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*  Taraxacum officinale - Wikipedia
The leaves are high in beta-carotene, vitamin C and iron, carrying more iron and calcium than spinach.[44][unreliable medical ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taraxacum_officinale
*  Avocado - Wikipedia
Persea americana, or the avocado, possibly originated in the Tehuacan Valley[6] in the state of Puebla, Mexico,[7] although fossil evidence suggests similar species were much more widespread millions of years ago. However, there is evidence for three possible separate domestications of the avocado, resulting in the currently recognized Mexican (aoacatl), Guatemalan (quilaoacatl), and West Indian (tlacacolaocatl) landraces.[8][9] The Mexican and Guatemalan landraces originated in the highlands of those countries, while the West Indian landrace is a lowland variety that ranges from Guatemala, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador to Peru,[8] achieving a wide range through human agency before the arrival of the Europeans.[9] The three separate landraces were most likely to have already intermingled[a] in pre-Columbian America and were described in the Florentine Codex.[9] The earliest residents were living in temporary camps in an ancient wetland eating avocados, chilies, mollusks, sharks, birds, and sea ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avocados
*  Electrocardiography - Wikipedia
Calcium: hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia. *Potassium: hypokalemia and hyperkalemia. Ischemia and infarction: *Wellens' syndrome ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EKG
*  Castanea sativa - Wikipedia
The raw nuts, though edible, have a skin which is astringent and unpleasant to eat when still moist; after drying for a time the thin skin loses its astringency but is still better removed to reach the white fruit underneath. Cooking dry in an oven or fire normally helps remove this skin. Chestnuts are traditionally roasted in their tough brown husks after removing the spiny cupules in which they grow on the tree, the husks being peeled off and discarded and the hot chestnuts dipped in salt before eating them. Roast chestnuts are traditionally sold in streets, markets and fairs by street vendors with mobile or static braziers.. The skin of raw peeled chestnuts can be relatively easily removed by quickly blanching the nuts after scoring them by a cross slit at the tufted end.[10] Once cooked, chestnuts acquire a sweet flavour and a floury texture similar to the sweet potato. The cooked nuts can be used for stuffing poultry, as a vegetable or in nut roasts. They can also be used in confections, ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castanea_sativa
*  Mustard seed - Wikipedia
In the Bible Jesus tells the Parable of the Mustard Seed referring to faith and the Kingdom of God. There, Jesus says, "The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which is the smallest of all seeds on earth. Yet when planted, it grows and becomes the largest of all garden plants, with such big branches that the birds can perch in its shade."[4] The earliest reference to mustard is in India from a story of Gautama Buddha in the fifth century BC. Gautama Buddha told the story of the grieving mother (Kisa Gotami) and the mustard seed. When a mother loses her only son, she takes his body to the Buddha to find a cure. The Buddha asks her to bring a handful of mustard seeds from a family that has never lost a child, husband, parent, or friend. When the mother is unable to find such a house in her village, she realizes death is common to all, and she cannot be selfish in her grief.[5][6] The Buddha stated that if an individual were to pick a single mustard seed every hundred years from a ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mustard_seed
*  Pistachio - Wikipedia
... of calcium, riboflavin, vitamin B5, folate, vitamin E, and vitamin K (table). ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pistacia_vera
*  Kumquat - Wikipedia
When the kumquats are divided into multiple species, the name Fortunella japonica (or Citrus japonica) is retained by the group. The round kumquat, also called Marumi kumquat or Morgani kumquat, is an evergreen tree that produces edible golden-yellow fruit. The round Hawaiian varietal, the "Meiwa kumquat", is typically eaten raw. The fruit is small and usually spherical but can be oval shaped. The peel has a sweet flavor, but the fruit has a distinctly sour center. The fruit can be eaten cooked but is mainly used to make marmalades, jellies, and other spreads. It is grown in Luxembourg and can be used in bonsai cultivation. The plant symbolizes good luck in China and other Asian countries, where it is often kept as a houseplant and given as a gift during the Lunar New Year. Round kumquats are more commonly cultivated than other species due to their high cold tolerance. ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citrus_japonica
*  Broccoli - Wikipedia
There are three commonly grown types of broccoli. The most familiar is Calabrese broccoli, often referred to simply as "broccoli", named after Calabria in Italy. It has large (10 to 20 cm) green heads and thick stalks. It is a cool season annual crop. Sprouting broccoli has a larger number of heads with many thin stalks. Purple cauliflower is a type of broccoli grown in Europe and North America. It has a head shaped like cauliflower, but consisting of tiny flower buds. It sometimes, but not always, has a purple cast to the tips of the flower buds. Other cultivar groups of Brassica oleracea include cabbage (Capitata Group), cauliflower and Romanesco broccoli (Botrytis Group), kale and collard greens (Acephala Group), kohlrabi (Gongylodes Group), Brussels sprouts (Gemmifera Group), and kai-lan (Alboglabra Group).[8] Rapini, sometimes called "broccoli raab" among other names, forms similar but smaller heads, and is actually a type of turnip (Brassica rapa). Broccolini or "Tenderstem broccoli" is a ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brocolli
*  Birch sap - Wikipedia
Birch sap is collected only at the break of winter and spring when the sap moves intensively. Birch sap collection is done by drilling a hole into its trunk and leading the sap into a container via some conduit (a tube or simply a thin twig): the sap will flow along it because of the surface tension. The wound is then plugged to minimise infection[2]. Birch sap has to be collected in early spring before any green leaves have appeared, as in late spring it becomes bitter. The collection period is only about a month per year. No published evidence exists to quantify the long-term impacts of sap harvest on birch tree and birch forest health, or birch timber quality[3]. However the wounds caused by tapping birches consistently lead to dark staining in the wood[4]. In one study, infection and wood decay had spread from more than half of old tapping holes[5]. In comparison to maples, birch are considered far less tolerant to the wounds caused by tapping, and so more conservative harvesting practises ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birch_sap
*  Kelp - Wikipedia
Some of the earliest evidence for human use of marine resources, coming from Middle Stone Age sites in South Africa, includes the harvesting of foods such as abalones, limpets, and mussels associated with kelp forest habitats. In 2007, Erlandson et al. suggested that kelp forests around the Pacific Rim may have facilitated the dispersal of anatomically modern humans following a coastal route from Northeast Asia to the Americas. This "kelp highway hypothesis" suggested that highly productive kelp forests supported rich and diverse marine food webs in nearshore waters, including many types of fish, shellfish, birds, marine mammals, and seaweeds that were similar from Japan to California, Erlandson and his colleagues also argued that coastal kelp forests reduced wave energy and provided a linear dispersal corridor entirely at sea level, with few obstacles to maritime peoples. Archaeological evidence from California's Channel Islands confirms that islanders were harvesting kelp forest shellfish and ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelp
*  Yolk - Wikipedia
Yolks hold more than 90% of the calcium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, thiamine, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, and pantothenic ... A single yolk from a large egg contains roughly 22 mg of calcium, 66 mg of phosphorus, 9.5 micrograms of selenium, and 19 mg of ... Phosvitins are important in sequestering calcium, iron, and other cations for the developing embryo. Phosvitins are one of the ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yolk
*  Coconut - Wikipedia
He also notes that several of the nuts began to germinate by the time they had been ten weeks at sea, precluding an unassisted journey of 100 days or more. However, the coconut variety Heyerdahl chose for his long sea voyage likely was of the large, fleshy, spherical niu vai type, which Harries observed to have a significantly shorter germination type and worse buoyancy than the uncultivated niu kafa type.[32] Therefore, Heyerdahl's observations cannot be considered conclusive when it comes to determining the independent dispersal ability of the uncultivated coconut.. Drift models based on wind and ocean currents have shown that coconuts could not have drifted across the Pacific unaided.[42] If they were naturally distributed and had been in the Pacific for a thousand years or so, then we would expect the eastern shore of Australia, with its own islands sheltered by the Great Barrier Reef, to have been thick with coconut palms: the currents were directly into, and down along this coast. However, ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coconuts
*  Arctium lappa - Wikipedia
The root contains a fair amount of dietary fiber (GDF, 6g per 100g), calcium, potassium, amino acids,[12] and is low calorie. ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctium_lappa
*  Charybdotoxin - Wikipedia
Charybdotoxin occludes the pore of calcium-activated voltage-gated shaker K+ channels by binding to one of four independent, ... that blocks calcium-activated potassium channels.[2] This blockade causes hyperexcitability of the nervous system. It is a ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charybdotoxin
*  Jerusalem artichoke - Wikipedia
Jerusalem artichokes were first cultivated by the Native Americans long before the arrival of the Europeans; this extensive cultivation obscures the exact native range of the species.[2] The French explorer Samuel de Champlain discovered that the native people of Nauset Harbor in Massachusetts had cultivated roots that tasted like artichoke. The following year, Champlain returned to the same area to discover that the roots had a flavour similar to chard[16] and was responsible for bringing the plant back to France. Some time later, Petrus Hondius, a Dutch botanist, planted a shrivelled Jerusalem artichoke tuber in his garden at Terneuzen and was surprised to see the plant proliferate.[16] Jerusalem artichokes are so well suited for the European climate and soil that the plant multiplies quickly. By the mid-1600s, the Jerusalem artichoke had become a very common vegetable for human consumption in Europe and the Americas, and was also used for livestock feed in Europe and colonial America.[7] The ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerusalem_artichoke
*  Panela - Wikipedia
The main producer of panela is Colombia (about 1.4 million tons/year),[5] where panela production is one of the most important economic activities, with the highest index of panela consumption per capita worldwide. Panela is also produced in Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico,[6] Panama, Peru, Chile, Venezuela, Brazil, and Bolivia (where it is called chankaka or empanizao). In Colombia, the panela industry is an important source of employment, with about 350,000 people working in nearly 20,000 trapiches (panela farms). In 2003, Colombian sugarcane contributed 4.2% of the value of agricultural production (not counting coffee) and 1.9% of national agricultural activity of that country. That year, it was ninth in contributions to production value. Similarly, it represents 10.7% of the area for permanent crops and 6.2% of the total area cultivated in Colombia, sixth place among the country's crops, behind only coffee, corn, rice, bananas, and cotton. This product is produced predominantly in the rural ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rapadura
*  Lemon - Wikipedia
The origin of the lemon is unknown, though lemons are thought to have first grown in Assam (a region in northeast India), northern Burma or China.[2] A genomic study of the lemon indicated it was a hybrid between bitter orange (sour orange) and citron.[3][4] Lemons entered Europe near southern Italy no later than the second century AD, during the time of Ancient Rome.[2] However, they were not widely cultivated. They were later introduced to Persia and then to Iraq and Egypt around 700 AD.[2] The lemon was first recorded in literature in a 10th-century Arabic treatise on farming, and was also used as an ornamental plant in early Islamic gardens.[2] It was distributed widely throughout the Arab world and the Mediterranean region between 1000 and 1150.[2] The first substantial cultivation of lemons in Europe began in Genoa in the middle of the 15th century. The lemon was later introduced to the Americas in 1493 when Christopher Columbus brought lemon seeds to Hispaniola on his voyages. Spanish ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemon
*  Loquat - Wikipedia
Loquats are unusual among fruit trees in that the flowers appear in the autumn or early winter, and the fruits are ripe at any time from early spring to early summer.[12] The flowers are 2 cm (1 in) in diameter, white, with five petals, and produced in stiff panicles of three to ten flowers. The flowers have a sweet, heady aroma that can be smelled from a distance.[citation needed] Loquat fruits, growing in clusters, are oval, rounded or pear-shaped, 3-5 centimetres (1-2 in) long, with a smooth or downy, yellow or orange, sometimes red-blushed skin. The succulent, tangy flesh is white, yellow or orange and sweet to subacid or acid, depending on the cultivar. Each fruit contains from one to ten ovules, with three to five being most common.[13] A variable number of the ovules mature into large brown seeds (with different numbers of seeds appearing in each fruit on the same tree, usually between one and four). The fruits are the sweetest when soft and orange. The flavour is a mixture of peach, ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eriobotrya_japonica
*  Green bean - Wikipedia
In the past, bean pods often contained a "string", a hard fibrous strand running the length of the pod. This was removed before cooking, or made edible by cutting the pod into short segments. Modern, commercially grown green bean varieties lack strings.. Green beans are eaten around the world, and are marketed canned, frozen, and fresh. Green beans are often steamed, boiled, stir-fried, or baked in casseroles. A dish with green beans popular throughout the United States, particularly at Thanksgiving, is green bean casserole, which consists of green beans, cream of mushroom soup, and French fried onions.[7]. Some US restaurants serve green beans that are battered and fried, and some Japanese restaurants serve green bean tempura. Green beans are also sold dried, and fried with vegetables such as carrots, corn, and peas, as vegetable chips.. The flavonol miquelianin (Quercetin 3-O-glucuronide) can be found in green beans.[8]. ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_beans
*  Amaranth - Wikipedia
Cooked amaranth leaves are a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and manganese, with moderate levels of folate, iron ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amaranthus
*  Asparagus bean - Wikipedia
The crisp, tender pods are eaten both fresh and cooked. They are at their best when young and slender. They are sometimes cut into short sections for cooking uses. As a West Indian dish, they are often stir-fried with potatoes and shrimp. In Odisha, India, they are used to make a variety of dishes, especially a sour dish - ଝୁଡ଼ୁଙ୍ଗ ବେସର [judunga besara] cooking along with mustard sauce and lime. They are also used in stir-fries in Chinese cuisine and Kerala cuisine.[citation needed] In the Philippines, they are widely eaten stir-fried with soy sauce, garlic, and hot pepper and in an all-vegetable dish called utan, or are stewed in bagoong-based dishes such as pinakbet and dinengdeng. Other Filipino dishes that have yardlong beans as ingredients are sinigang and kare-kare. Yardlong beans are also separated from the pod and are cooked with the buds of the alukon tree (Alleaenthus luzonicus) and other vegetables in a dish called agaya in northeastern Luzon.[citation needed] ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vigna_unguiculata_subsp._sesquipedalis
*  New Mexico chile - Wikipedia
New Mexico chile peppers are grown from seeds - and each of the individual pepper types is specifically bred and grown to be disease-resistant and provide consistent and healthy plants within their specific regions. Altitude, climate, soil, and acreage affects a crop's taste and heartiness, making the New Mexican region unique for plant propagation. The Rio Grande bosque, mountains, and high deserts provide the appropriate regional environment for growing chiles. To ensure that a variety's lineage remains disease-resistant and maintains optimal growth within its heritage region, seeds from specific plants are carefully selected. An example of a New Mexican chile grown outside the state is the 'Anaheim' pepper which are extremely resilient in multiple altitudes. A quirky aspect of the New Mexico chile pepper regards reintroducing seeds from their heritage soil since each successive generation becomes susceptible to disease and it loses its flavor. Therefore, chile pepper farmers usually order ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Mexico_chile
*  Plant physiology - Wikipedia
Calcium. Ca2+. Membrane synthesis and stabilization Magnesium. Mg2+. Element essential for chlorophyll ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_physiology
*  Chickpea - Wikipedia
Chickpeas are usually rapidly boiled for 10 minutes and then simmered for a longer period. Dried chickpeas need a long cooking time (1-2 hours) but will easily fall apart when cooked longer. If soaked for 12-24 hours before use, cooking time can be shortened by around 30 minutes. Chickpeas can also be pressure cooked or sous vide cooked at 90 °C (194 °F). Mature chickpeas can be cooked and eaten cold in salads, cooked in stews, ground into flour, ground and shaped in balls and fried as falafel, made into a batter and baked to make farinata or cecina, or fried to make panelle. Chickpea flour is known as gram flour or besan in South Asia and used frequently in South Asian cuisine. Chickpeas are popular in the Iberian Peninsula. In Portugal, they are one of the main ingredients in rancho, eaten with pasta and meat, including Portuguese sausages, or with rice. They are used in other hot dishes with bacalhau and in soup. In Spain, they are used cold in tapas and salads, as well as in cocido ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chickpeas
*  Celery - Wikipedia
Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[33] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC), and celery mericarps dated to the seventh century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. However, they note "since A. graveolens grows wild in these areas, it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. M. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC, at Kastanas; however, the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. In Homer's Iliad, the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy, and in Odyssey, there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso.[34] In the Capitulary of Charlemagne, compiled ca. 800, apium appears, as does olisatum, or alexanders, among medicinal herbs and vegetables the Frankish emperor ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celery_seed