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*  A long-term follow-up of clinical response and regional cerebral blood flow changes in depressed patients treated with ECT.
article{52f292cc-16b9-41a5-8fa8-599e6a1db539, abstract = {Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most potent therapy. We investigated the clinical response and regional cerebral blood flow changes in depressed in patients treated with (ECT) in a repeated longitudinal study. Method: Forty-nine patients (21 men and 28 women) with a mean age 61 years underwent ECT. Forty-one patients grading improvement after the initial ECT-series (responder group) were compared with eight, grading no improvement (non-responder group). The patients underwent neuropsychiatric ratings, measure of clinical response (defined as≥50% reduction of pre-treatment depression score) and measure of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF).}, author = {Berggren, Ake and Gustafson, Lars and Höglund, Peter and Johanson, Aki}, issn = {1573-2517}, language = {eng}, number = {Jun 12}, pages = {235--243}, publisher = {Elsevier}, series = {Journal of Affective Disorders}, ...
https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/4583386
*  REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW FOLLOWING RESUSCITATION FROM HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK IN DOGS WITH A SUBDURAL MASS | Anesthesiology | ASA...
J. M. Whitley, D. S. Prough, A. K. Lamb, D. D. Deal, D. S. DeWitt; REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW FOLLOWING RESUSCITATION FROM HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK IN DOGS WITH A SUBDURAL MASS. Anesthesiology 1988;69(3A):A539. Download citation file:. ...
http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1964140
*  RWJMS - Departments and Institutes - Physiology and Biophysics
Chi, O.Z., C. Hunter, X. Liu, S.K. Chokshi and H.R. Weiss. Effects of fentanyl pretreatment on regional cerebral blood flow in focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Pharmacol. 85:153-157, 2010.. Chi, O.Z., C. Hunter, X. Liu and H.R. Weiss. The effects of isoflurane pretreatment on cerebral blood flow, capillary permeability, and oxygen consumption in focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Anesth. Analg. 110:1412-1418, 2010.. Liu, X., C. Hunter, H.R. Weiss and O.Z. Chi. Effects of blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors on blood-brain barrier disruption in focal cerebral ischemia. Neurol. Sci. 31:699-703, 2010.. Chi, O.Z., C. Hunter, X. Liu, Y. Chi and H.R. Weiss. Effects of GABAA receptor blockade on regional cerebral blood flow and blood-brain barrier disruption in focal cerebral ischemia. J. Neurol. Sci. 301:66-70, 2011.. Chi, O.Z., C. Hunter, X. Liu and H.R. Weiss. The effects of dexmedetomidine on regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption during severe hemorrhagic hypotension in rats. ...
http://www.rwjms.rutgers.edu/neuroscience/faculty/Weiss.html
*  Positron emission tomography measured cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism are decreased in human type 1 diabetes |...
Subclinical systemic microvascular dysfunction exists already in asymptomatic patients with type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that microangiopathy, resulting from long-standing systemic hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, may be generalized to the brain, resulting in changes in cerebral blood flow and metabolism in these patients. We performed dynamic [15O]H2O and [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) brain positron emission tomography (PET) scans to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglu), respectively, in 30 type 1 diabetic patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls after an overnight fast. Regions of interest were automatically delineated on co-registered MRI images and full kinetic analysis was performed. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were higher in patients versus controls. Total grey matter CBF was 9%, whereas CMRglu was 21% lower in type 1 diabetic versus control subjects. We conclude that at real-life fasting glucose and insulin levels, type 1 ...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/early/2013/03/22/db12-1159?cited-by=yes&legid=diabetes%3Bdb12-1159v1
*  Arterial spin labeling imaging reveals widespread and Aβ-independent reductions in cerebral blood flow in elderly...
Changes in cerebral blood flow are an essential feature of Alzheimer's disease and have been linked to apolipoprotein E-genotype and cerebral amyloid-deposition. These factors could be interdependent or influence cerebral blood flow via different mechanisms. We examined apolipoprotein E-genotype, amyloid beta-deposition, and cerebral blood flow in amnestic mild cognitive impairment using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling MRI in 27 cognitively normal elderly and 16 amnestic mild cognitive impairment participants. Subjects underwent Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography and apolipoprotein E-genotyping. Global cerebral blood flow was lower in apolipoprotein E ɛ4-allele carriers (apolipoprotein E4+) than in apolipoprotein E4- across all subjects (including cognitively normal participants) and within the group of cognitively normal elderly. Global cerebral blood flow was lower in subjects with mild cognitive impairment compared with cognitively normal. Subjects with ...
http://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/117708/
*  Frontiers | Glutamate Levels and Resting Cerebral Blood Flow in Anterior Cingulate Cortex Are Associated at Rest and...
Progressive loss of brain tissue is seen in some patients with schizophrenia and might be caused by increased levels of glutamate and resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alterations. Animal studies suggest that normalization of glutamate levels decreases rCBF and prevents structural changes in hippocampus. However, the relationship between glutamate and rCBF in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of humans has not been studied in the absence of antipsychotics and illness chronicity. Ketamine is a non-competitive N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor antagonist that transiently induces schizophrenia-like symptoms and neurobiological disturbances in healthy volunteers (HV). Here, we used S-ketamine challenge to assess if glutamate levels were associated with rCBF in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in 25 male HV. Second, we explored if S-ketamine changed neural activity as reflected by rCBF alterations in thalamus and accumbens that are connected with ACC. Glutamatergic metabolites were measured in ACC with magnetic
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00022/full
*  Cerebrovascular circulation: Definition with Cerebrovascular circulation Pictures and Photos
Definition of Cerebrovascular circulation with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
http://lexic.us/definition-of/cerebrovascular_circulation
*  The Value of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Measurements Compared to Angiography in the Assessment of Obstructive Neck Vessel...
In 50 patients with internal carotid artery occlusion and 40 patients with internal carotid artery stenosis hemispheric and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by the 133Xenon clearance method, rCBF was evaluated according to the presence of ischemic or hyperemic foci and to the level of regional perfusion alteration. The degree of collateral circula tion and diameter of stenosis were determined from the angiograms. The clinical symptoms were expressed in a score of motor deficiencies. In internal carotid artery occlusion no correla tion of motor deficiency index with angiographically demonstrable collateral circulation was detectable, but there was good correlation with hemispheric CBF and an excellent correlation (P , 0.001) with the rCBF parameters. In internal carotid artery stenosis no correlation existed between motor deficiency and the degree of stenosis or hemispheric CBF, but good correlation was observed between motor deficiency and the rCBF parameters (P , 0.01). ...
http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/5/1/19
*  Cerebral blood flow and neuropsychological asymmetries in unilateral stroke. | Stroke
This study sought to determine the degree of agreement between asymmetries of neuropsychological functioning and nine methods of quantifying asymmetries of regional cerebral blood flow.. The regional cerebral blood flow methods combined three markers of cerebral blood flow asymmetry (percent hemispheric difference, maximum percent probe-pair asymmetry, and number of probe-pair asymmetries) with three indexes of regional cerebral blood flow (fast compartment flow, initial slope index, and initial slope). Eleven patients with left hemispheric ischemic strokes and 13 with right hemispheric ischemic strokes were studied with the xenon-133 inhalation technique and neuropsychological tests.. Blind clinical judgments of neuropsychological asymmetry significantly correlated with all nine methods of cerebral blood flow asymmetry determination; correlations ranged from -0.42 to -0.77. Clinical judgment of asymmetry of neuropsychological functioning accurately predicted the hemisphere of lower flow in ...
http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/22/11/1384
*  Brain Function Rehabilitation Apparatus (Bfra) Effect on Cerebral Circulation and Cerebral Function, viXra.org e-Print archive,...
Objective] Clinical observation of Brain Function Rehabilitation Apparatus (BFRA) effect on cerebral circulation and cerebral function. [Methods] The patients with cerebrovascular disease in 180 cases, divided into cerebral infarction group and cerebral arteriosclerosis group, vertebrobasilar insufficiency group, 60 cases in each group, according to the visiting sequence is divided into drug treatment group and treatment group, 30 cases in each instrument.The drug therapy group according to the disease treatment of conventional dosage, the treatment group used instruments Brain Function Rehabilitation Apparatus, continuous treatment for 30 days. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM), which reflect the changes of cerebral blood flow, were used as observation indexes. [Results] In patients with cerebral infarction curative effect of experimental group was significantly better than the control group (P , 0.01), and TCD and BEAM in the two ...
http://vixra.org/abs/1708.0251
*  Assessment of regional cerebral blood flow by dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI using different deconvolution techniques |...
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed using dynamic susceptibility-contrast MRI at 1.5 T. A simultaneous dual FLASH pulse sequence and Gd-DTPA-BMA (0.3 mmol/kg b.w.) were used for examination of 43 volunteers, measuring rCBF in frontal white matter (WM) and in gray matter in the thalamus (GM). Arterial input functions (AIFs) were registered 1) in the carotid artery and 2) in an artery within the GM/WM slice. The measured concentration-vs. -time curve was deconvolved with the AIF using both Fourier Transform (FT) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). Relative rCBF was given by the height of the deconvolved response curve. For each volunteer, eight different rCBF maps were calculated, representing different combinations of deconvolution techniques, AIFs, and filters. The average GM-WM rCBF ratios ranged from 2.0-2.2, depending on methodology. Absolute rCBF was 68 +/- 28 ml/(min 100 g) in GM and 35 +/- 13 ml/(min 100g) in WM (mean +/- SD, n = 39). GM-WM rCBF ratios obtained using SVD ...
http://www.madforcancer.lu.se/freddy-stahlberg/publication/5e61b821-9cfd-42d1-9529-724bf148c5c5
*  Gray matter blood flow change is unevenly distributed during moderate isocapnic hypoxia in humans
Hypoxia increases cerebral blood flow (CBF), but it is unknown whether this increase is uniform across all brain regions. We used H215O positron emission tomography imaging to measure absolute blood flow in 50 regions of interest across the human brain (n = 5) during normoxia and moderate hypoxia. PCO2 was kept constant (44 Torr) throughout the study to avoid decreases in CBF associated with the hypocapnia that normally occurs with hypoxia. Breathing was controlled by mechanical ventilation. During hypoxia (inspired PO2 = 70 Torr), mean end-tidal PO2 fell to 45 ᠶ.3 Torr (means ᠓D). Mean global CBF increased from normoxic levels of 0.39 ᠰ.13 to 0.45 ᠰ.13 ml/g during hypoxia. Increases in regional CBF were not uniform and ranged from 9.9 ᠸ.6% in the occipital lobe to 28.9 ᠱ0.3% in the nucleus accumbens. Regions of interest that were better perfused during normoxia generally showed a greater regional CBF response. Phylogenetically older regions of the brain tended to show larger ...
https://research-repository.griffith.edu.au/handle/10072/23274
*  Monitoring of Cerebral Blood Flow Autoregulation Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is normally autoregulated within a range of blood pressures, thus, allowing for a constant cerebral O2 supply commensurate with metabolic demands. The lower limit of blood pressure during general anesthesia deemed tolerable is usually empirically chosen without regard to an individual's lower autoregulatory threshold. This practice may lead to cerebral hypoperfusion in some patients placing them at risk for cerebral ischemic injury. This is particularly true during cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass where mean blood pressure is maintained at some level greater than 50 mm Hg or even lower during surgical mandated situations. This practice is concern for the rising number of aged surgical patients with cerebral vascular disease whom are prone to cerebral hypoperfusion. Individualizing blood pressure to be within the patient's autoregulatory range would more likely ensure adequate CBF during surgery. In this study we will evaluate whether real-time monitoring ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00769691?term=heart+surgery+OR+coronary+artery+bypass+surgery+OR+heart+transplant&recr=Open&fund=01&rank=9
*  Cerebral Blood Flow
Four major, interdependent mechanisms are involved in the control of cerebral blood flow: metabolic coupling: neural control, involving both extrinsic and intrinsic neural pathways: Pco2 and autoregulation. Although this division may be somewhat artificial and these control mechanisms probably operate in concert, it is useful to consider each separately. Metabolic Control Local cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regionally heterogeneous. The varied pattern of CBF is neither random nor related to the anatomic organization of the cerebral vasculature or to known differences in the innervation patterns of the cerebral vessels. Neuronal activity is the principal energy-consuming process in the brain. Local cerebral blood flow adjusts to the level of energy generation; therefore, it is the activity in the neuronal circuits that is the major determinant of variations and regional patterns of cerebral blood flow. Normally there is exquisite coupling between the regional cerebral metabolic demand for oxygen ...
http://www.vascularneurosurgery.com/cbf.html
*  Cerebrovascular Circulation Modelling Software?
Hello, Does anyone know if there is a cerebrovascular circulation modelling kit (human brain) available? I wonder if such a program exists - one that show changes in regional circulation due to stenosis, atrophy, stroke, mass shifts, etc. Is there any rudimentary software that may be modified for this purpose? Your comments and ideas are greatly appreciated, Thank you in advance, Ketan. ------------------ Ketan N. Patel University of Toronto Medical School Class of 9T9 ...
http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/neur-sci/1995-August/019837.html
*  Effects of Pentobarbital and Isoflurane on Regional Cerebral Oxygen Extraction and Consumption with Middle Cerebral Artery...
Oak Za Chi, Hwu Meei Wei, Dorene A. O'Hara, Arabinda K. Sinha, Harvey R. Weiss; Effects of Pentobarbital and Isoflurane on Regional Cerebral Oxygen Extraction and Consumption with Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats. Anesthesiology 1993;79(2):299-305. Download citation file:. ...
http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1950315
*  Nitric oxide synthase inhibition alters cerebral blood flow and oxygen balance in focal cerebral ischemia in rats. | Stroke
This study investigated whether the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) would alter blood flow and oxygen balance in the ischemic cerebrocortex of isoflurane-anesthetized Long-Evans rats.. Fifteen minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, L-NAME (1.5 mg/min per kilogram) was infused intravenously to the L-NAME group (n = 14), and normal saline was given to the control group (n = 14) for 45 minutes. In each group, regional cerebral blood flow was determined with [14C]iodoantipyrine, and arterial and venous oxygen saturations were determined by microspectrophotometry.. In both groups regional cerebral blood flow of the ischemic cortex was significantly lower than that of the contralateral cortex ([mean +/- SD] 55 +/- 13 versus 110 +/- 29 mL/min per 100 g in the control group and 35 +/- 13 versus 90 +/- 24 mL/min per 100 g in the L-NAME group). Compared with the blood flow in the ischemic cortex of the control group, L-NAME significantly reduced ischemic ...
http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/25/2/445
*  Factors Influencing Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Circulation
The results of studies utilizing the nitrous oxide technic for measuring cerebral blood flow have been reviewed and divided into three groups: (1) those in which cerebral blood flow and metabolism were normal, (2) those in which cerebral blood flow was increased, and (3) those in which cerebral blood flow and metabolism were decreased. The factors which apparently regulate and control cerebral blood flow and metabolism are reviewed and discussed.. ...
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/5/2/225
*  Contribution of arterial Windkessel in low-frequency cerebral hemodynamics during transient changes in blood pressure - TeesRep...
The Windkessel properties of the vasculature are known to play a significant role in buffering arterial pulsations, but their potential importance in dampening low-frequency fluctuations in cerebral blood flow has not been clearly examined. In this study, we quantitatively assessed the contribution of arterial Windkessel (peripheral compliance and resistance) in the dynamic cerebral blood flow response to relatively large and acute changes in blood pressure. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCA(V); transcranial Doppler) and arterial blood pressure were recorded from 14 healthy subjects. Low-pass-filtered pressure-flow responses (,0.15 Hz) during transient hypertension (intravenous phenylephrine) and hypotension (intravenous sodium nitroprusside) were fitted to a two-element Windkessel model. The Windkessel model was found to provide a superior goodness of fit to the MCA(V) responses during both hypertension and hypotension (R² = 0.89 ± 0.03 and 0.85 ± 0.05, respectively), with a ...
https://tees.openrepository.com/tees/handle/10149/218255
*  Aging and recognition memory: changes in regional cerebral blood flow associated with components of reaction time distributions...
We used H(2)15O positron emission tomography (PET) to measure age-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during a verbal recognition memory task. Twelve young adults (20 to 29 years) and 12 older adults (62 to 79 years) participated. Separate PET scans were conducted during Encoding, Baseline, and Retrieval conditions. Each of the conditions involved viewing a series of 64 words and making a two-choice response manually. The complete reaction time (RT) distributions in each task condition were characterized in terms of an ex-Gaussian model (convolution of exponential and Gaussian functions). Parameter estimates were obtained for the mean of the exponential component (tau), representing a task-specific decision process and the mean of the Gaussian component (mu) representing residual sensory coding and response processes. Independently of age group, both tau and mu were higher in the Encoding and Retrieval conditions than in the Baseline condition, and tau was higher during ...
https://passport.as.uky.edu/aging-and-recognition-memory-changes-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-associated-components-reaction
*  Anesthetic Gases: Organ System Effects | Anesthesiology Core Review: Part One Basic Exam | AccessAnesthesiology | McGraw-Hill...
All inhaled anesthetics increase cerebral blood flow and decrease cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). Nitrous oxide, however, will increase CMRO2. Nitrous oxide, as well as inhaled anesthetics, causes cerebral vasodilation. However, if the patient's blood pressure drops, the increase in cerebral blood flow will be attenuated or abolished because volatile anesthetics inhibit autoregulation. Isoflurane causes the least cerebral vasodilation, maintaining autoregulation better than other volatile anesthetics. Isoflurane also has no effect on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production and decreases resistance to CSF absorption. Desflurane increases CSF production without significantly effecting CSF reabsorption. ...
http://accessanesthesiology.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?sectionid=61587757&bookid=974&jumpsectionID=61587757
*  Differential effects of acute hypoxia and high altitude on cerebral blood flow velocity and dynamic cerebral autoregulation:...
atom:author xmlns:atom='http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom' xmlns:nlm='http://schema.highwire.org/NLM/Journal' xmlns:hwp='http://schema.highwire.org/Journal' nlm:contrib-type='author',,atom:name,Philip N. Ainslie,/atom:name,,nlm:name name-style='western' hwp:sortable='Ainslie Philip N.',,nlm:surname,Ainslie,/nlm:surname,,nlm:given-names,Philip N.,/nlm:given-names,,/nlm:name,,/atom:author ...
http://www.physiology.org/content/104/2/490
*  Intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity in preterm infants with posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation | ADC...
This study shows that intermittent CSF drainage in very preterm infants with PHVD is an effective way to treat increased ICP and its negative effect on cerebral blood perfusion. The cut off point for CSF drainage is about 6.0 cm H2O ICP, as drainage below that level no longer results in improvement in perfusion. When studied longitudinally in the same infant, ICP shows a slight but non-significant correlation with CBFV. In preterm infants with PHVD, CBFV measurements using the transcranial Doppler ultrasound technique may be a useful guideline for the time, volume, and frequency of CSF drainage.. The optimal method of treating PHVD has not yet been established. However, it is generally agreed that maintenance of blood perfusion by keeping the ICP within normal ranges is the primary goal to prevent neurological sequelae.12 All methods used to decrease ICP may have their disadvantages. Protracted repetitive lumbar CSF tapping is difficult to perform and undesirable in infants who need minimal ...
http://fn.bmj.com/content/87/3/F185
*  Focal cerebral blood flow change during craving for alcohol measured by SPECT. - Semantic Scholar
To test the hypothesis that craving for alcohol in the alcohol-dependent individual is mediated by a limbic circuit involving the caudate nuclei, regional cerebral blood flow was measured with [99mTc]HMPAO SPECT during control and craving conditions in 9 alcohol-dependent subjects. In all subjects, blood flow in the head of the right caudate nucleus increased during the craving condition, and these blood flow increases were strongly correlated with the experimentally induced increases in craving for alcohol. These new findings suggest a functional role for the limbic striatum in the mediation of craving and impaired control over alcohol consumption.
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Focal-cerebral-blood-flow-change-during-craving-fo-Modell-Mountz/d7db6ffc5807341af3502ebd56ff9a439c51b936
*  Renin Angiotensin System Gene Polymorphisms and Cerebral Blood Flow Regulation | Stroke
This study provides preliminary evidence that a polymorphism in the AGT gene is independently associated with cerebral VR in white elderly persons. Homozygous carriers of the CC genotype of the rs699 SNPs have lower cerebral CO2 VR compared with the other genotypes.. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence that renin angiotensin system genes are also involved in cerebral VR. Previous evidence suggests a genetic role of this system in brain health and diseases such as stroke, depression, and cognitive impairment.26,27 This study adds evidence that this system may also be involved in VR, which is linked with aging outcomes such as stroke2 and dementia.28. CO2-dependent VR is mediated in part by the endothelium and is related to changes in nitric oxide.29,30 Changes in end-tidal CO2 are associated with fast changes in pH, which modulate the effect of nitric oxide synthase leading to changes in nitric oxide production.31 In addition, ATP-dependent K+ channel activation may ...
http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/41/4/635.long