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*  The Role of Chemokines and their Receptors in Directing the Migration and Function ofNeural Stem Cel(1)
In MS, immune cells mistake myelin as foreign, and cross the blood-brain-barrier to attack it, producing inflammation. Most ... how do these processes help us to explain communication in the brain under normal conditions and in the context of brain ... Brain tumors are the most common type of cancer occurring in children aged 14 and younger-as well as the leading cause of ... It is currently thought that neural stem and progenitor cells may be useful in the repair of different types of brain damage. ...
http://dana.org/Media/GrantsDetails.aspx?id=38821
*  Targeting Craving Shows Therapeutic Potential
... do not couple with the slightly different molecular structure of receptors in the brain or do not cross the blood-brain barrier ... but do not cross the blood-brain barrier, he adds.. As of April 2005, more than a dozen cannabinoid modulators were under ... the tight layer of tissue in brain blood vessels that seals off the brain to protect ultrasensitive neurons. ... "It's a very plastic system both in the brain and the periphery, so if you try to push it one way it will find a way to counter- ...
https://www.dana.org/Publications/Brainwork/Details.aspx?id=43554
*  What Triggers the "Shaking Palsy"?
But levodopa (L-Dopa) readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, and upon entering the brain is converted into dopamine. Today, L ... When the brain is undergoing development in the fetus, at first too many brain cells appear in certain regions. To solve this ... Dopamine itself is not administered because it cannot cross from the body's blood vessels into brain tissue. ... Third, when fetal brain cells are transplanted into the brain of a patient with idiopathic Parkinsonism, these cells do not ...
http://dana.org/Cerebrum/2002/What_Triggers_the_%E2%80%9CShaking_Palsy%E2%80%9D_/
*  Cytoskeletal requirements for lymphocyte entry into the central nervous system
Autoimmune T cells manage to travel through the bloodstream, cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to enter the central nervous ... determine how the lymphocyte cytoskeleton mediates the steps required for T cell infiltration through the blood-brain barrier ... Seeing how autoimmune T cells enter the brain and spinal cord may lead to new MS therapies. Investigators will use real-time ... His long-term research goal is to prevent the accumulation of autoreactive lymphocytes in the brain and spinal cord where they ...
http://www.dana.org/Media/GrantsDetails.aspx?id=39107
*  Progress Report 2010: Multiple Sclerosis
... are protected by the blood-brain barrier, a tight layer of cells within blood vessels that prevents many substances from ... In MS patients, however, these cells somehow get through the blood-brain barrier and attack the myelin as though it were a ... Administered every twenty-eight days, natalizumab acts on the walls of the blood-brain barrier to block inflammatory cells in ... Nevertheless, by preventing immune cells from crossing the bloodbrain barrier, natalizumab could conceivably slow or even halt ...
http://dana.org/Publications/ReportDetails.aspx?id=44350
*  Can Autoantibodies in the Periphery Enter the Brain and Produce Disease?(1)
Despite the presence of an effective blood brain barrier that is thought to prevent access of antibodies to the central nervous ... with and without substances that we will show can alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier. In addition, we will ... Can Autoantibodies in the Periphery Enter the Brain and Produce Disease? Angela Vincent, M.B.B.S., M.Sc.. University of Oxford ... Brain tumors are the most common type of cancer occurring in children aged 14 and younger-as well as the leading cause of ...
http://dana.org/Media/GrantsDetails.aspx?id=38801
*  Getting High on the Endocannabinoid System
... that do not cross the blood-brain barrier (a membranous cellular fence that bars certain chemicals present in the circulation ... By understanding this system, we begin to see a mechanism that could connect brain activity and states of physical health and ... people become good at titrating their blood levels of nicotine when smoking tobacco). Because smoked THC enters the brain so ... Endocannabinoids and their receptors are found throughout the body and brain and interact with our organs, connective tissues, ...
https://www.dana.org/Cerebrum/2013/Getting_High_on_the_Endocannabinoid_System/
*  At Long Last, Medications for Multiple Sclerosis
... is a monoclonal antibody that blocks the movement of immune cells across the blood-brain barrier into the brain and spinal cord ... Thus, additional requirements prior to starting fingolimod include blood tests to determine the white blood cell count, liver ... It is an autoimmune disease that attacks the myelin sheaths of nerve fibers of both the brain and spinal cord. Women are twice ... The most notable side effects of interferon beta include flu-like symptoms, liver enzyme elevations, alterations in blood cell ...
http://dana.org/Publications/Details.aspx?id=43240
*  Biomarkers-A Primer
The blood-brain barrier, the protective layer of endothelial cells that separates the brain from circulating blood, also ... Brain injuries result in a cascade of molecular changes in the brain. Researchers from the Department of Applied Neurobiology ... Using neuroimaging techniques, these researchers have discovered loss of brain tissue in an area of the brain called the ... which may or may not reflect the levels found inside the brain. This is sometimes referred to as "finding windows to the brain ...
http://www.dana.org/Publications/Primers/Biomarkers%E2%80%94A_Primer/
*  New Positron Emission Tomography Approaches to Visualize T-Cell Mediated Autoimmune Demeyelination
They then mature and travel to the brain, mysteriously eluding the blood-brain-barrier, and attack the myelin sheath that ... including the brain, in pursuit of melanoma cells that have metastasized to the brain. The imaging technique has great ... a deadly cancer that quickly metastasizes to the brain, to the study of autoimmune brain disease, in which immune cells ... Brain tumors are the most common type of cancer occurring in children aged 14 and younger-as well as the leading cause of ...
http://dana.org/Media/GrantsDetails.aspx?id=38767
*  Neuroprotective Mechanisms of CXCL12 During CNS Autoimmunity
... is considered an immunologically specialized site where leukocyte trafficking is restricted by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a ... are produced and displayed on the lining of brain blood vessels. These chemokines then guide the disease-producing white blood ... study will explore the possibility that specific molecular interactions direct immune lymphocytes to the blood-brain-barrier ( ... How, though, do immune lymphocytes (white blood cells) manage to get through the BBB, which ordinarily only opens to immune ...
https://www.dana.org/Media/GrantsDetails.aspx?id=38750
*  Stroke-A Primer
It promotes edema that increases pressure on brain tissue, possibly by opening the blood-brain barrier.. Red blood cells within ... that damage brain cells directly, through edema, and by disrupting the blood-brain barrier.. After subarachnoid hemorrhage, the ... Here, a ruptured blood vessel bleeds into the brain itself (intracerebral hemorrhage) or into the space between the brain and ... Blood components activate microglia cells in surrounding brain tissue and leukocytes (white blood cells), triggering the ...
http://dana.org/Publications/Primers/Stroke%E2%80%94A_Primer/
*  Moving Past the Blood-Brain Barrier
One reason? The blood-brain barrier (BBB): The protective endothelial membrane that guards the brain from potential invaders ... "We can use it to send growth factors or other deficient genes into the brain, for example. Really, being able to selectively ... In doing so, they have created tools that help further our understanding of difficult-to-reach brain circuitry as well as ... But AAV has been more challenging to harness for brain diseases and disorders because of the difficulty of crossing the BBB. ...
http://dana.org/News/Moving_Past_the_Blood-Brain_Barrier/
*  Can Autoantibodies in the Periphery Enter the Brain and Produce Disease?
Despite the presence of an effective blood brain barrier that is thought to prevent access of antibodies to the central nervous ... with and without substances that we will show can alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier. In addition, we will ... Can Autoantibodies in the Periphery Enter the Brain and Produce Disease? Angela Vincent, M.B.B.S., M.Sc.. University of Oxford ... Dana grantee Andy Shih is working on new types of imaging that might someday be sharp enough to detect these tiny blood-vessel ...
https://www.dana.org/Media/GrantsDetails.aspx?id=38737
*  The Brain's Waste-Removal System
While the blood vessels in the brain and spine are "tight" due to the presence of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB), the meningeal ... Factors determining the density of AQP4 water channel molecules at the brain-blood interface. Brain Struct Funct 222(4), 1753- ... The Brain's Waste-Removal System By: Helene Benveniste, M.D., Ph.D.. Editor's Note: The brain, like other parts of the body, ... The blood vessels in the brain are tight but when the contrast reaches the leaky dura vessels the contrast agent travels across ...
http://www.dana.org/Cerebrum/2018/The_Brains_Waste-Removal_System/
*  Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis: A Forgotten Disability Remembered
... and leakage of dye into the brain indicates disruption of the protective barrier between the brain and the blood. This ... General measurements of either whole-brain or regional atrophy (brain shrinkage), the final outcome of demyelination and ... the thin layer of cells that makes up the outer layer of the brain) and the thalamus (the relay station between the brain and ... MRS measures chemical compounds in specific areas of the brain. Since the brain's hippocampus has a prominent role in learning ...
https://www.dana.org/Cerebrum/2012/Cognitive_Impairment_in_Multiple_Sclerosis__A_Forgotten_Disability_Remembered/
*  Immune Proteins Limit Brain Wiring
... off-limits or have only limited access to the brain thanks to a tight layer of cells and tissue called the blood-brain barrier ... Direct molecular communication between immune cells and brain cells seems to trigger dramatic changes in brain development, ... not even thought to be present in the brain-are in fact all over the brain and apparently are critical to brain wiring and ... "If we could find a way to release the brake, we might have a way to tune up the brain even beyond the normal window for doing ...
https://www.dana.org/Publications/Brainwork/Details.aspx?id=43705
*  Gut Feelings on Parkinson's and Depression
One such region is the hypothalamus, where there is a deficient blood brain barrier, which in other brain regions plays a vital ... When these signals penetrate the blood brain barrier, they influence the maturation and activation state of the microglia, key ... Microbial genes, brain & behaviour - epigenetic regulation of the gut-brain axis. Genes Brain Behav 2014, 13(1): 69-86. ... Multiple chemicals are produced in the gut and travel to the brain through the blood stream. Many of these chemicals-tryptophan ...
http://danany.dana.org/Cerebrum/2017/Gut_Feelings_on_Parkinson_s_and_Depression/
*  Role of Human-Specific, Microglial Receptor Siglec-11 for Neuroinflammatory Diseases
... and the blood-brain-barrier blocks all other immune cells from entering unless the brain is attacked by viruses or other ... Is a Specific Receptor on Immune Cells in the Brain Involved in Degenerative Brain Diseases?. Investigators will study a " ... The brain has been considered an "immune privileged" site becaue only immune microglial cells reside in the brain, ... This arrangement helps to shield brain cells from collateral damage that otherwise might occur from immune actions in the brain ...
http://dana.org/Media/GrantsDetails.aspx?id=38758