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*  Experimental viral evolution to specific host MHC genotypes reveals fitness and virulence trade-offs in alternative MHC types |...
2004) Infection-dependent phenotypes in MHC-congenic mice are not due to MHC: Can we trust congenic animals? BMC Immunol 5:14. ... All experimental animals were females between 2 and 6 mo of age. All animal use was in compliance with federal regulations and ... There are two caveats that must be made anytime one uses MHC-congenic inbred strains (or any congenic strains). First, the ... As many infected animals had titers below this level (especially animals infected with unpassaged virus), we conservatively ...
http://www.pnas.org/content/109/9/3422
*  Low ambient humidity impairs barrier function and innate resistance against influenza infection | PNAS
Low relative humidity predisposes Mx1 congenic mice to influenza disease. Mx1 congenic mice were preconditioned at 20% and 50% ... Another reason for the inability of the host animal exposed to low humidity to clear the virus (Fig. 3A) may be due to the ... Mx1 congenic WT mice or caspase-1/11 KO Mx1 mice were preconditioned at 10% and 50% RH for 5 d and challenged with aerosolized ... Mice were kept in the environmental chambers for up to 7 d.p.i. then moved to the ambient animal room conditions, which had a ...
https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2019/05/07/1902840116
*  Laquinimod arrests experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor | PNAS
In one set of animals, AhR−/− (CD45.2) BM cells were transplanted into congenic B6 CD45.1 recipients to create mice with an AhR ... with H&E counterstaining revealed a significant protective effect of laquinimod in WT animals but not in AhR−/− animals (Fig. 5 ... Congenic C57BL/6 B6.SJL-Ptprca Pepcb/BoyJ (B6 CD45.1) mice were obtained from Jackson Laboratories. The mice were housed at 22- ... Ten congenic B6 CD45.1 or AhR−/− (CD45.2) recipient mice were preconditioned with three intraperitoneal injections of 10 mg/kg ...
http://www.pnas.org/content/113/41/E6145
*  Differential effects of STAT5 and PI3K/AKT signaling on effector and memory CD8 T-cell survival | PNAS
... and then transferred to congenic (Ly5.2+) LCMV-infected animals (26). P14 CD8 T cells transduced with empty control (CTRL) RV ... B6.SJL-Ptprca Pepcb/BoyJ (Ly5.1+) and Pten floxed (Ptenfl/fl) animals were purchased from The Jackson Laboratory. Granzyme B ... To examine this point, we treated animals containing CA-STAT5 or CTRL RV P14 memory CD8 T cells with BrdU from day 65 to 75 p.i ... Small numbers (∼2,500) of RV+ (Thy1.1+) P14 CD8 T cells were transferred into congenic Ly5.2+ C57BL/6 mice that were infected ...
https://www.pnas.org/content/107/38/16601?ijkey=e2b6f68a174e6639bbb4b418382f81dc70903754&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
*  Distinct B-cell lineage commitment distinguishes adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells | PNAS
1). Cotransfer of 3 × 106 adult PerC cells from CB.17 (IgHb allotype) congenic mice reconstitutes only B-1 in the same animals ... In this study, 80 mice received a single HSC i.v. along with 2 × 105 congenic BM cells. Recipient mice were bled monthly to ... 2A). Each individual HSC was transferred i.v. to lethally irradiated mice along with 2 × 105 "competitor" congenic BM cells. ... As in intact animals, the number of B-1a is greater than B-2 and B-1b (B-1a , B-2 , B-1b) in PerC in these recipients. In ...
https://www.pnas.org/content/109/14/5394.long
*  Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Animals.. Male CB2 knockout mice (Cnr2−/−) on a C57BL6/J congenic background (32) and their C57BL6/J (Cnr2+/+) wild-type ... Animal Treatment.. (E)-BCP was dissolved in olive oil (Fluka) and gavage-fed to the animals (with the help of feeding needle) ... Animals were housed in groups of 3-5 and had access to water and food ad libitum. The housing conditions were maintained at 21 ... For animal experiments, statistical differences between treated and vehicle control groups were determined by repeated ...
http://www.pnas.org/content/105/26/9099
*  Rituximab specifically depletes short-lived autoreactive plasma cells in a mouse model of inflammatory arthritis | PNAS
... hCD20/K/g7 animals were generated by first crossing hCD20 transgenic mice on the B6 background (12) to B6.H-2g7 congenic mice ... transgenic and B6.H-2g7 congenic animals. The minimum genetic requirements for development of arthritis in the K/BxN model are ... K/BxN animals were generated by crossing KRN TCR transgenic mice on the B6 genetic background with non-obese diabetic mice (10 ... This is not surprising given that the concentration of anti-GPI Abs is so high in such animals (up to 10 mg/mL) that they ...
http://www.pnas.org/content/107/10/4658
*  A red meat-derived glycan promotes inflammation and cancer progression | PNAS
1988) Animal product consumption and mortality because of all causes combined, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and ... Cmah−/− mice were bred in a congenic C57BL/6 background and maintained in the University of California, San Diego vivarium ... doses of the mutagens that induce carcinomas in animal models are many fold higher than human exposure (15). Overall, although ... The question to be addressed is whether the addition of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies to such animals would generate systemic ...
https://www.pnas.org/content/112/2/542
*  scid mutation in mice confers hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and a deficiency in DNA double-strand break repair. | PNAS
... to 3-fold more sensitive when irradiated in situ than are congenic BALB/c or C.B-17 controls. Two independently isolated embryo ... of the rejoining of gamma-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicates that these animals ...
https://www.pnas.org/content/88/4/1394?ijkey=a45e19ed94a816326e6c30bbb41e11bfb9fd9c6e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
*  A molecular profile of a hematopoietic stem cell niche | PNAS
10 animals per cell dose group). Cell doses ranged from 10-100 purified cells per recipient. Mice were bled and analyzed for ... competitor BM cells obtained from congenic Ly5.1-C57BL/6 mice (Charles River Breeding Laboratories) and transplanted into ...
http://www.pnas.org/content/99/20/13061.full
*  MHC class I Dk expression in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells confers natural killer cell resistance to murine...
All animal studies were approved and conducted in accordance with Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee oversight. ... MA/My and C57L (Jackson Laboratory) and MHC congenic strains, including MA/My.L-H2b, C57L.M-H2k(R7), and C57L.M-H2k(R12) ... BM transfers were withheld from several transgenic and nontransgenic radiation control animals. The control animals died within ... In agreement with findings from Tg3-Dk animals, we found that Tg1-Dk expression conferred similar protection in the M.L-H2b ...
http://www.pnas.org/content/107/19/8754
*  Period determination in the food-entrainable and methamphetamine-sensitive circadian oscillator(s) | PNAS
Animals.. We obtained mPer1−/−, mPer2−/−, and mPer3−/− mice (congenic with the 129/Sv genetic background, and provided by David ... 1A is a Per2+/+ from our previous study (14). The mice were bred and group housed in the Vanderbilt University animal facility ... We first generated Per1−/−/Per2−/−/Per3−/− mice congenic with the C57BL/6J strain and found that their wheel-running activity ... Animals were singly housed in cages (length × height × width: 29.5 × 11.5 × 12 cm) with unlimited access to a running wheel ( ...
http://www.pnas.org/content/109/35/14218.long
*  Recent thymic emigrants are the preferential precursors of regulatory T cells differentiated in the periphery | PNAS
A and B) FACS analysis for Helios and Nrp1 expression in gated Foxp3+CD4+TCR+ cells (pTreg) from the spleens of animals treated ... S3A). Moreover, in mice recipient of both thymocytes and LN cells, each prepared from Thy1 congenic donors and mixed at a 1:1 ... E) Donor cells were isolated from OTII Foxp3-gfp Rag2−/− animals. TCRβ−/−-recipient mice received 0.1 mg OVA or PBS i.v. the ... Human and animal studies were approved by the Ethical Board of the Faculty of Medicine, Lisbon, the Institutional Ethical ...
http://www.pnas.org/content/110/16/6494
*  Infiltrating monocytes promote brain inflammation and exacerbate neuronal damage after status epilepticus | PNAS
The reduction in the number of Iba1+ cells in the Ccr2 knockout animals (Fig. 4C) compared with Ccr2 heterozygous animals (∼ ... Ccr2rfp/rfp mice were backcrossed to Charles River FVB mice for nine generations to create congenic N9 FVB-Ccr2+/rfp ... SE produces a pattern of pyramidal neuron loss in adult rodents that can be quite variable from animal to animal (29, 42). We ... rfp animals that received saline solution (A) or in Ccr2rfp/rfp KO animals (C). (Scale bar: 50 μm.) (D) Blood values of ...
https://www.pnas.org/content/113/38/E5665
*  Balance between short and long isoforms of cFLIP regulates Fas-mediated apoptosis in vivo | PNAS
Tufts University Medical School Animal Care and Use Committees approved all animal work. Please see SI Experimental Procedures ... 6F). Specifically, the congenic mice exhibited low cFLIPR, low p55 CASP8, and a noticeably high level of cFLIPL than B6 mice. ... 6A). F1 animals also predominantly expressed CASP8 p43. Such a bias toward CASP8 p43 in MSM livers might be the result of self- ... 2009) An overview of animal models for investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies in acute hepatic failure. ...
http://www.pnas.org/content/113/6/1606.long
*  Therapeutic B cell depletion impairs adaptive and autoreactive CD4+ T cell activation in mice | PNAS
Labeled Thy1.1+ cells (5 × 106) were given i.v. to Thy1.2+ congenic recipients. Recipient mice were immunized i.p. with alum ... Duke University and University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Animal Care and Use Committees approved all studies. ...
https://www.pnas.org/content/104/52/20878
*  Multiscale effects of heating and cooling on genes and gene networks | PNAS
... congenic with the standard laboratory strain S288c). First, we focused on NF0 cells that carried only the reporter gene from ... as well as plant and animal (including human) microbiota exposed to fluctuating temperatures. Third, TetR itself is the key ... congenic with the standard laboratory strain S288c) was used as a model organism throughout most of this study. "NF0" (YDN- ...
http://www.pnas.org/content/115/45/E10797
*  Diverse cytokine production by NKT cell subsets and identification of an IL-17-producing CD4−NK1.1− NKT cell population | PNAS
... and all experiments were conducted in accord with the animal ethics guidelines of the University of Melbourne Animal Ethics ... CFSE labeling or a congenic marker together with α-GC/CD1d tetramer staining was used to identify donor NKT cells, and both ... Stephen Turner for help with quantitative RT-PCR, Ken Field for flow cytometric support, and David Taylor for animal husbandry ... C57BL/6 mice were bred in house at the Department of Microbiology and Immunology Animal Facility, University of Melbourne, ...
https://www.pnas.org/content/105/32/11287?ijkey=da1443b9c1e5c1eef9e4fbc8f31db7b7684de228&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
*  Intracellular metabolite β-glucosylceramide is an endogenous Mincle ligand possessing immunostimulatory activity | PNAS
All animal protocols were approved by the committee of Ethics on Animal Experiments, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu ... fetuses and transferred them into irradiated WT CD45.1 congenic mice to establish hematopoietic-specific GBA1-deficient mice ( ... 1992) Animal model of Gaucher's disease from targeted disruption of the mouse glucocerebrosidase gene. Nature 357:407-410. ... β-GlcCer is a common glycolipid present in most animals and the β-GlcCer-Mincle axis is the first example of a self-glycolipid- ...
https://www.pnas.org/content/114/16/E3285
*  Phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl-CoA-independent formation of triacylglycerol in...
... animals, and fungi, and that the apparent absence of LCAT in fungi and PDAT in animals probably reflects a more recent loss of ... Microsomal membranes from the wild-type yeast strain FY1679 (lanes 1-3), a congenic yeast strain [FVKT004-04C(AL)] that is ... which is congenic to FY1679, was obtained from the Euroscarf collection (Frankfurt). A 2751-bp fragment containing the YNR008w ... the opposite is true in animals, where only LCAT-related but no PDAT-related enzymes have been found. This raises the question ...
https://www.pnas.org/content/97/12/6487?ijkey=0c03d301c724ce7af56f16220f6f5f717ea03b8c&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
*  IL-27 is required for shaping the magnitude, affinity distribution, and memory of T cells responding to subunit immunization |...
Due to concerns with a more general STAT1 defect in the STAT1 fl mice (41), we again generated congenic mixed BMCs using WT ... of IL-27 in murine carcinoma cells produces antitumor effects and induces protective immunity in inoculated host animals. Int J ...
http://www.pnas.org/content/111/46/16472?ijkey=9ede4576813f80c7955b1eb5c23c0f3d1f831135&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
*  A major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 3 controls colitis severity in IL-10-deficient mice | PNAS
The strain 129-derived segment in the C3H congenic stock spanned at least a 43.4-cM region from D1Mit10 (56.6 cM) to D1Mit166 ( ... Early Maya animal rearing and trade. Researchers report early evidence of Maya animal management. ... We are developing interval-specific congenic stocks (37) to guide analysis of relevant candidate genes in this mouse model ... 1, located proximal to and clearly separable from the congenic region derived from the colitis-susceptible 129 strain ...
http://www.pnas.org/content/98/24/13820