Frontiers | All-Optical Assay to Study Biological Neural Networks | Neuroscience
We also developed a spatio-temporal all-optical assay to simultaneously stimulate a sub-section of a neural network and record ... We also developed a spatio-temporal all-optical assay to simultaneously stimulate a sub-section of a neural network and record ... Finally, we demonstrate the sensitivity of this assay to the change of neural network connectivity. ... Finally, we demonstrate the sensitivity of this assay to the change of neural network connectivity. ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2018.00451/full
Frontiers | RhoA/ROCK Signaling Pathway Mediates Shuanghuanglian Injection-Induced Pseudo-allergic Reactions | Pharmacology
Activated RhoA pull down assay kit was obtained from Cytoskeleton. Histamine assay kit was purchased from Immuno-Biological ... The in vitro experiment and western blot assay were conducted by JH and HC. The in vivo experiment was performed by JH, YZ, YSZ ... Supernatants were stored at -80°C for western blot assay.. In vitro, HUVECs were incubated with 0.15 mg/mL SHLI for 15, 30, or ... Protein assay results indicated that fasudil hydrochloride inhibited the enhanced expression of p-MYPT1 and p-MLC2 in the ears ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.00087/full
Frontiers | Jump-Starting Urban Rat Research: Conspecific Pheromones Recruit Wild Rats into a Behavioral and Pathogen...
We discuss the potential for similar assays to help address several longstanding knowledge gaps in the literature regarding ... Keywords: biological assay, semiochemicals, Rattus norvegicus, remote sensing, RFID, rodentology, urban ecology ... in a biological assay, male rat pheromones may be more likely to attract inquisitive or territorial males to investigate the ... This approach to biological control is innovative and consistent. It is only limited by the time and costs necessary to find ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fevo.2015.00146/full
Frontiers | Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Apoptosis during Dissociated Spermatogenesis | Physiology
... results facilitate understanding the regulatory mechanisms of apoptosis during spermatogenesis and uncovering the biological ... a biological assay for semen quality? Fertil. Steril. 74, 245-250. doi: 10.1016/S0015-0282(00)00623-3 ... TdT-Mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) Assay. The TUNEL assay was performed using an in situ cell Apoptosis Detection Kit ... Total RNA used for RT-qPCR analysis was prepared from the P. sinensis testes in April, July, and October with three biological ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2017.00188/full
Frontiers | Molecularly Characterized Solvent Extracts and Saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L. Show High Anti-Angiogenic,...
In anti-tumor assay, Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc and Ph.Cr were most potent with IC50 of 18.39, 73.81, 217.19 and 342.53 µg/ml ... In anti-tumor assay, Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc and Ph.Cr were most potent with IC50 of 18.39, 73.81, 217.19 and 342.53 µg/ml ... In anti-angiogenic assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.Sp, Ph.EtAc and Ph.Cr exhibited highest activity with IC50 of 28.65, 19.21, 88.75 and ... In anti-angiogenic assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.Sp, Ph.EtAc and Ph.Cr exhibited highest activity with IC50 of 28.65, 19.21, 88.75 and ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2016.00074/full
Frontiers | Functional Studies of β-Glucosidases of Cytophaga hutchinsonii and Their Effects on Cellulose Degradation |...
Three biological repeats were set for all assays. Prime pairs 16SrRNA-1/16SrRNA-2, RT-bglA-1/RT-bglA-2, RT-bglB-1/RT-bglB-2, RT ... Cellulose Degradation Assay. Cellulose degradation assays were carried out as described by Ji et al. (2012). Equivalent amounts ... Values are the mean of three biological replicates. Error bars are the standard deviations from these replicates. (C,D) ... In order to detect the transcription level of the β-glucosidases at mRNA level, we used the quantitative RT-PCR assay to detect ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00140/full
Frontiers | DNA Damage Response and Autophagy: A Meaningful Partnership | Genetics
... are biological processes essential for cellular and organismal homeostasis. Herein we summarize and discuss emerging evidence ... are biological processes essential for cellular and organismal homeostasis. Herein we summarize and discuss emerging evidence ... 2016). Robust, universal biomarker assay to detect senescent cells in biological specimens. Aging Cell (in press). ... Autophagy and the DNA damage response (DDR) are biological processes essential for cellular and organismal homeostasis. Herein ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fgene.2016.00204/full
Frontiers | An Effective Way of Producing Fully Assembled Antibody in Transgenic Tobacco Plants by Linking Heavy and Light...
Three batches of samples were assayed as three biological repeats. In each batch assay, two technique repeats were used. ... For affinity assay by ELISA, the concentrations of eluted mAbs were determined by protein A/G affinity assay using protein A/G ... Our indirect ELISA assay showed that plant-produced EBOV mAbs could detect Ebola epitope peptide with a wide range of ... The human IgG was also assayed for generating a standard curve at a range of 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.125, 1.56, and 0.78 ng, and the ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2018.01379/full
Frontiers | The Interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeast during Alcoholic Fermentation Is...
Culturability differences were observed among species and strains in culture assays and thus showed distinct tolerance to S. ... Culturability differences were observed among species and strains in culture assays and thus showed distinct tolerance to S. ... Monteiro, F. F., and Bisson, L. F. (1991). Biological assay of nitrogen content of grape juice and prediction of sluggish ... Culture assays were conducted at 25°C in duplicate with a shaking speed of 120 rpm; when a culturability decrease was observed ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00502/full
Frontiers | Application of an Amyloid Beta Oligomer Standard in the sFIDA Assay | Neuroscience
To date, a variety of oligomer-specific assays have been developed, many of them ELISAs. Here, we demonstrate the sFIDA assay, ... Here, we demonstrate the sFIDA assay, a technology highly specific for Aβ oligomers developed towards single particle ... To date, a variety of oligomer-specific assays have been developed, many of them ELISAs. ... which is a very important feature in assay development. However, the applicability of this standard for biological samples will ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2016.00008/full
Frontiers | Hypothermia Promotes Interleukin-22 Expression and Fine-Tunes Its Biological Activity | Immunology
cDNA was amplified using assay-on-demand kits (Taqman probes/assay kit from Thermo Scientific) and an AbiPrism 7500 Fast ... H) After 48 h, IL-8 secretion was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data are shown as means ± SEM (n = 6). **P ... Cytokine Analysis by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Murine and human IL-22 (R&D-Systems, Wiesbaden, Germany) and ... To investigate effects of hypothermia on IL-22 biological activity, IL-22-responsive epithelial-like human Caco2 and DLD1 colon ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00742/full
Frontiers | Factor Analysis of MYB Gene Expression and Flavonoid Affecting Petal Color in Three Crabapple Cultivars | Plant...
HPLC and qRT-PCR assays were analyzed at least in biological triplicate. All data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, followed ... Thus, considering the biological significance of these data, the structural gene expression patterns were only observed for the ... Considering the biological significance, these factors were analyzed using an empirical analysis method. The structural genes ... Each study was performed in at least three biological replications. All samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at − ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2017.00137/full
Frontiers | Screening of Pharmacologically Active Small Molecule Compounds Identifies Antifungal Agents Against Candida...
All assays were performed at least as two biological replicates in triplicate. The ATP level of C. albicans cells, which ... To investigate the antifungal effects of the hit compounds, ASTs were conducted using broth microdilution assays with high cell ... The number of cells was evaluated using the WST-1 cell counting assay (Dojindo Laboratories, Kumamoto, Japan), as described ... Biofilms may develop on biological and inert surfaces, such as intravascular catheters, stents, shunts, prostheses and implants ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01453/full
Frontiers | Development of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Inhibitors for Cardioprotection | Pharmacology
MTS based on a fluorescent assay employing MMP-2 catalytic domain. Altogether 45 compounds showed a docking score of >70, from ... MTS based on a fluorescent assay employing MMP-2 catalytic domain. Altogether 45 compounds showed a docking score of ,70, from ... Cardiac myocyte cell culture assay allowed a relatively high throughput biological efficacy testing (Gorbe et al., 2010) of the ... Cell Viability Assay. Cell viability was assessed by a calcein and propidium iodine assay performed in each group after 2 h ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.00296/full
Frontiers | Versatile Genetic Tool Box for the Crenarchaeote Sulfolobus acidocaldarius | Microbiology
All given strains were assayed in biological as well as technical triplicates. The production of ONP was measured at 410 nm ... Promoter Activity Assay. For the promoter activity assay pSVA1673 and pCmalLacS were transformed into MW001. Single colonies ... A typical result of an UV induced aggregation assay is shown. Aggregation of wild type and deletion mutant were scored before ( ... an aggregation assay was performed with all the ΔupsE deletion mutants that were either obtained using pSVA406, pSVA407, or ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2012.00214/full
Frontiers | Gene Expression Response of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis Phage Type 8 to Subinhibitory Concentrations...
Assays were performed using 3 independent biological replicates for TC and EG, separately. The SIC of TC (0.01% vol/vol; 0.75 ... This strain was used along with three other strains in our in vitro invasion and motility assays, and in vivo chicken ... The biological replicates were analyzed in duplicate and normalized against 16S rRNA gene expression. The 16S rRNA gene was ... Total RNA was extracted from three biological replicates of PT8 cultures exposed to TC or EG using the RNeasy minikit (Qiagen) ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01828/full
Frontiers | Mechanism Based Quality Control (MBQC) of Herbal Products: A Case Study YIV-906 (PHY906) | Pharmacology
For its specific usage appropriate biological assays based on its mechanism action should be developed for QC. Chemical ... A Mechanism Based Quality Control (MBQC) platform, comprising 18 luciferase reporter cell lines and two enzymatic assays based ... A Mechanism Based Quality Control (MBQC) platform, comprising 18 luciferase reporter cell lines and two enzymatic assays based ... Two quality control platforms were used to correlate the biological activity between YIV906 and HQT. Chemical profiles (using ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.01324/full
Frontiers | Multiparametric Profiling for Identification of Chemosensitizers against Gram-Negative Bacteria | Microbiology
... of the efflux alteration and measure of the influx increase in the presence of studied compounds in an automatized bio-assay. ... This step ensures results consistency between assays by correcting the biological variability among clones. The obtained values ... This step ensures results consistency between assays by correcting the biological variability among clones. ... value obtained under the same conditions of the monodose chemosensitization assay. The preliminary MIC assay was performed in ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00204/full
Frontiers | Developing microRNA screening as a functional genomics tool for disease research | Physiology
... might be a powerful new approach to gaining insight into complex biological processes. ... might be a powerful new approach to gaining insight into complex biological processes. ... it is possible to comprehensively evaluate the function of each member of the miRNAome in cell-based assays. Since the ... it is possible to comprehensively evaluate the function of each member of the miRNAome in cell-based assays. Since the ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2013.00223/full
Frontiers | Candidatus Nitrosocaldus cavascurensis, an Ammonia Oxidizing, Extremely Thermophilic Archaeon with a Highly Mobile...
Technical triplicates of each biological duplicate were assayed to determine the gene copy number. Error bars represent the ... Ammonia cultures served as control and all data points show the mean of biological triplicates with error bars representing the ... Data points for ammonia and nitrite are averages of biological duplicates. ... These were amplified using M13 primers and concentration was determined with QubitTM dsDNA BR Assay Kit (Thermo Fisher ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00028/full
Frontiers | Nectar Sugar Modulation and Cell Wall Invertases in the Nectaries of Day- and Night- Flowering Nicotiana | Plant...
All enzyme assays were conducted from six biological replicates with two technical replicates each. About 5 μL of nectar were ... Enzyme Assay for CWINV, Soluble Acid Invertase, and Neutral Invertase. Proteins were extracted from 25 mg nectary tissue each ... CW-INV activity was assayed according to Heineke et al. (1992). An aliquot of the protein extracts was added to 0.6 M sucrose ... For each condition three biological replicates with two technical replicates each were tested. A list of the primers used for ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2018.00622/full
Frontiers | Phages of non-dairy lactococci: isolation and characterization of ΦL47, a phage infecting the grass isolate...
Daniel Cavanagh isolated phage, performed biological assays, genome analysis, data analysis and drafted the manuscript. ... Spot Assay. Bacterial infection by phages was assessed using spot plate assays with phage titers of 108 PFU/mL. Briefly, 10 μ L ... Phage titers in excess of 107 PFU/mL were propagated and tested against the target strain using a spot plate assay performed in ... 4Department of Biological Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology, Co. Cork, Ireland ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2013.00417/full
Frontiers | TNF Receptor Type II as an Emerging Drug Target for the Treatment of Cancer, Autoimmune Diseases, and Graft-Versus...
Discovery of novel ligands for TNF-alpha and TNF receptor-1 through structure-based virtual screening and biological assay. J ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01382/full
Frontiers | Is there Progress? An Overview of Selecting Biomarker Candidates for Major Depressive Disorder | Psychiatry
Representative of this, multiplex assays using multiple sources of biomarkers are reported to be more accurate options in ... In the future, more sophisticated multiplex assays may hold promise for use in screening and diagnosing depression and ... Representative of this, multiplex assays using multiple sources of biomarkers are reported to be more accurate options in ... In the future, more sophisticated multiplex assays may hold promise for use in screening and diagnosing depression and ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00072/full
Frontiers | Silver Nanoparticles Combined With Naphthoquinones as an Effective Synergistic Strategy Against Staphylococcus...
The results of biological assays were analyzed for statistical significance with the Statistica 13 software (StatSoft). The one ... TABLE 1. Summary of checkerboard assays for combination of 3-ChPL and AgNPs tested toward the reference strain of S. aureus and ... Antibacterial Assays. To characterize antibacterial potential of all agents tested in this study, alone and in combinations, we ... In each step of time-dependent killing assay, the bacterial cells were cultured aerobically in CA-MHB medium at 37°C and 150 ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.00816/full