Bencyclane is an antispasmodic, vasodilator, and platelet aggregation inhibitor. J. Elks, ed. (2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: ...
Lamotrigine is a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs.[60] This may suppress the release of glutamate and aspartate, two of the dominant excitatory neurotransmitters in the CNS.[61] It is generally accepted to be a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs,[62] but it could have additional actions since it has a broader spectrum of action than other sodium channel antiepileptic drugs such as phenytoin and is effective in the treatment of the depressed phase of bipolar disorder, whereas other sodium channel blocking antiepileptic drugs are not, possibly on account of its sigma receptor activity. In addition, lamotrigine shares few side-effects with other, unrelated anticonvulsants known to inhibit sodium channels, which further emphasises its unique properties.[63] It is a triazine derivate that inhibits voltage-sensitive sodium channels, leading to ...
The hormone prolactin stimulates lactation (production of breast milk). Dopamine, released by the hypothalamus stops the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland. Domperidone, by acting as an anti-dopaminergic agent, results in increased prolactin secretion, and thus promotes lactation (that is, it is a galactogogue). In some nations, including Australia, domperidone is used off-label, based on uncertain and anecdotal evidence of its usefulness, as a therapy for mothers who are having difficulty breastfeeding.[24][25] In the United States, domperidone is not approved for this or any other use.[26][27] A study called the EMPOWER trial was designed to assess the effectiveness and safety of domperidone in assisting mothers of preterm babies to supply breast milk for their infants.[28] The study randomized 90 mothers of preterm babies to receive either
Omega, delta and kappa families of conotoxins have a knottin or inhibitor cystine knot scaffold. The knottin scaffold is a very special disulfide-through-disulfide knot, in which the III-VI disulfide bond crosses the macrocycle formed by two other disulfide bonds (I-IV and II-V) and the interconnecting backbone segments, where I-VI indicates the six cysteine residues starting from the N-terminus. The cysteine arrangements are the same for omega, delta and kappa families, even though omega conotoxins are calcium channel blockers, whereas delta conotoxins delay the inactivation of sodium channels, and kappa conotoxins are potassium channel blockers.[7] ...
Bencyclane. Bencyclane may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroprusside.. Experimental. Bendroflumethiazide. The risk ...
Bencyclane. The therapeutic efficacy of Mineral oil can be decreased when used in combination with Bencyclane.. Experimental. ...
There are many causes of hypertension (high blood pressure), including advancing age, smoking and obesity.[9] Sometimes the underlying cause of hypertension can not be determined, resulting in a diagnosis of idiopathic hypertension. Regardless of the cause, someone may have very high hypertension without any initial symptoms. Uncontrolled hypertension will eventually cause damage the heart, kidneys and eyes. Lifestyle changes, including reducing dietary salt, increasing exercise and losing weight can help to reduce blood pressure.[9] Thiazides and thiazide-like diuretics have been in constant use since their introduction in 1958. Decades as a cornerstone of hypertension treatment show how well these drugs perform for most patients.[10] Low-dose thiazides are tolerated as well as the other classes of diuretics, including ACE inhibitors, beta blockers and calcium channel blockers.[9] In general, the thiazides and thiazide-like diuretics reduce the risk of death, stroke, heart attack, and heart ...
Bencyclane Fumarate. Lynandron. Estradiol Benzoate; Estradiol Phenylpropionate; Testosterone Isocaproate; Testosterone ...
Flupirtine is used as an analgesic for acute and chronic pain, in moderate-to-severe cases.[15] Its muscle relaxant properties make it popular for back pain and other orthopedic uses, but it is also used for migraines, in oncology, postoperative care, and gynecology. Flupirtine has been noted for its neuroprotective properties, and it is being investigated for possible use in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Alzheimers disease, and multiple sclerosis.[16][17] It has also been proposed as a possible treatment for Batten disease.[18] Flupirtine underwent a clinical trial as a treatment for multiple sclerosis[19] and fibromyalgia.[20] Flupirtine showed promise for fibromyalgia due to its different action than the three approved by U.S. FDA drugs: Lyrica (pregabalin), Savella (milnacipran), and Cymbalta (duloxetine).[21] Additionally, there are case reports regarding flupirtine as a treatment for fibromyalgia.[22] Adeona Pharmaceuticals (now called Synthetic Biologics) sub-licensed its patents for using ...
BIOTRANSFORMATION. Prof. Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade M. Pharm., Ph. D Department of Pharmaceutics KLE Universitys College of Pharmacy BELGAUM - 590010, Karnataka, India Cell No: 0091 9742431000 E-mail: [email protected] Contents:-. Introduction Phase I reaction Phase II reaction Slideshow 1137530 by zayit
Bencyclane, a spasmolytic agent and vasodilator is produced from it, for example. Pimelic acid is produced by the oxidative ...
Effects of Bencyclane on Human Platelet Aggregation and on Prostaglandin Synthesis by the Platelet (1977) ...
The Effect of Bencyclane on the K+- and Ca++-Induced Pial Arterial Constriction ...
... bencyclane, quinidine, bretylium, lifarizine, lamotrigine, flunarizine, and fluspirilene. 10. 10.-12. (canceled) 13. The method ... bencyclane, lifarizine, and strychnine. Still other ion channel blockers can be modified to incorporate a nitrogen atom ... bencyclane, quinidine, bretylium, lifarizine, lamotrigine, flunarizine, and fluspirilene. 31. The quarternary amine derivative ... bencyclane, quinidine, bretylium, lifarizine, lamotrigine, flunarizine, and fluspirilene. Exemplary derivatives are described ...
... bencyclane, ifenprodil tartarate, molsidomine, clonidine, prazosin and the like; 16. Anti-convulsants such as, nitrazepam, ...
Halidor (Bencyclane). Expiration date: tablets 08/2021, vials 01/2020 Structure and Composition:Tablets. 1 tablet con.. ...
... bencyclane, bendacalol, bendamustine, bendazac, bendazol, bendérizine, bendrofluméthiazide, bénéthamine pénicilline, bénexate, ... bencyclane, bendacalol, bendamustine, bendazac, bendazol, benderizine, bendroflumethiazide, benethamine penicillin, benexate, ... bencyclane, bendacalol, bendamustine, bendazac, bendazol, bendérizine, bendrofluméthiazide, bénéthamine pénicilline, bénexate, ... bencyclane, bendacalol, bendamustine, bendazac, bendazol, benderizine, bendroflumethiazide, benethamine penicillin, benexate, ...
... bencyclane, bendamustine, bendazac, bendazol, benderizine, bendroflumethiazide, benethamide penicillin, benexate, benflorex, ...
Mexiletine has several uses including the treatment of abnormal heart rhythms or arrhythmias, chronic pain, and myotonia. In general when treating arrhythmias, mexiletine is reserved for use in dangerous heart rhythm disturbances such as ventricular tachycardia.[2] It is of particular use when treating arrhythmias caused by long QT syndrome.[3] The LQT3 form of long QT syndrome is amenable to treatment with mexiletine as this form is caused by defective sodium channels that continue to release a sustained current rather than fully inactivating, however other forms of long QT syndrome can also be treated with this medication.[3] Mexiletine has been used to treat chronic pain and may also be used to treat muscle stiffness resulting from myotonic dystrophy (Steinerts disease) or nondystrophic myotonias such as myotonia congenita (Thomsen syndrome or Becker syndrome).[4][5] ...
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 3/7/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files ...
Calcium channel blocker: | |Calcium channel blockers| (|CCB|), |calcium channel antagonists| or |calcium antagonists... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
... is a drug which acts as a potent blocker of the Cav2 type calcium channels. It was developed as a potential analgesic after the discovery that the selective Cav2.2 blocker ziconotide is an active analgesic with similar efficacy to strong opioid drugs but comparatively milder side effects. Unlike ziconotide, TROX-1 is not so selective, and also blocks the Cav2.1 and Cav2.3 calcium channel subtypes, but it has the great advantage of being orally active, whereas ziconotide must be administered intrathecally, by injection into the spinal fluid. In animal studies of TROX-1, analgesic effects were observed with similar efficacy to NSAIDs such as naproxen or diclofenac, and anti-allodynia effects equivalent to pregabalin or duloxetine.[1]. ...
Bencyclane). 520. 240.00...1070.00. ????? 183. 240.00...1070.00. ????? 337. 303.00...1044.00. ????? ...
Chemically, topiramate is a sulfamate modified fructose diacetonide - a rather unusual chemical structure for a pharmaceutical. Topiramate is quickly absorbed after oral use. Most of the drug (70%) is excreted in the urine unchanged. The remainder is extensively metabolized by hydroxylation, hydrolysis, and glucuronidation. Six metabolites have been identified in humans, none of which constitutes more than 5% of an administered dose. Several cellular targets have been proposed to be relevant to the therapeutic activity of topiramate.[38] These include (1) voltage-gated sodium channels; (2) high-voltage-activated calcium channels; (3) GABA-A receptors; (4) AMPA/kainate receptors; and (5) carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes. There is evidence that topiramate may alter the activity of its targets by modifying their phosphorylation state instead of by a direct action.[39] The effect on ...
Bencyclane *Carbocromen *Cinnarizine *Crataegus *Dyphylline *Etamivan *Etofylline *Hexobendine *Magnesium Aspartate *Magnesium ...
Lamotrigine is a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs.[56] It is a triazine derivate that inhibits voltage-sensitive sodium channels, leading to stabilization of neuronal membranes. It also blocks L-, N-, and P-type calcium channels and has weak 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor inhibition. These actions are thought to inhibit release of glutamate at cortical projections in the ventral striatum limbic areas,[57] and its neuroprotective and antiglutamatergic effects have been pointed out as promising contributors to its mood stabilizing activity.[58] Observations that lamotrigine reduced γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor-mediated neurotransmission in rat amygdala,[59] suggest that a GABAergic mechanism may also be involved, although this concept is controversial.[60]. Lamotrigine does not have pronounced effects on any of the usual neurotransmitter receptors (adrenergic, dopamine D1 and D2, ...
... blocks hERG-type potassium channels [5][6] by binding to the open channels.[7] Its structural target within the hERG-channel is unclear, but some other methanesulfonanilide class III antiarrhythmic drugs are known to bind to the S6 domain or C-terminal of the hERG-channel.[8][9][10][11][12][13] Reducing IKr in myocardial cells prolongs the cardiac action potential and thus prolongs the QT-interval.[7][14] In non-cardiac cells, blocking Ikr has a different effect: it increases the frequency of action potentials.[5] ...
Benzocaine, sold under the brand name Orajel among others, is an ester local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain reliever or in cough drops. It is the active ingredient in many over-the-counter anesthetic ointments such as products for oral ulcers. It is also combined with antipyrine to form
Calcium channel blockers work by blocking voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in cardiac muscle and blood vessels. This decreases intracellular calcium leading to a reduction in muscle contraction. In the heart, a decrease in calcium available for each beat results in a decrease in cardiac contractility. In blood vessels, a decrease in calcium results in less contraction of the vascular smooth muscle and therefore an increase in arterial diameter (CCBs do not work on venous smooth muscle), a phenomenon called vasodilation. Vasodilation decreases total peripheral resistance, while a decrease in cardiac contractility decreases cardiac output. Since blood pressure is determined by cardiac output and peripheral resistance, blood pressure drops. Calcium channel blockers are especially effective against large vessel stiffness, one of the common causes of elevated systolic blood pressure in elderly patients.[2]. With a relatively low blood pressure, the afterload on the heart ...
Channels differ with respect to the ion they let pass (for example, Na+, K+, Cl−), the ways in which they may be regulated, the number of subunits of which they are composed and other aspects of structure.[25] Channels belonging to the largest class, which includes the voltage-gated channels that underlie the nerve impulse, consists of four subunits with six transmembrane helices each. On activation, these helices move about and open the pore. Two of these six helices are separated by a loop that lines the pore and is the primary determinant of ion selectivity and conductance in this channel class and some others. The existence and mechanism for ion selectivity was first postulated in the late 1960s by Bertil Hille and Clay Armstrong.[26][27][28][29][30] The idea of the ionic selectivity for potassium channels was that the carbonyl oxygens of the protein backbones of the "selectivity filter" (named by Bertil Hille) could efficiently replace the water molecules that normally shield potassium ...