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*  Confidence Intervals for fMRI Activation Maps
Neuroimaging activation maps typically color voxels to indicate whether the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals measured among two or more experimental conditions differ significantly at that location. This data presentation, however, omits information critical for interpretation of experimental results. First, no information is represented about trends at voxels that do not pass the statistical test. Second, no information is given about the range of probable effect sizes at voxels that do pass the statistical test. This leads to a fundamental error in interpreting activation maps by naïve viewers, where it is assumed that colored,
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0082419
*  Clinico-Pathological Discrepancies in the Diagnosis of Causes of Maternal Death in Sub-Saharan Africa: Retrospective Analysis
Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; NPV, negative predictive value; PPV, positive predictive value; VA, verbal autopsy ... confidence interval [CI]: 0.5%-49.5%), a specificity of 98.3% (95% CI: 96.0%-100%), a PPV of 60.0% (95% CI: 32.3%-87.7%), an ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1000036
*  Neuropeptide S (NPS) variants modify the signaling and risk effects of NPS Receptor 1 (NPSR1) variants in asthma
Bars represent 95% confidence intervals (CI). OR: Odds Ratio. Given the allele and genotype frequencies, the dominant model ... The error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. In all experiments, results were calculated with the comparative Ct method. ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0176568
*  Monitoring the Systemic Human Memory B Cell Compartment of Melanoma Patients for Anti-Tumor IgG Antibodies
... confidence interval and maximum reactivity to melanoma cells. A two-sided Student's t test was used to compare the mean ... confidence intervals. Mean fluorescence intensity of A-375 tumor cells pre-labeled with the live cell dye Calcein AM, and ... assays at 30 minute intervals. Live Calcein AM-labeled melanoma tumor cells (green) were incubated with 6_2G3 or 6_2D10 ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0019330
*  Statin Use and Risk of Lung Cancer: a Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials
Fixed-effect and random-effect models were used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence ... intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analysis and cumulative meta-analysis were also performed. A total of 20 (five ... confidence intervals; diamond indicates summary relative risk estimate with its corresponding 95% confidence interval. ... confidence intervals; diamond indicates summary relative risk estimate with its corresponding 95% confidence interval. ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0077950
*  Preconceptional Folate Supplementation and the Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth: A Cohort Study
Although the confidence intervals of some of the strata were large and crossed unity due to a small size of the strata, the ... Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio, IQR, interquartile range; OR, odds ratio; PPROM ... This is reflected in their wide confidence intervals. However, the estimates remain statistically significant also using exact ... confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.61, p = 0.004) and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1000061
*  Candidate Gene Association Study in Type 2 Diabetes Indicates a Role for Genes Involved in β-Cell Function as Well as Insulin...
Abbreviations: ABC, ATP-binding cassette; BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; CV, coefficient of variation; fSSCP, ... confidence interval [CI] [26.6, 29.9] for homozygous 22 versus 26.2 kg/m2, 95% CI [25.9, 26.5] for homozygous 11 and 26.3 kg/m2 ... In studies that are not based on fine-mapping of linkage intervals, but rather on candidate genes selected on the basis of data ...
http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.0000020
*  Inter-vendor reproducibility of left and right ventricular cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature-tracking
Panel e-h: Bland-Altman plots with limits of agreement (95% confidence intervals) demonstrating the CMR-FT derived ... Panel e-h: Bland-Altman plots with limits of agreement (95% confidence intervals) demonstrating the CMR-FT derived ... Panel e-h: Bland-Altman plots with limits of agreement (95% confidence intervals) demonstrating the CMR-FT derived ... confidence intervals) demonstrating the CMR-FT derived reproducibility at an intra-observer level are being displayed. ...
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193746
*  Even- and odd-chain saturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids are differentially associated with adipokines
Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the ... Table 2. Multivariate adjusted geometric means (and 95% confidence interval) for adipokines among phospholipids saturated fatty ... Multivariate adjusted geometric means (and 95% confidence interval) for adipokines among phospholipids saturated fatty acids ( ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0178192
*  Association of the Innate Immunity and Inflammation Pathway with Advanced Prostate Cancer Risk
OR: Odds Ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval; P-value: P-value of the Wald test of association of the heterozygote or rare ... Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and P-values were estimated using both co-dominant and log-additive models ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0051680
*  Racism, Gun Ownership and Gun Control: Biased Attitudes in US Whites May Influence Policy Decisions
Odds ratios (OR) are reported with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for univariate and multivariate relationships with the outcome ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0077552
*  MYT1L mutations cause intellectual disability and variable obesity by dysregulating gene expression and development of the...
Data presented as median z-score +/- 95% confidence interval AHN = anterior hypothalamic nucleus. DMHN = dorsomedial ... confidence interval. (B) MYT1L expression levels in the developing hypothalamus are significantly higher at 15-16 post ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1006957
*  Rabies Exposures, Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and Deaths in a Region of Endemic Canine Rabies
Binomial confidence intervals were reported for proportions. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in exposure ... PEP dramatically reduced the risk of developing rabies (odds ratio [OR] 17.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.39-60.83) and ... to obtain information on intervals between exposure and reporting to hospital for PEP, and ways used to raise funds to pay for ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0000339
*  A Spatio-temporal Model of African Animal Trypanosomosis Risk
The confidence interval is presented as a red dashed line.. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003921.g005 ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0003921
*  Rare Species Support Vulnerable Functions in High-Diversity Ecosystems
Shaded areas indicate the 95% confidence intervals for each relationship. ns p,0.05, * p≤0.05, ** p≤0.01, *** p≤0.001. ... Confidence intervals for each quantile regression were obtained using a kernel estimate implemented in the function summary. ... For each level of vulnerability, we obtained the confidence interval at 90% by randomization and we tested whether the observed ... For each level of vulnerability we obtained the confidence interval at 90% (grey horizontal bar) by randomization and we tested ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1001569
*  New Insight into the History of Domesticated Apple: Secondary Contribution of the European Wild Apple to the Genome of...
Confidence intervals for the posterior probabilities were computed using the limiting distribution of the maximum likelihood ... CI2.5 and CI97.5 are boundaries of the 95% confidence intervals. (A) Analyses on a pruned dataset with misclassified wild ... confidence interval: 0.63-0.72). Note that the model without admixture (model d) had the lowest relative posterior probability ... Posterior distributions are summarized as the mode and boundaries of the 95% credibility intervals (CI2.5 and CI97.5). ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1002703
*  CONSORT for Reporting Randomized Controlled Trials in Journal and Conference Abstracts: Explanation and Elaboration
Authors should present confidence intervals for the contrast between groups and as a measure of the precision (uncertainty) of ... confidence interval 2.98-5.51) the odds of having outcomes favouring the sponsor than studies funded by other sources [73]. ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.0050020
*  Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study
... confidence interval, 1.3-2.3) for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3) for obese women. The odds ratio ... confidence interval 1.8-8.6) among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.3) among non-smokers. The effect estimates ... We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of ... confidence interval, 1.3-2.3) for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3) for obese women. The odds ratio ...
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0152187
*  Classification of patients with knee osteoarthritis in clinical phenotypes: Data from the osteoarthritis initiative
A post hoc Sidak test was used to correct for multiple comparisons; p values and confidence intervals were bootstrapped (bias- ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0191045
*  Comparison of Standing Posture Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis with DXA for Body Composition in a Large, Healthy Chinese...
Abbreviations: BF%, Body fat percentage; BIA, Bioelectrical impedance analysis; BMI, Body mass index; CI, Confidence interval; ... Fig 2. Bland-Altman plot of the difference between BF%BIA8 and BF%DXA in mean difference expressed as bias, 95% confidence ... interval expressed as bias ± 2 SD.. (a) Total subjects (n = 711); bias ± SD: -3.72 ± 4.09%, bias- 2SD: -11.90%, bias + 2 SD: ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0160105
*  Genetic Association Study Identifies HSPB7 as a Risk Gene for Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy
P-values, odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. The inflation factor λ was computed in the ... between rs1739843 in HSPB7 and idiopathic DCM was replicated in three independent samples strongly enhances the confidence in ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1001167
*  Second-generation p-values: Improved rigor, reproducibility, & transparency in statistical analyses
The approach relies on a pre-specified interval null hypothesis that represents the collection of effect sizes that are ... and because support intervals are essentially unadjusted confidence intervals, we decided not to feature support intervals in ... from a likelihood support interval to a Bayesian credible interval, could be used in place of the 95% confidence interval (more ... The length of the confidence interval, 8.82, is more than twice the length of the null interval, 4. Therefore, pδ is: (3) ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0188299
*  Dentists Make Larger Holes in Teeth Than They Need to If the Teeth Present a Visual Illusion of Size
Slopes and intercepts were within 90% confidence intervals of 1 and 0 respectively. ... We are aware that the number of participants we have is quite small, but have some confidence in our belief that there are ...
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0077343