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*  Stimulation of Autophagy Improves Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Diabetes | Diabetes
a.u., arbitrary units; Cl., cleaved; eIF2α, eukaryotic initiation factor 2α; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. ... p-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), p-protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK), p-stress- ... Distinct signaling events downstream of mTOR cooperate to mediate the effects of amino acids and insulin on initiation factor ... Initiation and execution of lipotoxic ER stress in pancreatic beta-cells. J Cell Sci 2008;121:2308-2318pmid:18559892. ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/62/4/1227.full?patientinform-links=yes&legid=diabetes
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... growth factors such as insulin, IGF-I, fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor may also be involved in the ... Antiapoptotic factors, including insulin, fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor, have been shown to inactivate ... There is evidence to suggest that the induction of growth factors as well as mediators such as protein kinase C may play a role ... Natarajan R, Bai W, Lanting L, Gonzales N, Nadler J: Effects of high glucose on vascular endothelial growth factor expression ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/50/5/1171
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... such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B), eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2k), and S6 (9,10). ... and of the translation inhibitor factor eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein (4EBP1), which regulate ... Distinct signaling events downstream of mTOR cooperate to mediate the effects of amino acids and insulin on initiation factor ... Other hormones, growth factors, and nutrients that are increased in type 2 diabetes may also be involved in the steady-state ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/57/4/945
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... caused by mutation in the eukaryotic-translation initiation factor 2-α kinase 3 (EIF2AK3) gene on 2p12 (7), X-linked ... Delepine M, Nicolino M, Barrett T, Golamaully M, Lathrop GM, Julier C: EIF2AK3, encoding translation initiation factor 2-alpha ... The Krüppel-Like Factor 11 (KLF11) Q62R Polymorphism Is Not Associated With Type 2 Diabetes in 8,676 People ... Shield JP, Baum JD: Is transient neonatal diabetes a risk factor for diabetes in later life? Lancet341 :693 ,1993. ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/52/10/2636
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... and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) (4). Recent data indicate that this evolutionarily ... Dephosphorylation of translation initiation factor 2alpha enhances glucose tolerance and attenuates hepatosteatosis in mice. ... a bZip transcription factor, is an important component of the ISR (5). In the liver other bZip factors, C/EBPs, connect the ISR ... A few mRNAs, such as those encoding the bZIP class transcription factors Atf4, C/EBPα, and C/EBPβ (14), respond to the ISR ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/58/11/2565
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... eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)} were blocked by okadaic acid and calyculin A (109), which, as described above, have ... adipose tissue secretes factors that regulate insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues (e.g., tumor necrosis factor [TNF-]-α, ... Kern PA, Saghizadeh M, Ong JM, Bosch RJ, Deem R, Simsolo RB: The expression of tumor necrosis factor in human adipose tissue: ... Stephens JM, Lee J, Pilch PF: Tumor necosis factor-α-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is accompanied by a loss ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/54/3/591
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PKR-like eukaryotic initiation factor 2A kinase (PERK), which phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α) to ... Free fatty acids and cytokines induce pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis by different mechanisms: role of nuclear factor-kappaB and ... nerve growth factor, and the antioxidant α-lipoic acid, showed modest efficacy in clinical trials or adverse side effects. ... and activating transcription factor-6 (ATP-6), which translocates to the Golgi apparatus and produces an active transcription ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/62/3/944
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... eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) (Cell Signaling), p-eIF2α (Cell Signaling), XBP-1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), c-Jun NH2 ... activation of RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER-bound eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha)-kinase (PERK) and ... Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Promotes Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Enhancer A and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Interaction to Suppress ... Eukaryotic cells contain several types of proteasomes. Core 20S proteasomes (20S) have binding sites for the regulatory ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/62/3/811
*  Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Plays a Key Role in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy | Diabetes
PKR-like eukaryotic initiation factor 2A kinase (PERK), which phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α) to ... Free fatty acids and cytokines induce pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis by different mechanisms: role of nuclear factor-kappaB and ... nerve growth factor, and the antioxidant α-lipoic acid, showed modest efficacy in clinical trials or adverse side effects. ... and activating transcription factor-6 (ATP-6), which translocates to the Golgi apparatus and produces an active transcription ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/62/3/944.long
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... anti-phospho-eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α), anti-phospho-JNK1/2, anti-total JNK1/2, anti-phospho-c-Jun, anti-cleaved ... The PERK eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha kinase is required for the development of the skeletal system, postnatal growth, ... Insulin and IGF-I stimulate the formation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4F complex and protein synthesis in C2C12 ... Regulation of insulin-like growth factor-dependent myoblast differentiation by Foxo forkhead transcription factors. J Cell Biol ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/57/4/846
*  Remodeling of Lipid Metabolism by Dietary Restriction of Essential Amino Acids | Diabetes
One of the earliest sensing events involves phosphorylation of the protein factor eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) by the ... C/EBP homology protein (CHOP) interacts with activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and negatively regulates the stress- ... Amino acid deprivation and endoplasmic reticulum stress induce expression of multiple activating transcription factor-3 mRNA ... initiation of dietary MR at 6 months of age prevents any further increase in adiposity over the following 6 months by producing ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/62/8/2635.full?patientinform-links=yes&legid=diabetes
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Selective inhibition of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 α dephosphorylation potentiates fatty acid-induced ... Attenuation of protein translation is executed by PERK through phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor ... PUMA expression is controlled by different transcription factors, including p53 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) (29,30). Time ... Initiation and execution of lipotoxic ER stress in pancreatic β-cells. J Cell Sci 2008;121:2308-2318pmid:18559892. ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/61/11/2763
*  Comment on Boden et al. Insulin Regulates the Unfolded Protein Response in Human Adipose Tissue. Diabetes 2014;63:912-922 |...
Influence of the hepatic eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response pathway on insulin- ... Dephosphorylation of translation initiation factor 2α enhances glucose tolerance and attenuates hepatosteatosis in mice. Cell ... Mice were studied in vivo after a 3-day high-fat diet, a dietary challenge that results in hepatic lipid accumulation and ... The effect was completely prevented by the inhibition of phosphatidylinositide 3 (PI3) kinase (2). Therefore, we addressed the ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/63/4/e1.full
*  Diet-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Liver Steatosis Are Prevented by DPP-4 Inhibition in Diabetic Mice | Diabetes
A recent study showed that the dephosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α by GADD34 in the liver resulted in ... Dephosphorylation of translation initiation factor 2alpha enhances glucose tolerance and attenuates hepatosteatosis in mice. ... Impact of GLP-1 and GLP-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes. Curr Diabetes Rev 2010;6:191-200 ... We assumed that, in combination with environmental factors such as an SL diet, high glucose or low insulin levels would induce ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/60/4/1246.long
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... eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase by a neurovirulent murine retrovirus. J Neurovirol 2005;11: ... Translational repression mediates activation of nuclear factor kappa B by phosphorylated translation initiation factor 2. Mol ... Activation transcription factor-4 induced by fibroblast growth factor-2 regulates vascular endothelial growth factor-A ... eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-α) antibody was obtained from Cell Signaling Technology (Boston, MA). Anti-eIF2-α, ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/61/2/492
*  Air Pollution and Type 2 Diabetes | Diabetes
Phosphorylated PERK and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2a were increased in the liver along with induction of C/EBP ... transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase; TBK, TANK-binding kinase 1; TRAF, TNF receptor-associated factor; TRIF, Toll/IL- ... Nontraditional factors such as air pollution that are pervasive in the urban environment may provide low-level synergism with ... Exposure to p,p'-DDE: a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. PLoS ONE 2009;4:e7503pmid:19838294. ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/61/12/3037?cited-by=yes&legid=diabetes
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... and the concentrations of eukaryotic elongation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) phosphorylated at serine 52 and JNK phosphorylated ... Several factors might be responsible for the apparent difference observed after TUDCA therapy in mice and our study in human ... These pharmacokinetic factors raise the possibility that adipose tissue did not get sufficient exposure to orally administered ... The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of TUDCA therapy on multiorgan insulin action and metabolic factors ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/59/8/1899
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Kozak M: Initiation of translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Gene234 :187 -208,1999. ... Blom N, Gammeltoft S, Brunak S: Sequence and structure-based prediction of eukaryotic protein phosphorylation sites. J Mol Biol ... to corticotrophin releasing factor; F, higher-power view). Tissue sections were photographed at ×400 (A, B, E, and F) and ×100 ... One possibility is that the smaller form results from translation initiation at an alternate start site, such as perhaps the ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/51/6/1763
*  Regulation of the Pancreatic Pro-Endocrine Gene Neurogenin3 | Diabetes
Kadonaga JT: Eukaryotic transcription: an interlaced network of transcription factors and chromatin-modifying machines. Cell 92 ... provide an outline of the opposing signals that activate and repress ngn3 gene expression and therefore control the initiation ... Multiple factors bind to the ngn3 promoter.. To identify nuclear factors that bind to the ngn3 promoter, we synthesized a ... In mice homozygous for a null mutation of the gene encoding the endoderm transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-6 ...
https://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/50/5/928?ijkey=e212c00a4393351d93caaff984ddcbc4ad3df4ab&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha