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*  PLOS ONE: Hypothalamic mTOR Signaling Mediates the Orexigenic Action of Ghrelin
Here, we demonstrate that ghrelin elicits a marked upregulation of the hypothalamic mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) ... Of note, central inhibition of mTOR signaling with rapamycin decreased ghrelin's orexigenic action and normalized the mRNA ... there is a paucity of data about the possible action of ghrelin on alternative metabolic pathways at this level. ... ghrelin also promotes feeding through modulation of hypothalamic mTOR pathway. ...
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/authors?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0046923&imageURI=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046923.g005
*  Stomach regulates energy balance via acylated ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin | Gut
... acylated ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin. Acylated ghrelin induces a positive energy balance, while desacyl ghrelin has been ... Hosoda H , Kojima M, Matsuo H, et al. Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin: two major forms of rat ghrelin peptide in gastrointestinal ... acylated ghrelin, which has n-octanoylated serine in position 3; and desacyl ghrelin.2 Other minor forms of ghrelin are also ... Cardiac effects of ghrelin and its endogenous derivatives des-octanoyl ghrelin and des-Gln14-ghrelin. Eur J Pharmacol2003;476: ...
http://gut.bmj.com/content/54/1/18
*  Ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells through ERK and AKT signaling pathway (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect
The receptor of ghrelin, GHSR, was expressed in MC3T3-E1 cells. • Both Akt and ERK are critical adaptor molecules to mediate ... Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide that acts as a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) ... In conclusion, ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, which may be ... Journal Article: Ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells through ERK and AKT signaling pathway ...
https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22285451-ghrelin-inhibits-apoptosis-mc3t3-e1-cells-through-erk-akt-signaling-pathway
*  Leptin and ghrelin levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea: effect of CPAP treatment | European Respiratory Society
Serum ghrelin measurements. Blood samples for ghrelin measurements were collected in vacutainers with EDTA at the same time and ... Ghrelin levels were investigated in a subgroup of patients and baseline plasma ghrelin levels were found to be significantly ... Fasting ghrelin levels in nine OSA patients (•) and controls (▪) are also shown. The baseline ghrelin levels differ ... Leptin and ghrelin levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea: effect of CPAP treatment. I.A. Harsch, P.C. Konturek, C. ...
http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/22/2/251.full
*  Abstract 78: Chronic Intrarenal Ghrelin Receptor Antagonism Delays the Onset and Attenuates the Magnitude of High Fat Diet...
In normal rats, direct renal infusion of ghrelin, the most potent appetite-stimulating hormone in the body, increases distal ... Abstract 78: Chronic Intrarenal Ghrelin Receptor Antagonism Delays the Onset and Attenuates the Magnitude of High Fat Diet- ... Abstract 78: Chronic Intrarenal Ghrelin Receptor Antagonism Delays the Onset and Attenuates the Magnitude of High Fat Diet- ... Abstract 78: Chronic Intrarenal Ghrelin Receptor Antagonism Delays the Onset and Attenuates the Magnitude of High Fat Diet- ...
http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/60/Suppl_1/A78
*  Influence of different storage conditions and anticoagulants on the measurement of total and acylated ghrelin in dogs: a...
... acidification of plasma samples decreased the stability of total ghrelin and impeded determination of acylated ghrelin with the ... While acylated ghrelin showed to be very instable, its analysis should be performed within an hour of sample collection or ... When samples were stored at under −20°C, three freeze/thaw cycles during storage did not alter total ghrelin concentration if ... Under the conditions assessed in this study, total ghrelin concentration was stable when stored at room temperature or under ...
http://veterinaryrecord.bmj.com/content/172/11/289
*  GHRELIN, MORE THAN A NATURAL OREXIGENIC FACTOR
5. Hosoda H, Kojima M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K. Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin: two major forms of rat ghrelin peptide in ... et al Expression of ghrelin and biological activity of specific receptors for ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin in human prostate ... Ghrelin - structure, action, regulation. Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide encoded by a gene located on the short arm of ... The discovery of ghrelin-specific receptors in the brain areas involved with mood and emotions led to the idea that ghrelin ...
http://www.medicina-interna.ro/articol.php?articol=991&lang=ro
*  Identification of Ghrelin Receptor Blocker, D-[Lys3] GHRP-6 as a CXCR4 Receptor Antagonist [Abstract]
Identification of Ghrelin Receptor Blocker, D-[Lys3] GHRP-6 as a CXCR4 Receptor Antagonist. Int J Biol Sci 2012; 8(1):108-117. ... Identification of Ghrelin Receptor Blocker, D-[Lys3] GHRP-6 as a CXCR4 Receptor Antagonist Kalpesh Patel‡, Vishwa Deep Dixit†, ... D-Lys3]-Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-6 (DLS) is widely utilized in vivo and in vitro as a selective ghrelin receptor (GHS-R ... Keywords: CXCL12, CXCR4, HIV-1, Ghrelin, GHRP-6, GHS-R1a, Inflammation, Cancer ...
http://www.ijbs.com/v08p0108
*  JCSM - Plasma Total Ghrelin and Leptin Levels in Human Narcolepsy and Matched Healthy Controls: Basal Concentrations and...
Mean 24-h ghrelin levels in narcolepsy patients and matched controls. The diurnal plasma ghrelin levels, as well as food ... Mean 24-h ghrelin levels in narcolepsy patients and matched controlsThe diurnal plasma ghrelin levels, as well as food induced ... Baseline Total Ghrelin Levels. Mean 24-h total ghrelin levels at baseline were virtually identical between narcolepsy patients ... Effect of Sodium Oxybate on Total Ghrelin Levels. Twentyfour hour mean total ghrelin levels during sodium oxybate treatment ...
http://jcsm.aasm.org/viewabstract.aspx?pid=29075
*  Appetite Control - Factors that Stimulate and Suppress Hunger
Ghrelin *Ghrelin is secreted by the stomach after a period of not eating (fasting) and it increases appetite. ... It is not known what exactly increases the secretion of ghrelin but a low blood sugar level and an empty stomach may be some of ... chemicals released from the stomach (ghrelin) and small intestine (CCK) - refer to Digestive Hormones ...
http://www.healthhype.com/what-are-hunger-pangs-or-hunger-pains.html
*  Publication : USDA ARS
Technical Abstract: Ghrelin and the ghrelin receptor (GH secretagogue receptor, GHS-R) are believed to have important roles in ... Characterization of adult ghrelin and ghrelin receptor knockout mice under positive and negative energy balance. Endocrinology ... Title: Characterization of adult ghrelin and ghrelin receptor knockout mice under positive and negative energy balance ... We detected a modest decrease in RQ in our congenic adult ghrelin-/- compared to ghrelin+/+ mice fed a normal diet, but not ...
https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=227547
*  Anti-Aging Genes Improve Appetite Regulation and Reverse Cell Senescence and Apoptosis in Global Populations
Ghrelin is 28 amino acid peptide hormone and has been characterized as an appetite stimulating hormone with effects on appetite ... PP has effects on gastric ghrelin and gene expression of hypothalamic peptides such as NPY and AGRP that control food intake. ... and gastrointestinal peptide hormones such as CCK and ghrelin. Thyroid hormones may act directly on the hypothalamic appetite ... control related to hypothalamic NPY/AgRP neurones which express the ghrelin receptors [3] . ...
http://file.scirp.org/Html/2-2420186_63098.htm
*  Mechanisms of Appetite Regulation | INFO TUMBUH KEMBANG
At this moment, a hunger signal called ghrelin rises. Ghrelin is secreted from the stomach and leads to increased expression of ... Appetite stimulus: ghrelin As human beings, we exhibit dietary habits and we learn to become hungry at a precise hour. ... Both appetite-stimulating substances (ghrelin) and appetite-inhibiting substances (cholecystokinin [CCK], leptin, glucagon-like ...
https://infotumbuhkembang.com/2012/11/01/mechanisms-of-appetite-regulation/
*  Ghrelin - Wikipedia
Mice with elevated ghrelin swam more than ghrelin deficient mice. These ghrelin-deficient mice exhibited more social avoidance ... In rodents, X/A-like cells produce ghrelin. Ghrelin knock-out mice (who never express ghrelin) have increased anxiety in ... Cord blood levels of active and total ghrelin show a correlation between ghrelin levels and birth weight. Ghrelin gene products ... and C-ghrelin(acylated). Obestatin is presumed to be cleaved from C-ghrelin. Ghrelin only becomes active when caprylic ( ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghrelin
*  Ghrelin O-acyltransferase - Wikipedia
Heppner KM, Tong J, Kirchner H, Nass R, Tschöp MH (February 2011). "The ghrelin O-acyltransferase-ghrelin system: a novel ... "The ghrelin O-acyltransferase-ghrelin system reduces TNF-α-induced apoptosis and autophagy in human visceral adipocytes". ... "Genetic variation of the ghrelin activator gene ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is associated with anorexia nervosa". Journal ... "Production of n-octanoyl-modified ghrelin in cultured cells requires prohormone processing protease and ghrelin O- ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghrelin_O-acyltransferase
*  The Prokinetic Face of Ghrelin
showed that ghrelin or GHRP-6 (100 𝜇. g/kg) had no effect in septic rats [33], Chen et al. showed that ghrelin (20 𝜇. g/kg) ... showed that IV ghrelin 20 𝜇. g/kg accelerated intestinal transit in rats [29]. This prokinetic effect of ghrelin on intestinal ... showed that ghrelin induced MMCs in fed conscious freely moving mice [22]. In dogs, however, ghrelin was shown to have no ... The effects of ghrelin on the fasting, not fed, human stomach was similar to in vivo studies. In fasted volunteers, ghrelin ...
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpep/2010/493614/
*  Metabolic and Cardiovascular Effects of Ghrelin
Two major forms of ghrelin are found in tissues and plasma: n-octanoyl-modified ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin [7]; ghrelin is ... 2. Tissue Distribution of Ghrelin and Ghrelin Receptor. Ghrelin is predominantly produced by the stomach, but it is also widely ... have proposed that ghrelin might modulate intracellular energy balance in a cell specific manner: ghrelin would be able to ... Ghrelin secretion seems to be under cholinergic control, since ghrelin levels are raised by cholinergic agonists and reduced by ...
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpep/2010/864342/
*  Ghrelin Normal After Gastric Bypass | Medpage Today
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery restored normal regulation of the appetite hormone ghrelin, an analysis of the STAMPEDE trial ... "The improvement in ghrelin following surgery is clinically relevant, since high or impaired meal-suppressed acylated ghrelin ... "They tend to have lower fasting ghrelin levels and then after a meal ghrelin levels don't go down like they should." ... After adjusting for fasting ghrelin and gender, meal-induced acylated ghrelin suppression was improved by RYGB surgery at 12 ...
https://www.medpagetoday.com/endocrinology/obesity/43097
*  Anti-Ghrelin antibody (ab64325) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal Ghrelin antibody validated for WB, IHC and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen ... O-octanoylation or O-decanoylation is essential for ghrelin activity. The O-decanoylated forms Ghrelin-27-C10 and Ghrelin-28- ... A small fraction of ghrelin, ghrelin-28-C10:1, may be modified with a singly unsaturated carboxylic acid.. Amidation of Leu-98 ... Diminished endometrial expression of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor contributes to infertility.. Reprod Sci 17:823-32 (2010). ...
http://www.abcam.com/ghrelin-antibody-ab64325.html
*  Ghrelin and Leptin - Hunger, Weight, Obesity
We explore the science behind the hormones ghrelin and leptin, which are responsible for regulating appetite. ... Ghrelin is designed to work together with leptin, a hormone your body releases when you've eaten enough. Under normal ... Not only can a high-sugar diet reduce the body's ability to suppress ghrelin, but it can also lower leptin levels - essentially ... Essentially, part of why you feel hungry is because of a hormone known as ghrelin, which is produced in the stomach and ...
http://www.refinery29.com/amp/2014/07/66948/ghrelin-facts
*  Ghrelin | 9780123736857 | VitalSource
Buy or Rent Ghrelin as an eTextbook and get instant access. ... Ghrelin Edition by Litwack, Gerald and Publisher Academic Press ...
https://www.vitalsource.com/en-au/products/ghrelin-litwack-gerald-v9780123736857
*  Ghrelin octanoylation mediated by an orphan lipid transferase | PNAS
Disrupting ghrelin signaling by targeting the ghrelin or ghrelin receptor genes blunts weight gain from a high-fat diet. ... Arrow denotes location of octanoylated ghrelin. Ghrelin peptide standards were mouse SIL acyl (m/z 3,338) and des-acyl ghrelin ... Ghrelin peptides standards were rat des-acyl ghrelin (m/z 3,188) and dog octanoyl des Q ghrelin (m/z 3,228). (C) MS ... des-acyl ghrelin) or acyl ghrelin to show that the human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line (TT cell line) produces ghrelin ...
http://www.pnas.org/content/105/17/6320?ijkey=a7fe1932c50284dac29fd7cd6b4c67e71185f179&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
*  Hyperphagic Effects of Brainstem Ghrelin Administration | Diabetes
Experiment 2: Cumulative food intake effects of DVC ghrelin microinjection.. Rats (n = 13) received ghrelin or vehicle into the ... by ghrelin acting on GHS-R in the DVC. The demonstration of ghrelin sensitivity in the DVC expands the range of peripherally ... Hyperphagic Effects of Brainstem Ghrelin Administration. Lucy F. Faulconbridge, David E. Cummings, Joel M. Kaplan, Harvey J. ... Hyperphagic Effects of Brainstem Ghrelin Administration. Lucy F. Faulconbridge, David E. Cummings, Joel M. Kaplan, Harvey J. ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/52/9/2260.full
*  Ghrelin Protects Cardiovascular Cells from Damage
Ghrelin prevents doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity through TNF-alpha/NF-kappaB pathways and mitochondrial protective ... Ghrelin Protects Cardiovascular Cells from Damage. Study Abstract. We had reported that increased levels of endogenous ghrelin ... This suggests ghrelin affects the TNF-alpha/NF-kappaB activation pathways, up-regulating TNF-alpha, to produce anti-oxidative ... Moreover, ghrelin increased mitochondrial anti-apoptosis related gene protein expression such as bcl-2 and MnSOD, reduced ...
https://www.wellnessresources.com/news/ghrelin-protects-cardiovascular-cells-from-damage