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*  The Intricate Role of Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) in Prenatal Osteogenesis: A Heretofore Oversimplified Dogma...
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is axiomatically necessary for proper skeletal development and function. We need not look further than the studies that have been done to date utilizing mice genetically engineered to lack CTGF production. These CTGF null or knockout (KO) mice fail to form a normal murine skeleton and instead yield one littered with bony dysmorphisms, including incompetent craniofacial development, kinked limb bones, and misshapen ribs that are not conducive to proper respiratory function. As a result, the global lack of CTGF is incompatible with postnatal life. A closer look at several sites demonstrated defects in physiologic processes necessary for bone formation - angiogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. Therefore, the dogma in the CCN protein field to date has been that systemic ablation of CTGF production in vivo results in global defects in bone development. We believe this dogma is an ...
http://digital.library.temple.edu/cdm/ref/collection/p245801coll10/id/233693/
*  Kunzmann, S., Schmidt-Weber, C., Zingg, J.M., Azzi, A., Kramer, B.W., Blaser, K., et al. (2007) Connective tissue growth factor...
Kunzmann, S., Schmidt-Weber, C., Zingg, J.M., Azzi, A., Kramer, B.W., Blaser, K., et al. (2007) Connective tissue growth factor expression is regulated by histamine in lung fibroblasts: Potential role of histamine in airway remodelling. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 119, 1398-1407. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2007.02.018
http://www.scirp.org/reference/ReferencesPapers.aspx?ReferenceID=730681
*  Connective Tissue Growth Factor Inhibition Attenuates Left Ventricular Remodeling and Dysfunction in Pressure Overload-Induced...
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is involved in the pathogenesis of various fibrotic disorders. However, its role in the heart is not clear. To investigate the role of CTGF in regulating the development of cardiac fibrosis and heart failure, we subjected mice to thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) or angiotensin II infusion, and antagonized the function of CTGF with CTGF monoclonal antibody (mAb). After 8 weeks of TAC, mice treated with CTGF mAb had significantly better preserved left ventricular (LV) systolic function and reduced LV dilatation compared with mice treated with control immunoglobulin G. CTGF mAb-treated mice exhibited significantly smaller cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and reduced expression of hypertrophic marker genes. CTGF mAb treatment reduced the TAC-induced production of collagen 1 but did not significantly attenuate TAC-induced accumulation of interstitial fibrosis. Analysis of genes regulating extracellular ...
http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/early/2014/03/31/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.03279
*  Interaction Between Connective Tissue Growth Factor and Fibronectin to Corneal Epithelial Cell Attachment and Migration | IOVS ...
Purpose: : Recent studies have reported that connective tissue growth factor(CTGF) biochemically binds to fibronectin(FN) and promotes cell activity on various cells. In this study, we investigate the interaction between CTGF and FN for corneal epithelial cell attachment and migration. Methods: : A human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) line that had been established by SV40-adenovirus recombinant vector was used in this study. CTGF-specific shRNA was synthesized and transfected into HCECs. The transfected cells were evaluated by western blot analysis to examine CTGF and FN production. For cell attachment assay, HCECs were either incubated with or without CTGF and were incubated in a FN-coated well or a BSA-coated well. After 45 minutes, the numbers of cells attached to the wells were counted. Another experiment was conducted to determine the interaction between CTGF and FN for epithelial cell migration. Rabbit cornea blocks were incubated ...
http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2368668
*  Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor by siRNA prevents liver fibrosis in rats - Li - 2006 - The Journal of Gene...
Li, G., Xie, Q., Shi, Y., Li, D., Zhang, M., Jiang, S., Zhou, H., Lu, H. and Jin, Y. (2006), Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor by siRNA prevents liver fibrosis in rats. J. Gene Med., 8: 889-900. doi: 10.1002/jgm.894 ...
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgm.894/references
*  Gentaur Molecular :FabGennix \ Connective tissue growth factor, Biotin conjugates \ CTGF-Biotin
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , FabGennix \ Connective tissue growth factor, Biotin conjugates \ CTGF-Biotin for more molecular products just contact us
http://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product_det.php?id=3099201&supplier=search&name=Connective%20tissue%20growth%20factor,%20Biotin%20conjugates%20
*  Human Connective Tissues | ClipArt ETC
This human anatomy ClipArt gallery offers 54 illustrations of human connective tissues, including fibrous connective tissue (e.g., ligaments, tendons), cartilage, osseous tissue, and adipose tissue.. ...
http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/galleries/166-human-connective-tissues
*  Hypomethylation of the CTGF gene locus is a common feature of paediatric pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia - Murdoch...
The connective tissue growth factor gene (CTGF) is aberrantly expressed in 75% of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (pre-B ALL) and is associated with poor outcome. We identified consistent hypomethylation of the CTGF locus in primary pre-B ALL specimens regardless of CTGF expression. By contrast, primary T-cell ALL specimens, which do not express CTGF, exhibited distinctive patterns of hypermethylation. Furthermore, we confirmed that global changes in DNA methylation and histone acetylation can both functionally modulate CTGF expression in pre-B ALL cell lines. These data suggest that hypomethylation of the CTGF locus is an essential prerequisite for aberrant CTGF expression in pre-B ALL.. ...
http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/16801/
*  Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) enhances lactogenic differentiation of mammary epithelial cells via integrin...
Stromal mediators play a fundamental role in promoting mammary differentiation, and the contact between mammary epithelial cells and components of the basement membrane contributes to the prolactin-induced transcription of milk proteins [47]. Using the Tet-off system for inducible CTGF/CCN2 expression in the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cell background, CTGF/CCN2 not only enhanced the early transcription of β-casein in response to lactogenic hormone, but also contributed to the formation of mammospheres, a hallmark of terminal differentiation in these cells. In addition, exogenous CTGF/CCN2 enhanced the formation of differentiated MCF10A acini in three dimensional cultures, extending the role of CTGF/CCN2 to another culture system which is likely to be structurally and physiologically relevant to the in vivo setting [42]. The role of CTGF/CCN2 in lactogenic differentiation may depend on its function in the expression and stabilization of matrix-integrin complexes, an activity which promotes ...
https://bmccellbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2121-11-35
*  CTGF Gene - GeneCards | CTGF Protein | CTGF Antibody
Complete information for CTGF gene (Protein Coding), Connective Tissue Growth Factor, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?id_type=entrezgene&id=1490
*  N-terminal domains of CCN family 2/connective tissue growth factor bind to aggrecan | Biochemical Journal
CCN2/CTGF, which consists of four domains (IGFBP, VWC, TSP1 and CT domains), regulates the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes as well as the production of ECM in cartilage. CCN2/CTGF stimulates aggrecan synthesis in HCS-2/8 chondrocytic cells and primary rabbit chondrocytes [6]. In the present study, for the first time, we provide experimental evidence that CCN2/CTGF binds to aggrecan through its N-terminal domains (IGFBP and VWC domains). Furthermore, we have shown that the N-terminal half of CCN2/CTGF (IGFBP-VWC domain) strongly enhances aggrecan synthesis and secretion by HCS-2/8 chondrocytes. The same domain has been reported to interact with IGF [27], TGF-β and BMP-4 [16]; thus this N-terminal part of CCN2/CTGF may be important in transducing cell-surface signalling into the cells.. Previously, we have shown that the C-terminal CT domain of CCN2/CTGF binds to ECM proteins, such as fibronectin, and enhances cell adhesion to fibronectin [11]. In light of other reports on the ...
http://www.biochemj.org/content/420/3/413
*  Role of low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1) in CCN2/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) protein...
LRP1 is known to be a receptor for signal transmission and endocytosis. We formerly reported that LRP1 regulates WNT/β-catenin and protein kinase C signaling in chondrocytes and represses the hypertrophy of chondrocytes during endochondral ossification, and that LRP1 is co-localized with a ligand, CCN2, which conducts endochondral ossification, on chondrocytes. However, the role of LRP1 in endocytotic transport of CCN2 in chondrocytes is not yet understood. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between LRP1 and CCN2 during endocytotic trafficking.. RNAi-mediated knockdown of LRP1 in chondrocytic HCS-2/8 cells showed that the amount of exogenous CCN2 binding/incorporation was decreased in the LRP1 down-regulated cells. Importantly, we observed that CCN2 internalization in chondrocytes was dependent on clathrin and internalizated CCN2 was co-localized with an early or recycling endosome marker. Transcytosis of CCN2 through HCS-2/8 cells was confirmed by performing experiments with ...
http://jcs.biologists.org/content/early/2012/03/27/jcs.101956
*  The role of tumor cell-derived connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) in pancreatic tumor growth. | Sigma-Aldrich
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Kevin L Bennewith, Xin Huang, Christine M Ham, Edward E Graves, Janine T Erler, Neeraja Kambham, Jonathan Feazell, George P Yang, Albert Koong, Amato J Giaccia].
http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/19179545
*  miR-133 and miR-30 Regulate Connective Tissue Growth Factor | Circulation Research
In response to numerous pathological stimuli, such as hypertension and pressure loading, ECM proteins accumulate excessively in the heart. This process alters mechanical and electric properties, which adversely affects the function of the heart.2 The ECM of the healthy heart is subjected to a balanced turnover: on the one hand, new ECM components are synthesized by cardiac fibroblasts; and on the other hand, ECM components are continuously degraded by the action of a large family of matrix metalloproteinases, which are produced by multiple cell types in the heart (reviewed by Spinale27). The accumulation of ECM proteins in hearts of patients with LVH and heart failure has been attributed to an imbalance in the ratio of matrix metalloproteinases to their inhibitors (TIMPs) in favor of reduced proteolytic activity, as well as an increased production of ECM components by cardiac fibroblasts.27,28. CTGF, a profibrotic growth factor, is considered a key molecule in the control of ...
http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/104/2/170
*  Connective tissue growth factor antibodies - FibroGen, Inc.
The present invention relates to antibodies that bind to CTGF. The antibodies are particularly directed to regions of CTGF involved in biological activities associated with fibrosis. The invention als
http://www.freepatentsonline.com/9034643.html
*  Induction of Connective Tissue Growth Factor by Angiotensin II. Integration of Signaling Pathways | Arteriosclerosis,...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. ...
http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/early/2003/08/28/01.ATV.0000092913.60428.E6
*  The Functional and Clinicopathological Roles and Therapeutic Implication of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Peritoneal...
For the past 50 years, gastric cancer has been one of the ten most frequent cancers and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. In Taiwan, it is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related deaths, accounting for 6.3% of all cancer deaths. The poor prognosis of gastric cancer is mostly caused by the extensive metastasis to the lymph nodes, liver, and peritoneal dissemination even if curative resection was performed. The main cause of recurrence after curative or noncurative resection of advanced tumors is peritoneal metastasis because of possible direct spillage and dissemination of tumor cells as a result of surgical manipulation, and it is associated with a poor prognosis. As yet, no effective treatment has been developed for this condition. The development of peritoneal metastasis is a multistep process, beginning with attachment to peritoneal mesothelial cells, retraction of the mesothelial cells and exposure of the basement membrane, attachment to the basement ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01627119
*  Connective tissue growth factor: matrix localisation, regulation and possible function in articular cartilage
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https://oacentre.kennedy.ox.ac.uk/publications/235676
*  A Phase 1/2 multidose, dose escalation study to evaluate RXI-109 administered by intravitreal injection to reduce the...
Purpose : Almost half of the patients with NVAMD on anti-VEGF therapy develop retinal scars within two years of initiating treatment. These scars have a negative impact on vision. A major contributor to the scarring process is the upregulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Here we investigate the potential of RXI-109, a self-delivering oligonucleotide (sd-rxRNA®) that works through an RNA interference mechanism to reduce CTGF mRNA levels and decrease CTGF protein levels in patients with NVAMD. Methods : RXI-109 is being evaluated in a Phase 1/2, multidose, dose escalation study to reduce the progression of subretinal fibrosis in subjects with NVAMD. At least 9 subjects, 3 per dose cohort, will be enrolled. Subjects receive 4 doses of RXI-109 administered monthly by intravitreal injection followed by a four-month observation period. Safety assessments include the incidence, severity and relationship of adverse events (AEs). ...
http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2640588
*  Helping to Heal Broken Hearts ‹ Plymouth Magazine
In the Molecular Genetics Lab in Boyd Science Center, Kennedy and her colleagues-a mix of ambitious graduate and undergraduate biology students-have homed in on a particular gene called Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF), which plays a key role in the body's healing process. Following a heart attack, or in the case of cardiovascular disease, "CTGF acts as a signaling molecule, telling different cytokines [proteins], 'Come here, we need to help fix this,'" explains Kennedy. "The question is, are there differences in each person's CTGF gene that affect the levels of fibrosis severity that person develops?". Since she arrived at PSU in fall 2014, Kennedy has been working closely with her colleagues to answer that question. She's been involved in just about every aspect of the research, including taking cell samples from healthy subjects across campus via cheek swab, extracting DNA from the cells, and amplifying (copying) regions of the CTGF ...
https://www.plymouth.edu/magazine/features/helping-heal-broken-hearts/
*  Biomarker may predict early Alzheimer's disease
The discovery, published in Nature Communications, may also provide a means of homing drugs to diseased areas of the brain to treat AD, Parkinson's disease, as well as glioblastoma, brain injuries and stroke, medicalxpress.com wrote.. Aman Mann, PhD, research assistant professor at SBP who shares the lead authorship of the study with Pablo Scodeller, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher at SBP, said, 'Our goal was to find a new biomarker for AD.. "We have identified a peptide (DAG) that recognizes a protein that is elevated in the brain blood vessels of AD mice and human patients.. "The DAG target, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) appears in the AD brain before amyloid plaques, the pathological hallmark of AD.. 'CTGF is a protein that is made in the brain in response to inflammation and tissue repair.. 'Our finding that connects elevated levels of CTGF with AD is consistent with the growing body of evidence suggesting that ...
http://iran-daily.com/News/204177.html
*  Unraveling Pleiotropic Effects Of Statins | Circulation Research
In this issue of Circulation Research, Fu et al23 extend existing knowledge about antithrombotic effects of statins by providing us with a detailed explanation for the responsible signaling pathways. Both cultured human umbilical vein and human coronary artery endothelial cells were studied for their ability to regulate expression of TM, tPA, PAI-1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and thrombospondin (TSP)-1 (both thrombotic factors) under statin treatment. They show, for the first time, that specific TM promoter sites are involved in statin-induced TM upregulation. Atorvastatin induces TM upregulation through the promoter regions heat shock element (HSE)-1 and -3. In addition, mutation of the TM promoter regions HSE-3 and SP1/KLF, to which Krüppel-like factor (KLF)-2 binds, appears to completely abolish atorvastatin- and pravastatin-induced TM upregulation. This suggests a synergism between the ...
http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/103/4/334
*  Most recent papers with the keyword Diabetes diastolic dysfunction | Read by QxMD
Hyperglycemia up-regulates intracellular angiotensin II (ANG-II) production in cardiac myocytes. This study investigated the hemodynamic and metabolic effects of azilsartan (AZL) treatment in a mouse model of diabetic cardiomyopathy and whether the cardioprotective effects of AZL are mediated by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-2/ANG 1-7/Mas receptor (R) cascade. Control db/+ and db/db mice (n=5 per group) were treated with vehicle or AZL (1 or 3mg/kg/d oral gavage) from the age of 8 to 16weeks. Echocardiography was then performed and myocardial protein levels of ACE-2, Mas R, AT1R, AT2R, osteopontin, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and nitrotyrosine were measured by Western blotting ...
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/keyword/41861