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*  Aldehyde Reductase
Launch The estrogen receptor (ER) co-regulator proline glutamic acid and leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1) is a proto-oncogene that modulates epigenetic changes on ER target gene promoters via interactions with lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (KDM1). models were used to test the efficacy of drugs in vivo. Ki-67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling immunohistochemical analysis … Continue reading Launch The estrogen receptor (ER) co-regulator proline glutamic acid and leucine-rich. ...
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*  Molecular mechanisms underlying the α‑tomatine‑directed apoptosis in human malignant glioblastoma cell lines A172 and U‑118 MG
In the present study, the molecular mechanisms involved in the α‑tomatine‑induced apoptosis in human glioblastoma cell lines A172 and U‑118 MG were investigated. Wright staining and ApopTag assays were conducted to confirm the apoptosis induced by α‑tomatine treatment. Fura‑2 assay determined an enhancement in free Ca2+ intracellularly, indicating the occurrence of Ca2+‑dependent apoptosis induction. Western blot experiments were also performed to predict the apoptosis by measuring the changes in the Bax:Bcl‑2 ratio. Increase of calpain activity triggered caspase‑12 expression, which in turn further activated caspase‑9. In addition, an increase in the ratio of Bax:Bcl‑2 accounted for the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c into the cytosol for caspase‑3 and caspase‑9 activation. Elevated activity of calpain and caspase‑3 yielded spectrin breakdown products with 145 and 120 kDa, respectively. Caspase‑3 ...
https://spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/etm.2017.5294
*  A novel F-box protein is required for caspase activation during cellular remodeling in Drosophila | Development
Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases that are responsible for executing apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death that is essential for metazoan development and organismal homeostasis (Abraham and Shaham, 2004; Steller, 1995; Steller, 2008). Because of the inherent destructive function of these proteases, caspase activities are tightly regulated by both activators and inhibitors. Abnormal regulation of caspases is a hallmark of several diseases, including many types of cancer (Hanahan and Weinberg, 2000; Reed, 2003; Thompson, 1995; Vucic, 2008). The first level of caspase regulation is intrinsic to caspases themselves. Caspases are expressed as inactive zymogens that are cleaved to form the active enzyme, a step that is highly regulated, as there are multiple signaling pathways that govern their activation (Kornbluth and White, 2005). Furthermore, once caspases are activated by ...
http://dev.biologists.org/content/137/10/1679
*  Doxorubicin treatment in vivo activates caspase-12 mediated cardiac apoptosis in both male and female rats. - Semantic Scholar
We investigated in vivo the chemotherapeutic anthracycline agents doxorubicin and its ability to activate mitochondrial-mediated, receptor-mediated and endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis transduction pathways in cardiac tissue from male and female rats. We administered a single low dose of doxorubicin (10 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) and then isolated mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins one and four days later from the heart. Caspase-3 protein content and caspase-3 activity were significantly increased after day four of doxorubicin treatment in both male and female rats. However, while males had DNA fragmentation at day one but not day four following doxorubicin administration, females showed no significant increase in DNA fragmentation at either time. Caspase-12, localized in the SR, is considered a central caspase, and its activation by cleavage via calpain indicates activation of the SR-mediated pathway of apoptosis. ...
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Doxorubicin-treatment-in-vivo-activates-caspase-12-Jang-Kendaiah/87725c5273070ac208532d8a5fde31add91cd2c8
*  Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces calpain-dependent cell death and ubiquitination of caspase 3 in HMEC-1 endothelial...
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is known to induce apoptosis in endothelial cells, and this is believed to contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. In the present study we made the novel observation that oxLDL-induced death of HMEC-1 cells is accompanied by activation of calpain. The μ-calpain inhibitor PD 151746 decreased oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity, whereas the general caspase inhibitor BAF (t-butoxycarbonyl-Asp-methoxyfluoromethylketone) had no effect. Also, oxLDL provoked calpain-dependent proteolysis of cytoskeletal α-fodrin in the HMEC-1 cells. Our observation of an autoproteolytic cleavage of the 80 kDa subunit of μ-calpain provided further evidence for an oxLDL-induced stimulation of calpain activity. The Bcl-2 protein Bid was also cleaved during oxLDL-elicited cell death, and this was prevented by calpain inhibitors, but not by inhibitors of cathepsin B and caspases. Treating the HMEC-1 cells with oxLDL did not result in detectable activation of ...
http://www.biochemj.org/content/374/2/403
*  Caspase-3-Generated Fragment of Gelsolin: Effector of Morphological Change in Apoptosis | Science
The caspase-3 (CPP32, apopain, YAMA) family of cysteinyl proteases has been implicated as key mediators of apoptosis in mammalian cells. Gelsolin was identified as a substrate for caspase-3 by screening the translation products of small complementary DNA pools for sensitivity to cleavage by caspase-3. Gelsolin was cleaved in vivo in a caspase-dependent manner in cells stimulated by Fas. Caspase-cleaved gelsolin severed actin filaments in vitro in a Ca2+-independent manner. Expression of the gelsolin cleavage product in multiple cell types caused the cells to round up, detach from the plate, and undergo nuclear fragmentation. Neutrophils isolated from mice lacking gelsolin had delayed onset of both blebbing and DNA fragmentation, following apoptosis induction, compared with wild-type neutrophils. Thus, cleaved gelsolin may be one physiological effector of morphologic change during apoptosis. ...
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/278/5336/294
*  Pore formation by GSDMD is the effector mechanism of pyroptosis | The EMBO Journal
The term pyroptosis (pyro greek for fire or fever) has been originally coined to describe the non‐apoptotic, caspase‐1‐dependent cell death of Salmonella‐infected macrophages that would alarm and recruit neighboring cells to the site of infection (Cookson & Brennan, 2001). Later it became apparent that the activation of caspase‐1 to induce pyroptosis is controlled by a subset of PRRs that can induce inflammasome activation (e.g. NLRP3, AIM2 or NLRC4/NAIP). Upon recognition of their cognate ligands, these sensors seed the prion‐like assembly of the inflammasome adapter ASC into a high molecular weight cytosolic complex to which caspase‐1 becomes recruited and is activated by. Auto‐processed caspase‐1 then matures the cytokines IL‐1β and IL‐18 to render them bioactive and induce pyroptotic cell death. Besides this canonical inflammasome activation leading to caspase‐1 maturation, other pro‐inflammatory ...
http://emboj.embopress.org/content/35/20/2167
*  Pore formation by GSDMD is the effector mechanism of pyroptosis | The EMBO Journal
The term pyroptosis (pyro greek for fire or fever) has been originally coined to describe the non‐apoptotic, caspase‐1‐dependent cell death of Salmonella‐infected macrophages that would alarm and recruit neighboring cells to the site of infection (Cookson & Brennan, 2001). Later it became apparent that the activation of caspase‐1 to induce pyroptosis is controlled by a subset of PRRs that can induce inflammasome activation (e.g. NLRP3, AIM2 or NLRC4/NAIP). Upon recognition of their cognate ligands, these sensors seed the prion‐like assembly of the inflammasome adapter ASC into a high molecular weight cytosolic complex to which caspase‐1 becomes recruited and is activated by. Auto‐processed caspase‐1 then matures the cytokines IL‐1β and IL‐18 to render them bioactive and induce pyroptotic cell death. Besides this canonical inflammasome activation leading to caspase‐1 maturation, other pro‐inflammatory ...
http://emboj.embopress.org/content/early/2016/08/29/embj.201695415
*  Forman | kratom extract world
This phenomenon was noted to be parallel to the cell cycle arrest and the right shifting of the DNA profile in the cell cycle analysis. How To Use Kratom Extract Powder Forman these events only occurred at high doses of MSE or MIT. SH-SY5Y cells which are known to have wild-type p53 have constitutive expression of p53 in the control and lower doses groups.. The inhibitors used were caspase kratom free overnight shipping 3 inhibitor caspase 8 inhibitor caspase 9 inhibitor general caspase inhibitor negative control and doxorubicin as a positive control ( as described in section 5. The positive control doxorubicin confirmed the assay works by showing a highly significant response for apoptosis. Thus this kratom buy online uk finding supported the notion that How To Use Kratom Extract Powder Forman there was no involvement of caspase executioner nor caspase initiator activation in cell death induced by high dose ...
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*  Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK (General Caspase Inhibitor) - Antibodies & Reagents Flow Cytometry Reagents, Recombinant Proteins, PCR Reagents
Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK is a cell permeable peptide which binds irreversibly to the catalytic site of intracellular enzymes known as caspases, which play an important role in the induction of apoptosis. The binding of Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK to caspases inhibits the acti
https://www.tonbobio.com/antibodies-and-reagents/z-vad-ome-fmk.html
*  Role of factors downstream of caspases in nuclear disassembly during apoptotic execution | Philosophical Transactions of the...
We used cytoplasmic extracts from chicken DU249 cells at various stages along the apoptotic pathway to analyse the events of apoptotic exe-cution. So-called S/M extracts from morphologically normal 'committed-stage' cells induce apoptotic morphology and DNA cleavage in substrate nuclei. These apoptotic changes appear to require the function of multiple caspases (cysteine aspar-tases, a specialized class of proteases) acting in parallel. Extracts from 'execution-stage' apoptotic cells induce apoptotic events in added nuclei in a caspase-independent manner. Biochemical frac-tionation of these extracts reveals that a column fraction enriched in endogenous active caspases is un-able to induce DNA fragmentation or chromatin condensation in substrate nuclei, whereas a caspase-depleted fraction induces both changes. 'Execution-stage' extracts contain an ICAD/DFF45-inhibitable nuclease resembling CAD, plus another activity that is required for the ...
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/354/1389/1591
*  Active Caspase-1, rat recombinant protein - Interleukin-1 beta convertase, Interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme, IL-1BC, p45. ...
Active Caspase-1, rat recombinant protein , Interleukin-1 beta convertase, Interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme, IL-1BC, p45. validated in (PBV11136r-25), Abgent
http://www.abgent.com/products/PBV11136r-Active-Caspase-1-rat-recombinant-protein
*  Plus it
4058 MDA-435 human breast cancer cells treated with staurosporine (STS) showed characteristic hallmarks of apoptotic death with nuclear condensation and apoptotic bodies in a dose and time-dependent manner. Evidence of activation of caspase 3, 7 and 10 appeared as early as 4 hours of STS treatment and was maximal at 2 and 4 ∈1/4 M STS. The pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD-fmk, blocked the activation of these caspases. Activation of caspases 8 and 9 required higher STS concentrations or longer time. The BAG family of co-chaperone proteins has survival-promoting functions in cancer cells. Unexpectedly BAG-3/CAIR-1 and BAG-4/SODD, but not BAG-1, were partially or totally lost by the STS treatments. The effects were concomitant with caspase 3 activation, and the use of zVAD-fmk and that of several specific caspase inhibitors partially rescued the loss of BAG-3 and BAG-4. In cells over-expressing a BAG-3 mutant ...
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/66/8_Supplement/956.2
*  Caspase-8 Serves Both Apoptotic and Nonapoptotic Roles | The Journal of Immunology
This study provides evidence that the functions of caspase-8 in vivo are heterogeneous with regard to both the cellular activity to which caspase-8 contributes and the physiological role of this activity. In mediating cell death induction by receptors of the TNF/NGF family, caspase-8 helps to eliminate injured and infected cells and maintain leukocyte homeostasis. Our finding that caspase-8 deletion in hepatocytes protected these cells from Fas-mediated cytotoxicity further demonstrates, and for the first time in vivo, this immune defense-related apoptotic role. In addition, we showed in this study that caspase-8 serves some function(s) that are nonapoptotic and perhaps even antiapoptotic, and which can play a physiological role other than immune defense. Our findings indicated that in the myeloid lineage caspase-8 is needed both at an early progenitor stage and at a more differentiated monocyte precursor ...
http://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/5/2976.long
*  Inactive poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase elisa and antibody
Shop Inactive poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Inactive poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
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*  FW: caspase-3
For those of you who were following the Caspase-3 thread and those of you who contacted me directly, here's the information regarding Caspase-3 and Annexin V that I received from Pharmingen. Any furthur questions, please contact Padma at Pharmingen. Padma was most helpful. Lora , -----Original Message----- , From: pkodukula at pharmingen.com [SMTP:pkodukula at pharmingen.com] , Sent: Monday, October 04, 1999 10:14 AM , To: Barsky, Lora , Subject: RE: caspase-3 , , , , Dear Lora, , , Thank you for your interest in PharMingen's products. This is in reply to , your , question about the caspase 3 and the annexin V staining. We are releasing , a kit , for the BrDU and cytokine staining. But the annexin V is also known to , work , with the caspase 3. This is not something that we routinely quality , control in , our company but we have had input from customers who have used this , method. The , annexin V binding to phosphatidyl ...
https://lists.purdue.edu/pipermail/cytometry/1999-October/014201.html
*  Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector Role in Apoptosis. It is activated by Initiator Caspases such as Caspase 3 and Caspase 10. Several Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple Alternative Splicing of its Messenger RNA ...
http://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/apoptotic-protease-mch-3.html
*  Apoptosis - Signaling Pathways
As one of the cellular death mechanisms, apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, can be defined as the process of a proper death of any cell under certain or necessary conditions. Apoptosis is controlled by the interactions between several molecules and responsible for the elimination of unwanted cells from the body.. Many biochemical events and a series of morphological changes occur at the early stage and increasingly continue till the end of apoptosis process. Morphological event cascade including cytoplasmic filament aggregation, nuclear condensation, cellular fragmentation, and plasma membrane blebbing finally results in the formation of apoptotic bodies. Several biochemical changes such as protein modifications/degradations, DNA and chromatin deteriorations, and synthesis of cell surface markers form morphological process during apoptosis.. Apoptosis can be stimulated by two different pathways: (1) intrinsic pathway (or mitochondria pathway) that mainly occurs via release of ...
https://www.apexbt.com/research-area/apoptosis.html
*  Mouse Apoptosis PCR Array
The Mouse Apoptosis RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes involved in programmed cell death. Apoptosis plays a critical role in normal biological processes requiring cell removal including differentiation, development, and homeostasis. Stress responses (such as heat shock, ischemia, unfolded proteins, and viral infection) cause badly damaged cells to undergo apoptosis. In cell culture, growth factor withdrawal and many known experimental compounds have a similar effect. An acquired defect in apoptosis activation often leads to uncontrolled cell growth, oncogenesis, and cancer. Ligand-bound tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors initiate apoptosis by recruiting FADD and other death domain adaptor proteins that then recruit and activate caspases. Environmental stresses trigger BCL2 protein oligomerization and insertion into the mitochondrial membrane, releasing APAF1 and other CARD family members that also oligomerize to recruit and activate caspases. ...
http://www.sabiosciences.com/rt_pcr_product/HTML/PAMM-012Z.html
*  What does x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein mean?
Looking for the meaning of x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein? Find out what is the meaning of x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein on Phrases.net! The Web's largest and most authoritative phrases and idioms resource.
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*  SMART: BH4 domain annotation
Apoptosis, or programmed cell death (PCD), is a common and evolutionarily conserved property of all metazoans [(PUBMED:11341280)]. In many biological processes, apoptosis is required to eliminate supernumerary or dangerous (such as pre-cancerous) cells and to promote normal development. Dysregulation of apoptosis can, therefore, contribute to the development of many major diseases including cancer, autoimmunity and neurodegenerative disorders. In most cases, proteins of the caspase family execute the genetic programme that leads to cell death.. Bcl-2 proteins are central regulators of caspase activation, and play a key role in cell death by regulating the integrity of the mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes [(PUBMED:12631689)]. At least 20 Bcl-2 proteins have been reported in mammals, and several others have been identified in viruses. Bcl-2 family proteins fall roughly into three subtypes, which either promote cell survival (anti-apoptotic) or trigger ...
http://smart.embl.de/smart/do_annotation.pl?DOMAIN=SM00265
*  Caspase 9: The Suicidal Cell Whisperer | Antibody News: Novus Biologicals
Cell death via apoptosis is a key cellular function triggered by the cell death receptor family and their ligands which signal through downstream adaptor molecules and the caspase protease family.
https://www.novusbio.com/antibody-news/antibodies/caspase-9-the-suicidal-cell-whisperer
*  SBDS-deficient cells undergo accelerated apoptosis through the Fas-pathway | Haematologica
In the present study we showed that suppression of the SBDS gene by shRNA caused a pronounced decrease in cell growth and an increase in apoptosis. The reduced cell growth and the accelerated apoptosis in SBDS-deficient cells were mediated predominantly through the Fas pathway, since blocking the Fas-signaling pathway at the Fas and caspase 8 levels significantly improved the defective cell growth phenotype of the SBDS-knockdown HeLa cells to levels close to those of control cells. Furthermore, SBDS-knockdown cells were hypersensitive to Fas stimulation and over-expressed Fas on their surface. In contrast to Fas, the expression ratios of the pro-apoptosis protein, Bax, to the anti-apoptosis proteins, BCL-2 and BCL-XL in the SBDS-deficient cells were not in favor of apoptosis, and inhibition of this pathway by a caspase 9 inhibitor did not improve cell growth. Since the current data are in agreement with those on primary SDS cells, and since the scrambled RNA control HeLa ...
http://www.haematologica.org/content/93/3/363
*  IAP (Inhibitors Agonists Modulators Antagonists)-MedChemExpress.com
IAP (Inhibitors of Apoptosis) is a family of functionally and structurally related proteins, which serve as endogenous inhibitors of programmed cell death (apoptosis). A common feature of all IAPs is the presence of a BIR in one to three copies. The human IAP family consists of 8 members, and IAP homologs have been identified in numerous organisms. The members of the IAPs included IAPs, Cp-IAP, Op-IAP, XIAP, c-IAPl, C-IAP2, NAIP, Livin and Survivin. The best characterized IAP is XIAP, which binds caspase-9, caspase-3 and caspase 7, thereby inhibiting their activation and preventing apoptosis. Also cIAP1 and cIAP2 have been shown to bind caspases, although how the IAPs inhibit apoptosis mechanistically at the molecular level is not completely understood.. ...
http://update.medchemexpress.com/Targets/IAP.html
*  Z-VAD-FMK | Abcam
Buy Z-VAD-FMK, an irreversible general caspase inhibitor. Join researchers using high quality Z-VAD-FMK from Abcam and achieve your mission, faster.
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