*  Active Caspases and Cleaved Cytokeratins Are Sequestered into Cytoplasmic Inclusions in Trail-Induced Apoptosis | JCB
Apoptosis is a process of fundamental importance to multicellular organisms that enables control of cell populations and the removal of damaged or potentially harmful cells (Arends and Wyllie 1991). Apoptosis occurs in two phases: an initial commitment phase followed by an execution phase involving cytoskeletal disruption, membrane blebbing, condensation and fragmentation of chromatin, and the formation of apoptotic bodies (Earnshaw 1995). Caspases, a family of aspartate-specific cysteine proteases, play a critical role in the execution phase of apoptosis and are the key effectors responsible for many of the dramatic morphological and biochemical changes of apoptosis (for reviews see Cohen 1997; Thornberry and Lazebnik 1998). Caspases are proteolytically cleaved at specific aspartate residues, generating a large and small subunit that together form the active enzyme. Caspases can be divided into two classes: (1) initiator caspases, with long ...
*  Role of factors downstream of caspases in nuclear disassembly during apoptotic execution | Philosophical Transactions of the...
We used cytoplasmic extracts from chicken DU249 cells at various stages along the apoptotic pathway to analyse the events of apoptotic exe-cution. So-called S/M extracts from morphologically normal 'committed-stage' cells induce apoptotic morphology and DNA cleavage in substrate nuclei. These apoptotic changes appear to require the function of multiple caspases (cysteine aspar-tases, a specialized class of proteases) acting in parallel. Extracts from 'execution-stage' apoptotic cells induce apoptotic events in added nuclei in a caspase-independent manner. Biochemical frac-tionation of these extracts reveals that a column fraction enriched in endogenous active caspases is un-able to induce DNA fragmentation or chromatin condensation in substrate nuclei, whereas a caspase-depleted fraction induces both changes. 'Execution-stage' extracts contain an ICAD/DFF45-inhibitable nuclease resembling CAD, plus another activity that is required for the apoptotic chromatin condensation. ...
*  Welcome to CDC stacks | Turning ON Caspases with Genetics and Small Molecules - 30186 | CDC Public Access
Caspases, aspartate-specific cysteine proteases, have fate-determining roles in many cellular processes including apoptosis, differentiation, neuronal remodeling, and inflammation (for review, see Yuan & Kroemer, 2010). There are a dozen caspases in humans alone, yet their individual contributions toward these phenotypes are not well understood. Thus, there has been considerable interest in activating individual caspases or using their activity to drive these processes in cells and animals. We envision that such experimental control of caspase activity can not only afford novel insights into fundamental biological problems but may also enable new models for disease and suggest possible routes to therapeutic intervention. In particular, localized, genetic, and small-molecule-controlled caspase activation has the potential to target the desired cell type in a tissue. Suppression of caspase activation is one of the hallmarks of cancer and thus there has been ...
*  Are caspases involved in the death of cells with a transcriptionally inactive nucleus? Sperm and chicken erythrocytes | Journal...
We show that mouse sperm die spontaneously within 1-2 days in culture and that treatment with either staurosporine (STS) and cycloheximide (CHX) or a peptide caspase inhibitor does not accelerate or delay the cell death. Chicken erythrocytes, by contrast, are induced to die by either serum deprivation or treatment with STS and CHX, and embryonic erythrocytes are more sensitive than adult erythrocytes to both treatments. Although these erythrocyte deaths display a number of features that are characteristic of apoptosis, they are not blocked, or even delayed, by peptide caspase inhibitors, and most of the cells die without apparently activating caspases. A small proportion of the dying erythrocytes do activate caspase-3, but even these cells, which seem to be the least mature erythrocytes, die just as quickly in the presence of caspase inhibitors. Our findings raise the possibility that both mouse sperm and chicken erythrocytes have a death programme that may not depend on ...
*  Follicle cells undergo premature caspase-dependent cell | Open-i
Follicle cells undergo premature caspase-dependent cell death in lrrk NS flies. (A) Schematic depicting a stage-12 egg chamber, with anterior to the left and po
*  "Caspase-Mediated Cleavage, IAP Binding, and Ubiquitination: Linking Th" by Nicholas Paul Paquette, Meike Broemer et al.
Innate immune responses are critical for the immediate protection against microbial infection. In Drosophila, infection leads to the rapid and robust production of antimicrobial peptides through two NF-κB signaling pathways-IMD and Toll. The IMD pathway is triggered by DAP-type peptidoglycan, common to most Gram-negative bacteria. Signaling downstream from the peptidoglycan receptors is thought to involve K63 ubiquitination and caspase-mediated cleavage, but the molecular mechanisms remain obscure. We now show that PGN stimulation causes caspase-mediated cleavage of the imd protein, exposing a highly conserved IAP-binding motif (IBM) at its neo-N terminus. A functional IBM is required for the association of cleaved IMD with the ubiquitin E3-ligase DIAP2. Through its association with DIAP2, IMD is rapidly conjugated with K63-linked polyubiquitin chains. These results mechanistically connect caspase-mediated cleavage and K63 ubiquitination in immune-induced NF-κB signaling.
*  Role of Tyrosine Kinase Lyn and Cleaved Form by Caspases in Psoriasis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disorder of the skin. In this disease, the inflammatory caspases, cysteine proteases involved in the processing of many proteins, are activated. Transgenic mice expressing the cleaved form of caspases by Lyn, a tyrosine kinase Src family, develop an inflammatory syndrome with the characteristics of human psoriasis.. To clarify the relationship between the cleaved form of Lyn by caspases and psoriasis, the investigators intend to develop a clinical study to analyze the expression, cleavage and activity of Lyn and the activation of caspases from skin biopsies of patients with this disease.. This study will be conducted on a cohort of patients with different forms of psoriasis (plaque, pustular and erythrodermic) and atopic dermatitis, another skin disorder associated with chronic inflammation. Thus, the investigators will evaluate the expression and activity of Lyn from skin lesion (L) and non-lesional (NL) ...
*  β-Phenylethyl isothiocyanate mediated apoptosis; Contribution of Bax and the mitochondrial death pathway | ScholarBank@NUS
The initiating events that lead to the induction of apoptosis mediated by the chemopreventative agent β-phenyethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) have yet to be elucidated. In the present investigation, we examined the effects of PEITC on mitochondrial function and apoptotic signaling in hepatoma HepG2 cells and isolated rat hepatocyte mitochondria. PEITC induced a conformational change in Bax leading to its translocation to mitochondria in HepG2 cells. Bax accumulation was associated with a rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), impaired respiratory chain enzymatic activity, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-dependent cell death. Caspase inhibition did not prevent Bax translocation, the release of cytochrome c or the loss of Δψ m, but blocked caspase-mediated DNA fragmentation and cell death. To determine whether PEITC dependent Bax translocation caused loss of Δψm by the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), we examined ...
*  Caspase 12 - Wikipedia
Caspase 12 is a protein that belongs to a family of enzymes called caspases which cleave their substrates at C-terminal aspartic acid residues. It is closely related to caspase 1 and other members of the caspase family, known as inflammatory caspases, which process and activate inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 and interleukin 18. It is found on chromosome 11 in humans in a locus with other inflammatory caspases. CASP12 orthologs have been identified in numerous mammals for which complete genome data are available. The CASP12 gene is subject to polymorphism, which can generate a full length caspase protein (Csp12L) or an inactive truncated form (Csp12S). The functional form appears to be confined to people of African descent and is linked with susceptibility to sepsis; people carrying the functional gene have decreased responses to bacterial molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A study in May 2009 by McGill University Health Centre has ...
*  Generic Caspase Activity Assay Kit (Green) (ab112130) | Abcam
Generic Caspase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric - Green) (ab112130). Detect generic caspase activation in live cells with green TF2-VAD-FMK substrate.
*  Opinion
Apoptosis" is Greek word that literally means "falling of the petals from a flower or leaves from a tree" [1]. This description contrasts with the typical textbook definition: apoptosis is programmed cell death, caused by the Diablo gene. The literal translation stresses the evolutionary significance and benefit of apoptosis. While apoptosis can be detrimental, it is also important to understand the reason why nature would select for such a seemingly negative process that in fact has its benefits.. Apoptosis is important for maintaining a balance between cell proliferation and cell death. Families of proteases called caspases are responsible for cell death. Initiator caspases activate other executioner caspases, which continue to activate other executioner caspases. The Bcl2 family of proteins can either activate or deactivate caspases. Specifically Bax and Bak facilitate cell death because they cause cytochrome C to be ...
*  Caspase-mediated cleavage of the stacking protein GRASP65 is required for Golgi fragmentation during apoptosis. - Oxford...
The mammalian Golgi complex is comprised of a ribbon of stacked cisternal membranes often located in the pericentriolar region of the cell. Here, we report that during apoptosis the Golgi ribbon is fragmented into dispersed clusters of tubulo-vesicular membranes. We have found that fragmentation is caspase dependent and identified GRASP65 (Golgi reassembly and stacking protein of 65 kD) as a novel caspase substrate. GRASP65 is cleaved specifically by caspase-3 at conserved sites in its membrane distal COOH terminus at an early stage of the execution phase. Expression of a caspase-resistant form of GRASP65 partially preserved cisternal stacking and inhibited breakdown of the Golgi ribbon in apoptotic cells. Our results suggest that GRASP65 is an important structural component required for maintenance of Golgi apparatus integrity.
*  Caspase-3-Generated Fragment of Gelsolin: Effector of Morphological Change in Apoptosis | Science
The caspase-3 (CPP32, apopain, YAMA) family of cysteinyl proteases has been implicated as key mediators of apoptosis in mammalian cells. Gelsolin was identified as a substrate for caspase-3 by screening the translation products of small complementary DNA pools for sensitivity to cleavage by caspase-3. Gelsolin was cleaved in vivo in a caspase-dependent manner in cells stimulated by Fas. Caspase-cleaved gelsolin severed actin filaments in vitro in a Ca2+-independent manner. Expression of the gelsolin cleavage product in multiple cell types caused the cells to round up, detach from the plate, and undergo nuclear fragmentation. Neutrophils isolated from mice lacking gelsolin had delayed onset of both blebbing and DNA fragmentation, following apoptosis induction, compared with wild-type neutrophils. Thus, cleaved gelsolin may be one physiological effector of morphologic change during apoptosis. ...
*  Institute of Cancer Research Repository - Ubiquitylation of the initiator caspase DREDD is required for innate immune...
Caspases have been extensively studied as critical initiators and executioners of cell death pathways. However, caspases also take part in non-apoptotic signalling events such as the regulation of innate immunity and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B). How caspases are activated under these conditions and process a selective set of substrates to allow NF-kappa B signalling without killing the cell remains largely unknown. Here, we show that stimulation of the Drosophila pattern recognition protein PGRP-LCx induces DIAP2-dependent polyubiquitylation of the initiator caspase DREDD. Signal-dependent ubiquitylation of DREDD is required for full processing of IMD, NF-kappa B/Relish and expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in response to infection with Gram-negative bacteria. Our results identify a mechanism that positively controls NF-kappa B signalling via ubiquitin-mediated activation of DREDD. The direct involvement of ubiquitylation in ...
*  Gentaur Molecular :Biovis \ Active Human Caspase 10 b100 units \ 1090B-100
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Biovis \ Active Human Caspase_10_b100 units \ 1090B-100 for more molecular products just contact us
*  Table of Contents - October 17, 2016, 35 (20) | The EMBO Journal
Pyroptosis is a unique, pro‐inflammatory form of lytic cell death that is initiated by the activation of inflammatory caspases. The caspase substrate gasdermin D (GSDMD) plays a critical function in pyroptosis, yet the precise mode of action of this molecule in cell death execution remained unclear. Several recent reports, including a The EMBO Journal article, show that the caspase‐matured N‐terminal fragment of GSDMD is recruited to lipid membranes to form pore‐like structures, which constitutes the key effector mechanism of pyroptotic cell death.. See also: L Sborgi et al (August 2016) ...
*  Role of Caspases and CD95/Fas in the Apoptotic Effects of a Nucleotid…
Detail záznamu - Role of Caspases and CD95/Fas in the Apoptotic Effects of a Nucleotide Analog PMEG in CCRF-CEM Cells - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
*  Caspase-9 with inhibitor, molecular model - Stock Image F006/9442 - Science Photo Library
Caspase-9 complexed with an inhibitor, molecular model. Caspase-9 is a protease, an enzyme that cleaves proteins, that plays a role in apoptosis (programmed cell death). It also activates other caspases as part of the caspase cascade of apoptosis. Caspase-9 has been found to be critical for UV-induced apoptosis in skin cells and therefore, for the prevention of skin cancer. - Stock Image F006/9442
*  Caspase-9
This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein can undergo autoproteolytic processing and activation by the apoptosome, a protein complex of cytochrome c and the apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1; this step is thought to be one of the earliest in the caspase activation cascade. This protein is thought to play a central role in apoptosis and to be a tumor suppressor. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013 ...
*  TumorPortal
This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein is processed by caspases 7, 8 and 10, and is thought to function as a downstream enzyme in the caspase activation cascade. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants that encode different isoforms ...
*  Downstream activation of caspases and enhanced phosphat | Open-i
Downstream activation of caspases and enhanced phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure after long-term blockage of NMDAR in differentiating EPCs. EPCs obtained from th
*  methylation/apoptosis/caspases | Phoenix Rising ME / CFS Forums
I am curious about something. People with CFS have been shown to have higher than normal levels of apoptosis (programmed cell death). According to...
*  OriGene - CASP1 (NM 033293) cDNA Clone
CASP1 - CASP1 (untagged)-Human caspase 1, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase (interleukin 1, beta, convertase) (CASP1), transcript variant gamma available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
*  OriGene - CASP5 (NM 001136111) cDNA Clone
CASP5 - CASP5 (untagged)-Human caspase 5, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase (CASP5), transcript variant d available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
*  Some reports stage to a essential position of caspases for
First, the up to date Ensembl IDs have been retrieved for the many genes with SD three between rapamycin and Ly294002 therapies. The Amuvatinib 溶解度 GO lessons