work, we have investigated the c-di-GMP signaling network using the model plant pathogen Dickeya dadantii 3937. In Chapter 2, we characterized two PilZ domain proteins that regulate biofilm formation, swimming motility, Type III secretion system (T3SS) gene expression, and pectate lyase production in high c-di-GMP level conditions. YcgR3937 binds c-di-GMP both in vivo and in vitro. Next, we revealed a sophisticated regulatory network that connects the sRNA, c-di-GMP ...
*  Riboswitches in Eubacteria Sense the Second Messenger Cyclic Di-GMP | Science
Cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (di-GMP) is a circular RNA dinucleotide that functions as a second messenger in diverse species of bacteria to trigger wide-ranging physiological changes, including cell differentiation, conversion between motile and biofilm lifestyles, and virulence gene expression. However, the mechanisms by which cyclic di-GMP regulates gene expression have remained a mystery. We found that cyclic di-GMP in many bacterial species is sensed by a riboswitch class in messenger RNA that controls the expression of genes involved in numerous fundamental cellular processes. A variety of cyclic di-GMP regulons are revealed, including some riboswitches associated with virulence gene expression, pilus formation, and flagellum biosynthesis. In addition, sequences matching the consensus for cyclic di-GMP riboswitches are present in the genome of a bacteriophage. ...
*  Plus it
Cells of the murine neuroblastoma clone N1E-115 possess muscarinic receptors that influence the intracellular level of cyclic nucleotides. The stimulation of [3H]cyclic GMP levels occurs only with intact cells and has an EC50 near the "low-affinity" agonist equilibrium dissociation constant (KL) determined by radioligand binding assays. The inhibition of prostaglandin E1-stimulated [3H]cyclic AMP formation has an EC50 close to the value for the "high-affinity" agonist equilibrium dissociation constant (KH). During sequential subculturing in medium supplemented with newborn bovine serum, the inhibition of [3H]cyclic AMP was maintained, but the [3H]cyclic GMP response declined dramatically, and after 7 subculturings it was essentially absent. The time course for [3H]cyclic GMP formation in a late subculture with an 88% loss of the response was identical with the time course in early subcultures. A normal [3H]cyclic GMP response to bradykinin and histamine was demonstrated to be present in cells ...
*  cGMP Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Peptide 82801-73-8 Chemical Properties Physical Properties
cGMP Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Peptide chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of cGMP Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Peptide 82801-73-8, What are the physical properties of cGMP Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Peptide ect.
*  Plus it
The effects of acetylcholine, other neurotransmitters, and hormones on the guanosine cyclic 3', 5'-monophosphate and adenosine cyclic 3', 5'-monophosphate contents of guinea pig lung were investigated. When lung slices were incubated in the presence of 0.1 mM physostigmine and 1 mM theophylline (which themselves had little effect), the addition of acetylcholine produced a prompt rise in cyclic GMP concentration, which reached a maximum (about 250% of basal) in 1-3 min and began to decline by 6 min, approaching control levels in 12 min. When measured at 2 min the effect of 0.1 µM acetylcholine was negligible, and that of 1 µM was essentially maximal. Acetylcholine also increased the cyclic AMP content of lung slices 2-3-fold in 2 min. The effects on both nucleotides were prevented by 0.5 mM atropine. Prostaglandins E1, E2, A2 and F2α (2 µM), 1 µM isoproterenol, and 0.1 mM serotonin had no effect on basal cyclic GMP concentration or on the increment produced ...
*  "Apparent correlation between adenosine 3'.5' Cyclic monophosphate leve" by M J. Tisdale and B J. Phillips
Tisdale, M J. and Phillips, B J., "Apparent correlation between adenosine 3'.5' Cyclic monophosphate levels and malignancy in somatic cell hybrids." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 1875 ...
*  Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation induced by interleukin 1β in islets of Langerhans. Evidence for an effector role of...
Treatment of pancreatic islets with interleukin 1 (IL-1) results in a time-dependent inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion which has recently been demonstrated to be dependent on the metabolism of L-arginine to nitric oxide. In this report IL-1 beta is shown to induce the accumulation of cyclic GMP (cGMP) in a time-dependent fashion that mimics the time-dependent inhibition of insulin secretion by IL-1 beta. The accumulation of cGMP is dependent on nitric oxide synthase activity, since NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) prevents IL-1 beta-induced cGMP accumulation. cGMP formation and nitrite production induced by IL-1 beta pretreatment of islets are also blocked by the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. The formation of cGMP does not appear to mediate the inhibitory effects of IL-1 beta on insulin secretion since a concentration of cycloheximide (1 microM) that blocks IL-1 beta-induced inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin ...
*  Rapid nitric oxide-induced desensitization of the cGMP response is caused by increased activity of phosphodiesterase type 5...
In this article, we show that NO not only induces a rapid cGMP response in platelets and in aortic strips but also serves to alter the responsiveness of the cGMP cascade. In both models, the NO-induced cGMP response is biphasic and characterized by a very fast increase in cGMP, which amounts to a calculated peak concentration of ∼60 μM in platelets (see below). Subsequently, the concentration of cGMP declines rapidly, and it can be assumed that PDE activity has outcompeted cGMP synthesis. Thus, the biphasic cGMP accumulation profiles are indicative of a complex, thus far poorly understood interplay of cGMP-forming and -degrading activities.. The rapid desensitizing effect of NO is demonstrated by preincubating platelets or aortic strips, which reveals that the extent of the cGMP response is inversely related to the amount of NO present during the preincubation (Figs. 2 and 3 B). At high NO concentrations, the cGMP system becomes desensitized almost completely, whereas at low tissue ...
*  A cyclic dinucleotide made up of GMP and AMP was previously - Therapeutic Applications of Kinase Inhibitors
A cyclic dinucleotide made up of GMP and AMP was previously shown to be a key intermediate during activation of innate immune reactions to cytosolic DNA. inside a cell no matter originating from an infectious agent like viruses or Rabbit Polyclonal to GA45G. from your damaged nucleus or mitochondria it is recognized as a sign of danger. DNA can provoke severe consequences as it can be seen from aberrant acknowledgement of lost DNA in autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematous and Sjogren's syndrome. To perceive such a dreadful insult several DNA-sensing proteins are present in mammalian cells. Some of these DNA detectors activate a cytoplasmic protein called stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING). STING then turns on a series of protein kinases culminating in the production of type I IFNs and additional cytokines that participate in sponsor immune reactions2. Gaining details about the structures and the mechanisms associated with such cellular responses has been a matter of ...
*  Plus it
In the present study, we have shown that YC-1 induced an antiproliferative effect in HCC cells in a concentration-dependent manner. YC-1 also inhibited DNA synthesis in HA22T cells and blocked the G1-S transition of the cell cycle. It is well known that elevation of the cGMP levels can be achieved by YC-1 through direct activation of sGC (Wu et al., 1995) and by inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity (Galle et al., 1999). Nevertheless, YC-1-mediated responses through a cGMP-independent pathway have also been described before (Ferrero and Torres, 2001; Hwang et al., 2003). In our study, 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one (a selective sGC inhibitor) and KT-5823 (a selective inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase) did not prevent the YC-1-induced antiproliferative effect, nor did YC-1 increase cGMP formation in HA22T cells. These results suggest that YC-1-induced inhibition of HA22T proliferation occurs through a cGMP-independent signaling pathway. Soluble guanylyl cyclase is a ...
*  Nitric oxide-mediated cGMP signal transduction in the central nervous system - UCL Discovery
UCL Discovery is UCL's open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
*  AID 607603 - Inhibition of mouse PDE10A assessed as inhibition of hydrolysis of [3H]cGMP to [3H]GMP after 20 mins by...
BioAssay record AID 607603 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of mouse PDE10A assessed as inhibition of hydrolysis of [3H]cGMP to [3H]GMP after 20 mins by scintillation counting.
*  Gentaur Molecular :Nacala \ Adenosine 3',5' cyclic Monophosphate Sodium Salt \ 02289-61
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Nacala \ Adenosine_ 3',5'_ cyclic Monophosphate Sodium Salt \ 02289-61 for more molecular products just contact us
*  cGMP-Dependent Activation of Protein Kinase G Precludes Disulfide ActivationNovelty and Significance | Hypertension
Two disparate mechanisms have evolved for activating PKG1α; one relies on binding of the second messenger cGMP, the other involves thiol oxidation inducing a disulfide homodimer. In this study, we found that these 2 mechanisms of activating PKG1α are intricately linked with the binding of cGMP preventing oxidation to the disulfide state. The N-terminus of PKG1α, which contains the redox-sensitive cysteine from each monomer of the dimer, have been mapped using NMR.14 This structural information shows that the redox cysteines in PKG1α are in close proximity and orientated to allow the formation of a disulfide bond when oxidants are present. Our observations are consistent with cGMP binding to PKG1α causing an allosteric structural change that reorientates the redox cysteines. This reorientation presumably moves the thiols too far apart or changes their molecular environment such that their pKa is increased to lower their reactivity with oxidants, either of which would attenuate disulfide ...
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Cyclic guanosine 3′:5′-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) and cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate were measured in the urine of normal rats and those bearing transplantable liver and kidney tumors. The level of cyclic GMP ranged from 1.4 to 1.6 µmoles/g urinary creatinine in several strains of rats without tumors. Rats bearing Morris hepatomas 20, 21, 9618A and 9633F and kidney tumor MK2 had urine levels of cyclic GMP from 1.3 to 3.6 µmoles/g creatinine. Rats bearing the fast growing hepatomas 9618A2 and 3924A and Morris kidney tumor MK3 had urinary values of 5.6, 41.9, and 32.7 µmoles cyclic GMP per g creatinine, respectively. Urine levels of cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate ranged from 10.1 to 19.7 µmoles/g creatinine in all normal and tumor-bearing rats and were not significantly different in any of the groups examined.. ...
*  Guanylate Cyclase and Cyclic GMP: Methods and Protocols | Download ebooks online
Thomas Krieg, Robert Lukowski, 'Guanylate Cyclase and Cyclic GMP: Methods and Protocols' English | ISBN: 1627034587 | 2013 | PDF | 165 pages | 4,5 MB
*  cyclic gmp dependent protein kinases
Publications, Scientific Experts, Research Topics, Species, Genomes and Genes, Research Grants about cyclic gmp dependent protein kinases
*  Characterisation of a novel gene family of putative cyclic nucleotide- and calmodulin-regulated ion channels in Arabidopsis...
Kaupp, U.B., Niidome, T., Tanabe, T., Terada, S., Bonigk, W., Stuhmer, W., Cook, N.J., Kangawa, K., Matsuo, H., Hirose, T. 1989 Primary structure and functional expression from complementary DNA of the rod photoreceptor cyclic GMP-gated channel. Nature, 342, 762 766 ...
*  education
Today we residents are post-inservice exam, put together by The American Board of Emergency Medicine, and I can say this about the test: I'm glad I'm not an intern anymore. I've obviously still got a lot to learn, but it's nothing like the feeling of overwhelmth (yes, just made that up) you feel halfway through your internship thinking, "I'm supposed to know the answer to this?". But today I'm not writing about those mushy-gushy feelings and experiences. No no. Today, I want answers.. I was always annoyed with standardized medical tests (primarily the USMLE) where you left the exam with a) no idea how you performed and b) no real feedback for several months. At this point, I don't really care if I missed a question about cyclic GMP on USMLE Step I, but for the inservice exam, it's a different story. This is stuff that I apparently need to know. And so, please, ABEM: I want to know the right answers.. If the point of the inservice and the boards is knowledge and learning and requiring a certain ...
*  Plus it
In 1958, Sutherland and Rall (55) identified cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) as an inducer of protein phosphorylation in liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and brain tissue in response to hormones such as epinephrine and glucagon. From these observations, a paradigm developed of an extracellular "first messenger," such as a hormone, which binds a receptor on the plasma membrane that in turn stimulates a cascade of intracellular signaling events via a "second messenger," such as cAMP. From Sutherland and Rall's early observations, the biological significance of second messenger signaling grew rapidly as cAMP was found to mediate many signaling events in a diversity of tissues and even in prokaryotes (40). The discovery of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the 1970s as a key second messenger in photo-transduction in the retina (44) broadened the concept to that of cyclic nucleotide signaling. Since these early observations, it has become apparent that ...
*  Laboratory project: 'Regulation of Receptor Activity' (September 1976)
Summary of work for this project as indicated on the report: 'Evidence for a new type of PGE1 receptor coupled to cGMP accumulation was obtained. Cell lines with PGE1 receptors coupled only to cAMP were found as well as cell lines with 2 species of PGE1 receptors, one coupled to cAMP accumulation, the other to cGMP accumulation. The 2 species of PGE1 receptors also desensitize at different rates. These results show that the coupling of PGE1 to increases in cAMP and cGMP levels are clonally inherited properties which can be expressed independently ...
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Biophysical Techniques for Detection of cAMP and cGMP in Living Cells | Notes
Cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP are ubiquitous second messengers which regulate myriads of functions in virtually all eukaryotic cells. Their intracellular effects are often mediated via discrete subcellular signaling microdomains. In this review, we will discuss state-of-the-art techniques to measure cAMP and cGMP in biological samples with a particular focus on live cell imaging approaches, which allow their detection with high temporal and spatial resolution in living cells and tissues. Finally, we will describe how these techniques can be applied to the analysis of second messenger dynamics in subcellular signaling microdomains.
*  IC87201|CAS 866927-10-8 Buy IC87201 from supplier medchemexpress.com
IC87201, an inhibitor of PSD95-nNOS protein-protein interactions, suppresses NMDAR-dependent NO and cGMP formation....Quality confirmed by NMR,HPLC & MS.
*  Math::Prime::Util::GMP - search.cpan.org
use Math::Prime::Util::GMP ':all'; my $n = '115792089237316195423570985008687907853269984665640564039457584007913129639937'; # This doesn't impact the operation of the module at all, but does let you # enter big number arguments directly as well as enter (e.g.): 2**2048 + 1. use bigint; # These return 0 for composite, 2 for prime, and 1 for probably prime # Numbers under 2^64 will return 0 or 2. # is_prob_prime does a BPSW primality test for numbers , 2^64 # is_prime adds some MR tests and a quick test to try to prove the result # is_provable_prime will spend a lot of effort on proving primality say '$n is probably prime' if is_prob_prime($n); say '$n is ', qw(composite prob_prime def_prime)[is_prime($n)]; say '$n is definitely prime' if is_provable_prime($n) == 2; # Miller-Rabin and strong Lucas-Selfridge pseudoprime tests say '$n is a prime or spsp-2/7/61' if is_strong_pseudoprime($n, 2, 7, 61); say '$n is a prime or slpsp' if is_strong_lucas_pseudoprime($n); say '$n is a prime or eslpsp' if ...
*  cGMP Safe Deposit Facility from European Collection of Cell Cultures (ECACC)
... ,cGMP Safe Deposit Service ECACC is able to accept cell lines produced according to the requirements of cGMP for cryo-storage. The cell lines must be accompanied by a certificate to confirm they have been produced in accordance with the requirements of cGMP and that they have been tested for freed,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product