PLOS Pathogens: De novo Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Contributes Significantly to Establishment of a Bioenergetically Favorable...
Author Summary Vaccinia virus, the prototypic poxvirus, is closely related to variola virus, the etiological agent of smallpox. A full understanding of the poxviral life cycle is imperative for the development of novel antiviral therapies, the design of new vaccines, and the effective and safe use of these viruses as oncolytic agents. Metabolomic studies have shed light on the novel mechanisms used by viruses to replicate efficiently within their hosts. de novo fatty acid biosynthesis has been shown to be of relevance for numerous viral infections as well as for the development of cancer. Here we describe an important role for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis during vaccinia infection. Ongoing synthesis of palmitate is needed to fuel the production of energy within mitochondria. The biochemical events of viral DNA replication and protein synthesis are minimally affected by inhibition of this pathway, but viral assembly is disrupted more dramatically. Further exploration of ...http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/related?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1004021
Incorporation of fatty acids by concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocytes and the effect on fatty acid composition and membrane...
The fatty acid compositions of the neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions of rat lymph node lymphocytes were characterized. Stimulation of rat lymphocytes with the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A resulted in significant changes in the fatty acid composition of both neutral lipids and phospholipids (a decrease in the proportions of stearic, linoleic and arachidonic acids and an increase in the proportion of oleic acid). Membrane fluidity was measured using nitroxide spin-label e.s.r., and increased during culture with concanavalin A. Culturing the lymphocytes in the absence of mitogen did not affect fatty acid composition or membrane fluidity. The uptake and fate of palmitic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were studied in detail; there was a time-dependent incorporation of each fatty acid into all lipid classes but each fatty acid had a characteristic fate. Palmitic and arachidonic ...https://www.neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/publications/422137
Spiral: A combination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and incidence of type 2 diabetes:The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study
Background Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated. Methods and findings We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas chromatography in 27,296 adults, including 12,132 incident cases of T2D, over the follow-up period between baseline (1991-1998) and 31 December 2007 in 8 European countries in EPIC-InterAct, a nested case-cohort study. The first principal component derived by principal component analysis of 27 individual fatty acids (mole percentage) was the main exposure (subsequently called the fatty acid pattern score [FA-pattern score]). The FA-pattern score was partly characterised by high concentrations of linoleic acid, stearic acid, odd-chain ...https://spiral.imperial.ac.uk:8443/handle/10044/1/50819
Combustion Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine with Short and Medium Chain Saturated Fatty Acid Methyl Esters - SAE...
This paper describes the fuel properties, combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of the methyl esters of saturated fatty acid with 6 to 10 carbons in the molecule chain. The fuels blend (50/50 mass%) of three saturated fatty acid methyl esters (methyl caproate, methyl caprylate, methyl caprate); with methyl laurate as a base fuel are tested using a DI diesel engine. From the experimental results, the blend of saturated fatty acid methyl ester with a lower carbon number has a lower kinematic viscosity, pour point and smoke emission, though having longer ignition delay, the same as long chain saturated fatty acid methyl ester ...http://papers.sae.org/2013-32-9080/
Fasting Plasma Insulin Concentrations Are Associated With Changes in Hepatic Fatty Acid Synthesis and Partitioning Prior to...
Resistance to the action of insulin affects fatty acid delivery to the liver, fatty acid synthesis and oxidation within the liver, and triglyceride export from the liver. To understand the metabolic consequences of hepatic fatty acid synthesis, partitioning, oxidation, and net liver fat content in the fasted and postprandial states, we used stable-isotope tracer methodologies to study healthy men and women with varying degrees of insulin resistance before and after consumption of a mixed meal. Subjects were classified as being normoinsulinemic (NI) (fasting plasma insulin |11.2 mU/L, n = 18) or hyperinsulinemic (HI) (fasting plasma insulin |11.2 mU/L, n = 19). Liver fat content was similar between HI and NI individuals, despite HI subjects having marginally more visceral fat. However, de novo lipogenesis was higher and fatty acid oxidation was lower in HI individuals compared with NI subjects. These data suggest that metabolic pathways ...https://www.rdm.ox.ac.uk/publications/616163
Genetic and phenotypic correlations between triacylglycerol fatty acids at weaning and slaughter in beef cattle - Open Access...
Predicting fatty acid composition of beef cattle at slaughter using weaner data would enable an early selection decision thereby saving time and costs associated with progeny testing. The aim of this study was to examine genetic and phenotypic correlations between triacylglycerol fatty acid composition at weaning and slaughter. Subcutaneous fat between the 12th and 13th rib interface was biopsied from 324 weaner calves sired by Angus, Belgian Blue, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, South Devon and Wagyu. Fat from the same anatomical site was sampled from their carcasses at slaughter and analysed for fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography. Statistical analysis was by Mixed Model and Maximum Likelihood procedures of Harvey (1990) after adjusting for genotype, sire nested within genotype, sex and location. Results indicated strongly positive genetic correlations between biopsy and carcass stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1n-9), total monounsaturated ...https://eprints.utas.edu.au/8820/
Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Risk : Influence on Lipoproteins, Insulin Resistance and Liver Fat
The aim of this thesis was to investigate how dietary fatty acids affect the risk for cardiometabolic disease, i.e. cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and obesity. The overall hypothesis was that unsaturated fatty acids and especially the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA), 18:2n-6, would decrease cardiometabolic risk compared with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), in line with current recommendations to partly replace dietary SFA with PUFA.. Papers I and V were observational studies based on the community-based cohort Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM). Adipose tissue fatty acid composition was determined as biomarker for dietary fat intake. Studies II, III and IV were randomised short-term interventions on human volunteers, in which different dietary fats were provided to the participants.. In 71-year-old men, adipose ...http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:808545
Fatty Acids, Temperature and Growth
Structural, energetic, biochemical, and ecological information suggests that germination temperature is an important selective agent causing seed oils of higher-latitude plants to have proportionately more unsaturated fatty acids than lower-latitude plants. Germination temperature is predicted to select relative proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in seed oils that optimize the total energy stores in a seed and the rate of energy production during germination. Saturated fatty acids store more energy per carbon than unsaturated fatty acids; however, unsaturated fatty acids have much lower melting points than saturated fatty acids. Thus, seeds with lower proportions of saturated fatty acids in their oils should be able to germinate earlier and grow more ...http://bulbnrose.x10.mx/Heredity/King/FattyAcidBiblio.html
Selective release of human adipocyte fatty acids according to molecular structure | Biochemical Journal
The objective of the present study was to investigate the mobilization of individual fatty acids from human white fat cells. Mammary adipose tissue from eight healthy non-obese women in their normal dietary state was collected, and isolated adipocytes were incubated with lipolytic agents. The mobilization of 34 individual fatty acids was measured by comparing the composition of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) with that of the triacylglycerols (TAG) from which they originated through lipolysis. Compared with TAG, NEFA were enriched in some polyunsaturated fatty acids with 18-20 carbon atoms. Conversely, the percentage of very-long-chain (20-22 carbon atoms) saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was approx. 2 times lower in NEFA than in TAG. The relative mobilization (% in NEFA/% in TAG) of the most readily mobilized ...http://www.biochemj.org/content/324/3/911
Abstract MP065: Genetic Loci Associated With Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids in the De Novo Lipogenesis Pathway: A Meta...
Background Palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), and oleic acid (18:1n-9) are major saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids that are synthesized via de novo lipogenesis (DNL) or obtained from the diet. Circulating levels of these fatty acids are linked to several diseases including diabetes and heart disease. Prior family and twin studies suggest high heritability of circulating levels, but potential genes involved are unknown.. Objective To carry out a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) to investigate genetic determinants of circulating levels of these fatty acids.. Methods GWAS in 5 population-based cohorts (n=8,961) of European ancestry. Each study conducted linear regression analysis using an additive genetic model. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, site of recruitment, and principal components to account for possible population genetic substructure where ...http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/125/Suppl_10/AMP065
Odd-chain fatty acids as dietary biomarkers for fiber and fish intake
Venäläinen TM. Lankinen MA. Schwab US. (2017). Odd-chain fatty acids as dietary biomarkers for fiber and fish intake. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, 106 (3) , 954. 10.3945/ajcn.117.162347. ...https://erepo.uef.fi/handle/123456789/4621
Linoleic Acid, Other Fatty Acids, and the Risk of Stroke | Stroke
The major finding of the present study was that serum linoleic acid was inversely associated with the risk of total stroke, ischemic stroke, and more specifically lacunar infarction. These associations remained significant even after adjustment for known cardiovascular risk factors and the matching variables of age, sex, years of serum storage, and community. Further adjustment for other fatty acids such as saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids did not materially alter the relation with risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke. Serum saturated fatty acids were positively associated with the risk of total stroke, ischemic stroke, and lacunar infarction, but these associations disappeared when adjusted further for linoleic and monounsaturated fatty acids. The adjustment for these fatty acids may be unreliable because saturated ...http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/33/8/2086
Effects of feeding omega-3-fatty acids on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of...
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P , 0.05) the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P , 0.005). LPO of ...http://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/121114/
Increased Myocardial Uptake of Dietary Fatty Acids Linked to Cardiac Dysfunction in Glucose-Intolerant Humans | Diabetes
Novel findings of the current study include: 1) significant increase in fractional myocardial dietary fatty acid uptake in IGT+ individuals not explained by difference in age, body fat, central obesity markers, or sex; 2) an association between the latter myocardial metabolic abnormality and reduction in systolic and diastolic left ventricular functions and increased myocardial oxidative metabolism; and 3) no significant changes in liver and skeletal muscle dietary fatty acid uptake in IGT+ individuals. The present results extend the association between increased myocardial NEFA uptake and oxidation and IGT observed during fasting (16) to postprandial dietary fatty acids. In addition, we confirmed the findings of others of reduced subcutaneous abdominal and visceral adipose tissue fractional uptake of dietary fatty acids in abdominally obese individuals (17,18). We furthermore found a direct association ...http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/61/11/2701?frame=header
"Mechanism of Fatty Acid Modulation of Calcium-Activated Potassium Chan" by Alison L. Clarke
The purpose of this work was to determine whether the previously identified fatty acid activation of large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels from rabbit pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells was due to the direct interaction of the fatty acid with a site on the channel protein. If this was found to be the case, this study would also attempt to identify the site of fatty acid-protein interaction. Fatty acids released from membrane phospholipids by cellular phospholipases or available to the cell from the extracellular environment are important signaling molecules. Fatty acids can modulate the activity of a large number of molecules including protein kinases, phospholipases, adenylate and guanylate cyclases, G-proteins and ion channels. Fatty acids have also been shown to activate transcription of genes belonging to the steroid/thyroid superfamily of ...http://escholarship.umassmed.edu/gsbs_diss/277/
Novel intersection of mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis and iron-sulfur biogenesis | Department of Chemistry
The mitochondrial acyl-carrier protein (ACP) functions in the synthesis of fatty acids within the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acids are elongated on the covalently bound 4'-phosphopantetheine cofactor on ACP. ACP has a second essential function within the mitochondria in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters. Cells depleted of ACP are impaired in FeS cluster formation throughout the cell. ACP is a stable subunit of the cysteine desulfurase (Nfs1) and Isd11 subcomplex that generates sulfide ions for FeS cluster formation. The FeS defect observed in cells depleted of ACP can be partially suppressed by overexpression of the mitochondrial iron transporter Mrs3. The stability of ACP is dependent of the iron status of mitochondria. Thus, the central role of Acp1 in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, lipoic acid formation and FeS cluster biogenesis suggests that these processes are tied to Fe availability within the mitochondria. ...http://www.chem.uga.edu/node/7401
Fatty acid uptake, transport and storage in placenta in normal and dyslipidemic pregnancies
Transport of fatty acids across the placenta is vital for growth and development of the fetus. The placenta also plays an essential role in the development of preeclampsia, a disease associated with dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation. This thesis investigates the role of trophoblasts and placenta in lipid transport and storage in general, and in dyslipidemic pregnancies specifically. The transport and uptake of fatty acids across trophoblast cells were studied in a placental cell line (BeWo). It was found that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are more efficiently transferred across these cells, and long term incubation with these fatty acids increases the general uptake of fatty acids compared with oleic acid. This suggests that LCPUFAs may function as regulators of fatty acid uptake by ...https://www.duo.uio.no/handle/10852/27890
Phospholipid fatty acid composition and vitamin E levels in th...
Phospholipid fatty acid composition and vitamin E levels in the retina of obese (fa/fa) and lean (FA/FA) Zucker rats.: We have compared the fatty acid compositihttps://www.mysciencework.com/publication/show/phospholipid-fatty-acid-composition-vitamin-e-levels-retina-obese-fa-fa-lean-fa-fa-zucker-rats-87c21700
Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids Reverse Inflammatory and Fibrotic Changes in Rat Liver Despite Continued Ethanol Administration |...
One pathway by which endotoxemia and lipid peroxidation act in concert to promote alcoholic liver injury is via NF-κB. NF-κB is a ubiquitous transcription factor that is implicated in the activation of many genes, including those involved in alcoholic liver injury (May and Ghosh, 1997; Nanji et al., 1999). The results of this study confirm our previous finding that activation of NF-κB occurs in association with development of necroinflammatory changes in the liver (Nanji et al., 1999). In addition, we show that the reduction in necrosis and inflammation induced by treatment with saturated fatty acid is accompanied by a marked reduction of NF-κB activation. The saturated fatty acid-induced inhibition of NF-κB activation was accompanied by increased amounts of IκBα. The mechanism by which saturated fatty acids stabilize IκBα and suppress NF-κB activation remains to be elucidated, but a role for decreased levels of endotoxin and lipid ...http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/299/2/638.long
Amount of 17:0 heptadecanoic, margaric fatty acid in McDONALD'S, Apple Dippers with Low Fat Caramel Sauce
How much of 17:0 heptadecanoic, margaric fatty acid is present in McDONALD'S, Apple Dippers with Low Fat Caramel Sauce in details, quantity how high or low 17:0 heptadecanoic, margaric fatty acid nutrient content it has.http://www.traditionaloven.com/foods/specific-nutrient/fast-food/mcdonalds-apple-dippers-low-fat-caramel-sauce/17-0-heptadecanoic-margaric-fatty-acid.html
The penetration of serum albumin into phospholipid monolayers of different fatty acid chain length and interfacial charge |...
1. The highest surface pressure of phosphatidylcholine monolayers allowing penetration of delipidated serum albumin decreased in the order dibehenoyl,distearoyl,dipalmitoyl=dimyristoyl. This pressure was not related to the area occupied or to the space available between the phospholipid molecules at the interface. 2. Penetration of albumin into yeast phosphatidylcholine monolayers was increased by adding a small percentage of long-chain anions (phosphatidic acid, dicetylphosphoric acid) to the film but only when the protein was below its isoelectric point (i.e. positively charged). 3. Stearylamine added to phosphatidylcholine monolayers had no effect on albumin penetration even when the protein was oppositely charged to that of the phospholipid/water interface. 4. The results are discussed in relation to the activation of certain phospholipases by anionic amphipathic substances.. ...http://www.biochemj.org/content/119/1/21
Medium-chain triglyceride - Wikipedia
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are triglycerides whose fatty acids have an aliphatic tail of 6-12 carbon atoms. The fatty acids found in MCTs are called medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). Like all triglycerides, MCTs are composed of a glycerol backbone and three fatty acids. In the case of MCTs, 2 or 3 of the fatty acid chains attached to glycerol are of medium length. Rich sources for commercial extraction of beneficial MCTs include palm kernel oil and coconut oil. With regard to MCFAs, apart from the above listed straight chain (unbranched chain) fatty acids, side chain (branched chain) fatty acids also exist. Molecular weight analysis of milk from different species showed that while milk fats from all studied species were primarily composed of long-chain fatty acid (16 ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medium-chain_triglyceride
Dipòsit Digital de la Universitat de Barcelona: Dietary n-6- or n-3-rich vegetable fats and antioxidants: effects on fatty acid...
We supplemented diets with a-tocopheryl acetate (100 mg/kg) and replaced beef tallow (BT) in feeds with increasing doses of n-6- or n-3-rich vegetable fat sources (linseed and sunﬂower oil), and studied the effects on the fatty acid (FA) composition, the a-tocopherol (aT) content and the oxidative stability of rabbit plasma and liver. These effects were compared with those observed in a previous study in rabbit meat. As in meat, the content of saturated, monounsaturated and trans FA in plasma and liver mainly reﬂected feed FA proﬁle, except stearic acid in liver, which increased as feeds contained higher doses of vegetable fat, which could be related to an inhibition of the activity of the stearoyl-CoA-desaturase. As linseed oil increased in feeds, the n-6/n-3 FA ratio was decreased in plasma and liver as a result of the incorporation of FA from diets and also, due to the different performance and selectivity of desaturase enzymes. However, an increase in the dose of vegetable fat in feeds ...http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/handle/2445/53111
Effect of Wheatgrass on Membrane Fatty Acid Composition During Hepatotoxicity Induced by Alcohol and Heated PUFA, The Journal...
Read "Effect of Wheatgrass on Membrane Fatty Acid Composition During Hepatotoxicity Induced by Alcohol and Heated PUFA, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.https://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/effect-of-wheatgrass-on-membrane-fatty-acid-composition-during-m7VxMWIGGD
The Effects of Elevated Subcutaneous Fat Stores on Serum and Cellular Fatty Acid Composition and Gene Expression of Pro...
Dairy cows with greater subcutaneous fat stores release greater concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) into the blood during the periparturient period. Large quantities of circulating NEFA alter circulating phospholipids (PL) fatty acid (FA) profile. Modified cellular FA profile effects immune cell function. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated lipid mobilization during the periparturient period on serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) NEFA and PL fraction and milk fatty acid (FA) profile, PBMC and PMN gene expression of selected markers of inflammation and production measures. Thirty-four cows were blocked by parity; treatment group received a high-energy prepartum ration. Control group received a normal-energy ration and monensin. In summary, increased subcutaneous fat stores altered the FA profile of serum, PBMC and PMN NEFA and PL fractions and milk as ...http://digital.lib.uidaho.edu/cdm/ref/collection/etd/id/802/