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*  Cell cycle checkpoint protein RAD1
Component of the 9-1-1 cell-cycle checkpoint response complex that plays a major role in DNA repair. The 9-1-1 complex is recruited to DNA lesion upon damage by the RAD17-replication factor C (RFC) clamp loader complex. Acts then as a sliding clamp platform on DNA for several proteins involved in long-patch base excision repair (LP-BER). The 9-1-1 complex stimulates DNA polymerase beta (POLB) activity by increasing its affinity for the 3'-OH end of the primer-template and stabilizes POLB to those sites where LP-BER proceeds; endonuclease FEN1 cleavage activity on substrates with double, nick, or gap flaps of distinct sequences and lengths; and DNA ligase I (LIG1) on long-patch base excision repair substrates. The 9-1-1 complex is necessary for the recruitment of RHNO1 to sites of double-stranded breaks (DSB) occurring during the S phase. Isoform 1 possesses 3'-,5' double stranded DNA exonuclease activity ...
https://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/O60671
*  "Targeting Cell Cycle Proteins in Breast Cancer Cells with siRNA by Usi" by Manoj Parmar, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi et al.
The cell cycle proteins are key regulators of cell cycle progression whose de-regulation is one of the causes of breast cancer. RNA interference (RNAi) is an endogenous mechanism to regulate gene expression and it could serve as the basis of regulating aberrant proteins including cell cycle proteins. Since the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a main barrier for implementation of RNAi therapy, we explored the potential of a non-viral delivery system, 2.0 kDa polyethylenimines substituted with linoleic acid and caprylic acid, for this purpose. Using a library of siRNAs against cell cycle proteins, we identified cell division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), a recombinase RAD51, and serine-threonine protein kinase CHEK1 as effective targets for breast cancer therapy, and ...
http://digitalcommons.chapman.edu/pharmacy_articles/142/
*  DNA damage checkpoint recovery and cancer development (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect
Cell cycle checkpoints were initially presumed to function as a regulator of cell cycle machinery in response to different genotoxic stresses, and later found to play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis by acting as a guard against DNA over-replication. As a counterpart of checkpoint activation, the checkpoint recovery machinery is working in opposition, aiming to reverse the checkpoint activation and resume the normal cell cycle. The DNA damage response (DDR) and oncogene induced senescence (OIS) are frequently found in precancerous lesions, and believed to constitute a barrier to tumorigenesis, however, the DDR and OIS have been observed to be diminished in advanced cancers of most tissue origins. These findings suggest that when progressing from pre-neoplastic lesions to cancer, DNA damage checkpoint barriers are overridden. How the DDR checkpoint is bypassed in this process remains largely ...
https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22462298
*  Cell Cycle - QIAGEN
The cell cycle includes 4 main phases: Gap 1 (G1), DNA replication (S), Gap 2 (G2), and mitosis (M). Tight regulation of the transition between these phases halts cell cycle progression if a phase is not properly completed. For example, the G2-M DNA damage checkpoint ensures the fidelity of DNA replication, and arrests the cell cycle to allow time for replication error correction and DNA damage repair. Cell cycle progression is regulated by the cyclic rise and fall of kinase expression, and their interaction with, and action on, their cyclin targets. Cell cycle dysregulation commonly occurs during oncogenesis, and tumor cells often do not arrest the cell cycle when normally required. Key genes that regulate cell cycle progression and checkpoints encode ...
https://www.qiagen.com/cn/shop/genes-and-pathways/complete-biology-list/cell-cycle/
*  Edwards Lab: On the hunt for molecular mimicry in viral pathogens
Every living cell is packed full of tiny molecular machines. Many of these machines are made from proteins: assembled chains of amino acid building blocks, which twist, wrap and fold up into complex three-dimensional shapes. The way that these machines interact with each other, and other molecules in the cell, ultimately determines how a cell behaves, divides (or not) and dies.. Viruses hijack this cellular machinery and reprogram it to their own ends using their own set of proteins. Many viruses are tiny, with genomes that encode only a handful of proteins, and yet they need to take control of a multitude of host processes. The way that they achieve this is by mimicking small host interaction motifs called SLiMs (short linear motifs), which are the focus of study in my lab.. For example, some viruses use the host DNA replication machinery for their own replication and mimic a SLiM that ...
http://edwardslab.blogspot.com/2014/12/on-hunt-for-molecular-mimicry-in-viral.html
*  p53 Signaling - QIAGEN
The p53 transcription factor regulates multiple biological functions, including growth arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis. This gene is continuously degraded in the cell under normal conditions. When external or cellular stress causes DNA damage, the genes ATM and ATR are activated and phosphorylate the cell cycle checkpoint proteins CHEK1 and CHEK2. During this process, p53 degradation is inhibited, and p53 protein accumulates in the nucleus. p53 is activated by posttranslational modifications such as acetylation or phosphorylation. Additional cofactors enhance or inhibit the activity of this important transcription factor. Genes targeted by p53 initiate multiple processes such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. A wide variety of cancers carry p53 mutations or other defects that dysregulate p53 and its cofactors, making this gene an important and highly-studied tumor suppressor. Analyzing ...
https://www.qiagen.com/fi/shop/genes-and-pathways/complete-biology-list/p53-signaling/
*  DNAtraffic - a database for systems biology of DNA metabolism and repair
After DNA damage, cell cycle checkpoints are activated. Checkpoint activation pauses the cell cycle and gives the cell time to repair the damage before continuing to divide. DNA damage checkpoints occur at the G1/S and G2/M boundaries. An intra-S checkpoint also exists. Checkpoint activation is controlled by two master kinases, ATM and ATR. ATM responds to DNA double-strand breaks and disruptions in chromatin structure, whereas ATR primarily responds to stalled replication forks. These kinases phosphorylate downstream targets in a signal transduction cascade, eventually leading to cell cycle arrest. A class of checkpoint mediator proteins including BRCA1, MDC1, and 53BP1 has also been identified. These proteins seem to be required for transmitting the checkpoint activation signal to downstream proteins. p53 is an important downstream target ...
https://dnatraffic.ibb.waw.pl/classification/path_detail/11/
*  Serine/threonine-protein kinase ATR
The protein encoded by this gene belongs the PI3/PI4-kinase family, and is most closely related to ATM, a protein kinase encoded by the gene mutated in ataxia telangiectasia. This protein and ATM share similarity with Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad3, a cell cycle checkpoint gene required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair in response to DNA damage. This kinase has been shown to phosphorylate checkpoint kinase CHK1, checkpoint proteins RAD17, and RAD9, as well as tumor suppressor protein BRCA1. Mutations of this gene are associated with Seckel syndrome. An alternatively spliced transcript variant of this gene has been reported, however, its full length nature is not known. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyA sites exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
https://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/Q13535
*  The CDK1 inhibitory kinase MYT1 in DNA damage checkpoint recovery.
Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) by phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism for both the unperturbed cell cycle and the DNA damage checkpoint. Although both WEE1 and MYT1 can phosphorylate CDK1, little is known about the contribut
http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/CDK1-inhibitory-kinase-MYT1-in/23146904.html
*  PDB: 3C5L
HEADER TRANSFERASE 31-JAN-08 3C5L TITLE POLO-LIKE KINASE 1 POLO BOX DOMAIN IN COMPLEX WITH PPHSPT TITLE 2 PEPTIDE COMPND MOL_ID: 1; COMPND 2 MOLECULE: SERINE/THREONINE-PROTEIN KINASE PLK1; COMPND 3 CHAIN: A; COMPND 4 FRAGMENT: POLO BOX 1, POLO BOX 2, UNP RESIDUES 373-593; COMPND 5 SYNONYM: POLO-LIKE KINASE 1, PLK-1, SERINE/THREONINE- COMPND 6 PROTEIN KINASE 13, STPK13; COMPND 7 EC: 2.7.11.21; COMPND 8 ENGINEERED: YES; COMPND 9 MOL_ID: 2; COMPND 10 MOLECULE: PEPTIDE; COMPND 11 CHAIN: B; COMPND 12 ENGINEERED: YES SOURCE MOL_ID: 1; SOURCE 2 ORGANISM_SCIENTIFIC: HOMO SAPIENS; SOURCE 3 ORGANISM_COMMON: HUMAN; SOURCE 4 ORGANISM_TAXID: 9606; SOURCE 5 GENE: PLK1, PLK; SOURCE 6 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM: ESCHERICHIA COLI; SOURCE 7 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_TAXID: 562; SOURCE 8 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_STRAIN: ROSETTA 2; SOURCE 9 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_VECTOR_TYPE: PLASMID; SOURCE 10 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_PLASMID: PET28A; SOURCE 11 MOL_ID: 2; SOURCE 12 SYNTHETIC: YES KEYWDS PLK1, POLO-LIKE KINASE 1, POLO BOX DOMAIN, PHOSPHOPEPTIDE, ...
http://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?pdb:3C5L
*  Organ-specific cell division abnormalities caused by mutation in a general cell cycle regulator in C. elegans | Development
Cell proliferation is essential for many key processes that occur during development including organogenesis, tissue renewal and germline formation. (Bartkova et al., 1997; Clurman and Roberts, 1995; Pines, 1995; Sandhu and Slingerland, 2000). Therefore, the timing of cell division and differentiation must be precisely coordinated with signals that specify morphogenesis, patterning and growth in a temporal, positional and cell type-specific manner (reviewed by Vidwans and Su, 2001). This coordination is executed through regulating both positive and negative regulatory components of the basal cell cycle machinery.. The cell cycle machinery is well conserved among eukaryotes and complex mechanisms ensure that cell cycle progression occurs in a timely and precise sequence. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) drive progression through the different ...
http://dev.biologists.org/content/129/9/2155
*  KEGG PATHWAY: Cell cycle - Homo sapiens (human)
Mitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulatory enzymes, each consisting of a catalytic CDK subunit and an activating cyclin subunit. CDKs regulate the cell's progression through the phases of the cell cycle by modulating the activity of key substrates. Downstream targets of CDKs include transcription factor E2F and its regulator Rb. Precise activation and inactivation of CDKs at specific points in the cell cycle are required for orderly cell division. Cyclin-CDK inhibitors (CKIs), such as p16Ink4a, p15Ink4b, p27Kip1, and p21Cip1, are involved in the negative regulation of CDK activities, thus providing a pathway through which the cell cycle is ...
http://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?133840406410261/hsa04110.args
*  KEGG PATHWAY: Cell cycle
Mitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulatory enzymes, each consisting of a catalytic CDK subunit and an activating cyclin subunit. CDKs regulate the cell's progression through the phases of the cell cycle by modulating the activity of key substrates. Downstream targets of CDKs include transcription factor E2F and its regulator Rb. Precise activation and inactivation of CDKs at specific points in the cell cycle are required for orderly cell division. Cyclin-CDK inhibitors (CKIs), such as p16Ink4a, p15Ink4b, p27Kip1, and p21Cip1, are involved in the negative regulation of CDK activities, thus providing a pathway through which the cell cycle is ...
http://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?ko04110+M00381
*  Targeted Mutations in the ATR Pathway Define Agent-Specific Requirements for Cancer Cell Growth and Survival
Many anticancer agents induce DNA strand breaks or cause the accumulation of DNA replication intermediates. The protein encoded by ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad 3-related (ATR) generates signals in response to these altered DNA structures and activates cellular survival responses. Accordingly, ATR has drawn increased attention as a potential target for novel therapeutic strategies designed to potentiate the effects of existing drugs. In this study, we use a unique panel of genetically modified human cancer cells to unambiguously test the roles of upstream and downstream components of the ATR pathway in the responses to common therapeutic agents. Upstream, the S-phase-specific cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2 was required for robust activation of ATR in response to diverse chemotherapeutic agents. While Cdk2-mediated ATR activation promoted cell survival after treatment with many drugs, signaling from ATR directly to the checkpoint kinase Chk1 was ...
http://su.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:527144
*  BioModels Database
The morphogenesis checkpoint in budding yeast delays progression through the cell cycle in response to stimuli that prevent bud formation. Central to the checkpoint mechanism is Swe1 kinase: normally inactive, its activation halts cell cycle progression in G2. We propose a molecular network for Swe1 control, based on published observations of budding yeast and analogous control signals in fission yeast. The proposed Swe1 network is merged with a model of cyclin-dependent kinase regulation, converted into a set of differential equations and studied by numerical simulation. The simulations accurately reproduce the phenotypes of a dozen checkpoint mutants. Among other predictions, the model attributes a new role to Hsl1, a kinase known to play a role in Swe1 degradation: Hsl1 must also be indirectly responsible for potent inhibition of Swe1 activity. The model supports the idea that the morphogenesis checkpoint, like other checkpoints, raises ...
http://www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels-main/BIOMD0000000297
*  'Addiction' to Cell-cycle Proteins Shuts Down Tumors in Mice:...
According to a new study, scientists have safely shut down breast cancer and a form of leukemia in mice by targeting abnormal proteins to which the cancers are 'addicted'.
http://www.medindia.net/news/addiction-to-cell-cycle-proteins-shuts-down-tumors-in-mice-study-108903-1.htm
*  Crif1 : Protein expression, purification and crystallisation | Mitacs
Human Crif1 is a protein with multiple functions, playing important roles in embryonic development, cellular stress, cell cycle regulation and mitochondrial membrane integrity. CRIF1 is coined to play a regulatory role in the Bone Marrow microenvironment-induced leukemia cell cycle arrest possibly through interacting with CDK2 and acting as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ...
http://mitacs.ca/en/projects/crif1-protein-expression-purification-and-crystallisation
*  Cell Cycle - Nature Photo Book
BC: Thats what the cell cycle does!. FC: Cell Cycle. 1: What is the cell cycle? , The cell cycle is a process in which a cell grows and divides to create a copy of itself. Some orangisms reproduce through the cell cycle and in complex multicellular organisms, the cell cycle is used to allow the organism to grow and to reproduce worn out cells.. 2: Interphase , During interphase, a cell increase in mass, replicates its DNA, and prepares prophase.. 4: Prophase , It is when the loose DNA starts to gather to form chromatid, the DNA copies itself, the spindle fibers start to form, and the cell prepares itself for cell division.. 6: Metaphase , The duplicated chromosomes become aligned in the center of the ...
https://www.mixbook.com/photo-books/nature/cell-cycle-5724181?vk=mhMWn7EXll
*  cell cycle checkpoint control protein RAD9A isoform 1 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/4759022
*  Cell division cycle protein 16 homolog
The protein encoded by this gene functions as a protein ubiquitin ligase and is a component of the multiprotein APC complex. The APC complex is a cyclin degradation system that governs exit from mitosis by targeting cell cycle proteins for degredation by the 26S proteasome. Each component protein of the APC complex is highly conserved among eukaryotic organisms. This protein, and other APC complex proteins, contain a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain; a protein domain that is often involved in protein-protein interactions and the assembly of multiprotein complexes. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants, encoding distinct proteins, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016 ...
https://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/Q13042
*  PDB: 2OGQ
HEADER TRANSFERASE 08-JAN-07 2OGQ TITLE MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL BASIS OF PLK1 SUBSTRATE TITLE 2 RECOGNITION: IMPLICATIONS IN CENTROSOMAL LOCALIZATION COMPND MOL_ID: 1; COMPND 2 MOLECULE: SERINE/THREONINE-PROTEIN KINASE PLK1; COMPND 3 CHAIN: A; COMPND 4 FRAGMENT: POLO-BOX DOMAIN, RESIDUES 365-603; COMPND 5 SYNONYM: POLO-LIKE KINASE 1, PLK-1, SERINE/THREONINE- COMPND 6 PROTEIN KINASE 13, STPK13; COMPND 7 EC: 2.7.11.21; COMPND 8 ENGINEERED: YES SOURCE MOL_ID: 1; SOURCE 2 ORGANISM_SCIENTIFIC: HOMO SAPIENS; SOURCE 3 ORGANISM_COMMON: HUMAN; SOURCE 4 ORGANISM_TAXID: 9606; SOURCE 5 GENE: PLK1, PLK; SOURCE 6 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM: ESCHERICHIA COLI; SOURCE 7 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_TAXID: 562; SOURCE 8 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_STRAIN: BL21, ROSETTA; SOURCE 9 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_VECTOR_TYPE: PLASMID; SOURCE 10 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_PLASMID: PGEX-6P-2 KEYWDS POLO BOX DOMAIN, TRANSFERASE EXPDTA X-RAY DIFFRACTION AUTHOR B.GARCIA-ALVAREZ,G.DE CARCER,S.IBANEZ,E.BRAGADO-NILSSON, AUTHOR 2 G.MONTOYA REVDAT 3 24-FEB-09 2OGQ 1 VERSN ...
http://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?pdb:2OGQ
*  Cell Cycle Proteins | Cell Cycle Research | ProSci Inc.
Shop for the cell cycle recombinant proteins you need here at ProSci Inc.! We stock a wide selection of proteins of all kinds. Visit us online today.
http://www.prosci-inc.com/recombinant-proteins/research-area/cell-cycle.html
*  B cell proliferation - Immune Response - Barnard Health Care
The eukaryotic cell cycle is a set of ordered events characterized by DNA replication and cell division. Prokaryotic organisms have overlapping periods of replication and DNA segregation, i.e. simultaneous S and M phases of replication. Cell cycle arrest is induced if a particular condition at a checkpoint is not met. Mammals and other metazoan cells may also activate apoptotic pathways if a checkpoint is not met, while apoptosis is lacking in yeast and other lower eukaryotic cells. Basic aspects of the cell cycle are highly conserved in eukaryotic cells. The major differences are increasing complexity in higher eukaryotic cells. For example, there is one CDK gene in yeast while there are seven in mammalian cells. Terms. Restriction point The point in G, phase when commitment to DNA replication occurs. After ...
https://www.barnardhealth.us/immune-response/b-cell-proliferation.html
*  PLK5抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-PLK5抗体
PLK5兔多克隆抗体(ab93124)可与重组片段样本反应并经WB, ELISA实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
http://www.abcam.cn/plk5-antibody-ab93124.html
*  flusha: 'We played as much CS as possible' | HLTV.org
After fnatic defeated FlipSid3 in the first round of the Swiss format, we caught up with Robin 'flusha' Rönnquist at the PGL Major and asked him about the atmosphere within the team following disappointing results, the in-game leading situation, and their comeback versus the CIS squad.
https://www.hltv.org/news/21038/flusha-we-played-as-much-cs-as-possible