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*  Effects of WT1 down-regulation on oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development in pigs. | Sigma-Aldrich
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Fei Gao, Jiyu Guan, Limei Liu, Sheng Zhang, Peipei An, Anran Fan, Guangqi Song, Peng Zhang, Tianchuang Zhao, Bo Tang, Xueming Zhang, Ziyi Li].
https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/25030893
*  Antitumor Effect of Periplocin in TRAIL-Resistant Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells through Downregulation of IAPs
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/958025/cta/
*  Monoclonal antibody MX35 detects the membrane transporter NaPi2b (SLC34A2) in human carcinomas
Mouse monoclonal antibody MX35 was developed against ovarian cancer. The antibody showed homogeneous reactivity with approximately 90% of human ovarian epithelial cancers and with a limited number of normal tissues by immunohistochemistry. Although mAb MX35 has been used in a number of clinical trials in ovarian cancer, it has been difficult to define the molecular identity of MX35. We report here that mAb MX35 recognizes the sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein 2b (NaPi2b) in human cancer cells. This conclusion is based on several lines of experimental evidence, including 1) the identification of SLC34A2, the gene coding for NaPi2b, by immunoscreening an ovarian cancer cell line cDNA expression library with mAb MX35; 2) mass spectrometry sequencing of peptides obtained by fragmentation from mAb MX35 affinity-purified antigen, which show complete sequence homology to amino acid sequences in NaPi2b; 3) selective down-regulation of SLC34A2 gene expression by RNA interference and the ...
http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:43704
*  microRNA-122 down-regulation may play a role in severe myocardial fibrosis in human aortic stenosis through TGF-β1 up...
miRNAs (microRNAs) have been shown to play a role in myocardial fibrosis. The present study was designed to analyse whether alterations in miRNA expression contribute to the progression of myocardial fibrosis in AS (aortic valve stenosis) patients through up-regulation of the pro-fibrotic factor TGF-β1 (transforming growth factor-β type 1). Endomyocardial biopsies were obtained from 28 patients with severe AS, and from the necropsies of 10 control subjects. AS patients presented increased myocardial CVF (collagen volume fraction) and TGF-β1 compared with the controls, these parameters being correlated in all patients. Patients were divided into two groups by cluster analysis according to their CVF: SF (severe fibrosis; CVF ,15%; n=15) and non-SF (CVF ≤15%; n=13). TGF-β1 was increased in patients with SF compared with those with non-SF. To analyse the involvement of miRNAs in SF, the miRNA expression profile of 10 patients (four with non-SF and six with SF) was analysed showing that 99 ...
http://www.clinsci.org/content/126/7/497
*  Transcriptional regulation of left ventricular beta-adrenergic receptors during chronic hypoxia. | Circulation Research
beta-Adrenergic receptor downregulation is the end result of cellular adaptation to prolonged agonist exposure. The factors mediating receptor downregulation include receptor phosphorylation, receptor movement from the plasma membrane to intracellular sites, and alterations in nascent receptor synthesis. We have previously demonstrated a downregulation of the left ventricular beta-receptor during chronic hypoxia in vivo. To determine the mechanism of this downregulation, we produced chronic hypoxia in seven newborn lambs by creating right ventricular outflow obstruction and an atrial septal defect. Oxygen saturation was reduced to 65-74% for 2 weeks. Six lambs served as normoxic controls. Sarcolemmal membrane and cytosolic fractions were prepared from left ventricular free wall samples. beta-Receptor density in each fraction was determined with the radioligand [125I]iodocyanopindolol. Steady-state levels of beta-receptor mRNA were determined ...
http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/71/6/1465
*  Nef-mediated down-regulation of CD4 and HLA class I in HIV-1 subtype C infection: association with disease progression and...
Nef plays a major role in HIV-1 pathogenicity. We studied HIV-1 subtype C infected individuals in acute/early (n = 120) or chronic (n = 207) infection to investigate the relationship between Nef-mediated CD4/HLA-I down-regulation activities and disease progression, and the influence of immune-driven sequence variation on these Nef functions. A single Nef sequence per individual was cloned into an expression plasmid, followed by transfection of a T cell line and measurement of CD4 and HLA-I expression. In early infection, a trend of higher CD4 down-regulation ability correlating with higher viral load set point was observed (r = 0.19, p = 0.05), and higher HLA-I down-regulation activity was significantly associated with faster rate of CD4 decline (p = 0.02). HLA-I down-regulation function correlated inversely with the number HLA-associated polymorphisms previously associated with reversion in the absence of the selecting HLA allele (r = ...
https://www.paediatrics.ox.ac.uk/publications/484532
*  Area-1255: How to Prevent/Reverse Dopamine Receptor Downregulation from Dopamine Agonists, Stimulants and other Causes
While it is certainly notable that many neurodegenerative diseases can cause malfunction in dopamine neurons (Parkinson's, MS, Infections, FMNP, CFS) - that doesn't mean that dopamine issues can not occur without their involvement...and organic and / or idiopathic (of unknown cause) dopamine deficiency is not the only form of imbalance nor does it always affect receptor expression and / or internalization. ...
https://area1255.blogspot.com/2015/05/how-to-preventreverse-dopamine-receptor.html
*  DSpace at EWHA: Anti-inflammatory mechanism of sodium butyrate in brain microglia
Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. They are activated in response to brain injury and release neurotoxic factors including nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β. Inhibition of microglial activation, therefore, would be an effective therapeutic approach to alleviating the progression of diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we demonstrate that sodium butyrate repressed IFN-γ-induced expression of iNOS and TNF-α, but had little effect on LPS-induced expression in murine microglial cells. Sodium butyrate significantly inhibited NF-κB binding as well and NF-κB-mediated transcription induced by IFN-γ, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effect of sodium butyrate is mediated via specific inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In order to further determine the upstream signaling mechanism involved in the IFN-γ-specific down-regulation of iNOS ...
http://dspace.ewha.ac.kr/handle/2015.oak/187027
*  Viruses | Free Full-Text | Brockman, M.A., et al., Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I Down-Regulation by Human...
In the original manuscript, the text in figure 1 is illegible. Furthermore, there is an unnecessary carriage return (page 1716, ~line 18) 'crystallographic ... methods'. [...]
http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/4/10/2014/notes
*  Characterization of the novel role of parkin in Gliomagenesis | ScholarBank@NUS
Mutations in the parkin gene, which encodes a ubiquitin ligase, has been implicated as one of causative factor for genetic parkinsonism. Interestingly, parkin role has also been implicated in cancer as a putative tumor suppressor with the gene been frequently targeted by deletion and inactivation in several human malignant tumors. Here, we demonstrated a potential tumor suppressor role for parkin in gliomas. We found that parkin expression was dramatically reduced in glioma cells and that the restoration of parkin expression promoted G1 phase cell-cycle arrest and mitigated the proliferation rate of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, parkin-expressing glioma cells showed a reduction in levels of cyclin D1, but not cyclin E, and a selective downregulation of Akt serine-473 phosphorylation and VEGF receptor levels. In accordance, cells derived from a parkin-null mouse model exhibited increased levels of cyclin D1, VEGF receptor, and Akt phosphorylation, and divided significantly ...
http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/33346
*  Apoptosemodulation nach selektiver Inhibition der Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in humanen Lebertumorzelllinien - Kölner...
In the present work the mechanisms by which Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibition through the NSAR SC-58635 induces apoptosis were investigated in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines HepG2 containing WTp53 and HuH-7 possessing a mutated transcriptional inactive form of p53. The early activation of the initiator-caspase CASP-8 and the effector-caspases CASP-3 and CASP-9 during the apoptosis execution was demonstrated and functionally confirmed. The findings showed a link between selective COX-2 inhibition and the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. SC-58635 led to a rapid down-regulation of myeloid cell leukaemia-1 (MCL-1), an anti-apoptotic member of the BCL-2 family, followed by translocation of BAX and BID to mitochondria, CYT-C release from mitochondria and depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Consequently, overexpression of MCL-1 led to the inhibition of SC-58635 mediated apoptosis. In addition, blocking endogenous MCL-1 function using a small-interfering (si) RNA ...
http://kups.ub.uni-koeln.de/2422/
*  miR-29b and miR-198 overexpression in CD8+ T cells of renal cell carcinoma patients down-modulates JAK3 and MCL-1 leading to...
Over the past few years, the discovery of miRNAs has changed the landscape of human genetics and they have been widely studied in the field of oncology, where altered miRNA expression has been observed in a variety of human cancers [28]. Indeed, miRNA-expression profiling of human epithelial malignancies has led to the identification of signatures associated with diagnosis, staging, progression, prognosis and even response to treatment [29, 30]. However, few mechanistic studies have been carried out to dissect the functional role of miRNA in RCC, particularly in the context of "immune dysfunction" which may underlie disease progression. In fact, attaining effective tumor immunity is a major goal of the modern biologic therapy, limited by the tumor microenvironment and regulatory mechanisms affecting T cell and NK cell effectors [31].. The major finding in this report is that CD8+ T cells isolated from RCC patients exhibit defects in proliferation and a propensity to undergo apoptotic cell death ...
https://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12967-016-0841-9
*  Plus it
Our previous findings demonstrated that DNA damage by polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) triggers cellular protective response of cell growth inhibition (G1-S cell cycle arrest and inhibition of DNA synthesis) in human fibroblast associated with accumulation of p53 protein, a known cell growth inhibitory transcription factor. Here we report that in different cell lines BPDE treatment (ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene) triggers variable extent of cell growth inhibition which do not correspond to the extent of increased p53 accumulation as we observed. We also observed that BPDE treatment of cells significantly down-regulates expression of p34cdc2, a known cell cycle activating protein. Although the role of cdc2 down-regulation in inhibition of cell cycle progression is well known, to the best of our knowledge cdc2 down-regulation in response to cellular insult by PAHs has not been reported. Unlike p53 accumulation there is correspondence ...
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/73/8_Supplement/3586
*  Publications - Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC)
Research on the regulation of fish muscle physiology and growth was addressed originally by classical in vivo approaches; however, systemic interactions resulted in many questions that could be better considered through in vitro myocyte studies. The first paper published by our group in this field was with Tom Moon on brown trout cardiomyocytes, where the insulin and IGF-I receptors were characterized and the down-regulatory effects of an excess of peptides demonstrated. We followed the research on cultured skeletal muscle cells through the collaboration with INRA focused on the characterization of IGF-I receptors and its signaling pathways through in vitro development. Later on, we showed the important metabolic role of IGFs, although these studies were only the first stage of a prolific area of work that has offered a useful tool to advance in our knowledge of the endocrine and nutritional regulation of fish growth and metabolism. Obviously, the findings obtained in vitro ...
http://ibecbarcelona.eu/for-researchers/publications/?keyword=Receptors
*  Down-regulation - Biology-Online Dictionary
Home » Down-regulation. Down-regulation (Science: physiology) development of a refractory or tolerant state consequent upon repeated administration of a pharmacologically or physiologically active substance. It is the process that decreases ligand and receptor interactions or reduces the responsiveness of a cell to a stimulus following first exposure. this is often accompanied by an initial decrease in affinity of receptors for the agent and a subsequent reduction in the number of available receptors expressed on the surface which can result from internalisation of the ligand:receptor complex or from decreased expression of the receptor. Classically the concept referred to hormone receptors but contemporary usage includes other cell surface receptors. ...
http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Down-regulation
*  Plus it
Conversely, if one supposes that internalized receptor is immune to down-regulation and that down-regulation occurs proportionately to occupancy of receptor by agonist in the membrane, then again, down-regulation is greater at low fenoterol concentrations than the model predicts. As before this proposal cannot be saved by supposing a saturable process because the down-regulation is a first order process.. Kinetic models that are consistent with the data can be constructed if a pool of receptor in addition to the endocytosed pool can be invoked. Here we propose a scheme (Fig. 7A, model II), the key features of which are that down-regulation can occur by either of two pathways; one pathway involving a high agonist affinity component with a low capacity that is independent of internalization and a second pathway using a low-affinity, high-capacity event that is closely correlated with internalization. This scheme provides an ...
http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/58/2/421
*  Living in an RNA world - On Biology
The central dogma postulates that genes are first copied into messenger RNAs, which are then decoded into proteins with the help of transfer RNAs and ribosomal RNAs. It has long been known that there is more to the world of RNA than just these three classes, but the development of high-throughput RNA sequencing has revealed just how active RNAs can be. Much of the genome is transcribed, without these transcripts being translated into proteins. As these non-coding RNAs have been characterized, it is clear that many of them have regulatory roles. It has also been revealed how chemical modifications to all classes of RNAs affect their behavior, such as what they interact with and when, and how long they hang around for before being degraded.. Genome Biology has recently published a special issue on RNA & gene regulation, exploring this new world.. Perhaps some of the best understood regulatory RNAs are the microRNAs, short RNAs that bind to mRNA which mostly causes ...
http://blogs.biomedcentral.com/on-biology/2017/11/30/living-rna-world/
*  Epidermal growth factor receptor down-regulation during hepatocyte proliferation in-vivo and in-vitro - UCL Discovery
UCL Discovery is UCL's open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1326120/
*  Down-regulation of the microRNAs miR-34a, miR-127, and miR-200b in rat liver during hepatocarcinogenesis induced by a methyl...
Tryndyak, V. P., Ross, S. A., Beland, F. A. and Pogribny, I. P. (2009), Down-regulation of the microRNAs miR-34a, miR-127, and miR-200b in rat liver during hepatocarcinogenesis induced by a methyl-deficient diet. Mol. Carcinog., 48: 479-487. doi: 10.1002/mc.20484 ...
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mc.20484/references
*  北京大学医学部机构知识库(IR@PKUHSC): Autoimmunity Mediated Down-regulation Of B 2-adrenergic Receptor In COPD
Wei, W.,Ming, X.,Yi, Z. Y.,et al. Autoimmunity Mediated Down-regulation Of B 2-adrenergic Receptor In COPD[J]. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE,2010,181 ...
http://ir.bjmu.edu.cn/handle/400002259/60089
*  PIK93 | CAS#593960-11-3 | PI3K inhibitor | MedKoo Biosciences
PIK-93 is a potent PI3K inhibitor. PIK93 selectively inhibits the type III PI 4-kinase beta enzyme, and small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of the individual PI 4-kinase enzymes, revealed that PI 4-kinase beta has a dominant role in ceramide transport between the ER and Golgi.
http://www.medkoo.com/products/6280
*  Plus it
Our results show that genetic elimination of BAMBI as a modulator of the signaling of the family of TGF cytokines renders the almost-resistant C57BL/6 mouse strain more susceptible to the development of diabetic glomerular abnormalities, as determined by proteinuria with a widening of the FPs. This is associated with increased activation of ERK1/2 and Smad1/5 alternative TGF-β signaling pathways. The Vegfr2 and Angpt1 genes, which control glomerular endothelial survival and microvascular stability, were downmodulated in glomeruli from diabetic BAMBI−/− mice compared with BAMBI+/+ mice. Incubation of glomeruli from nondiabetic BAMBI+/+ or BAMBI−/− mice with TGF-β resulted in further downregulation of Angpt1 and Vegfr2 in glomeruli from BAMBI−/− compared with BAMBI+/+ mice. The enhanced downregulation of Vegfr2 in glomeruli of diabetic mice by eliminating BAMBI could be localized to glomerular endothelial cells using an H2B-EYFP reporter under the control of Vegfr2/Flk1 ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/64/6/2220
*  Curcumin suppresses cell growth and invasion and induces apoptosis by down-regulation of Skp2 pathway in glioma cells. | Sigma...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Lixia Wang, Xiantao Ye, Xingming Cai, Jingna Su, Renqiang Ma, Xuyuan Yin, Xiuxia Zhou, Huabin Li, Zhiwei Wang].
http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/26046466
*  Malonaldehyde MDA Down-Regulation | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological
Greenmedinfo.com - Natural Health Resource - The world's most widely referenced, open access, natural medicine database, with 30,000+ study abstracts and growing daily
http://www.greenmedinfo.com/pharmacological-action/malonaldehyde-mda-down-regulation
*  Day 40 - Down Regulation | Pyjamas and Crumpets
This morning I had my Down Regulation appointment. This consisted of yet another internal scan. And being taught how to use the pen that holds my next lot of drugs. Somehow I get the feeling that sticking a needle in me is a whole lot different to sticking a needle into the little pad thing…
https://pyjamasandcrumpets.wordpress.com/2017/02/21/day-40-down-regulation/