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*  Criteria Air Pollutants | Department of Environmental Conservation
The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six common air pollutants. These commonly found air pollutants (also known as "criteria air pollutants") are found all over the United States. The criteria air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead. These pollutants can harm your health and the environment, and cause property damage.. ...
http://dec.vermont.gov/tags/criteria-air-pollutants
*  Exploring New Air Pollution Health Effects Links in Existing Datasets (2010)| Research Project Database | Grantee...
EPA awarded five grants in 2011 to use existing datasets from health studies, to analyze health outcomes for which the link to air pollution is not well established, or to identify "new" at-risk populations. These projects are providing scientists and policy decision makers with a better understanding of the health effects of exposure to air pollution, improving health risk assessments and cost-benefit analyses.. ...
https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/fuseaction/recipients.display/rfa_id/532
*  Exploring New Air Pollution Health Effects Links in Existing Datasets (2010) | RFA Text | Research Project Database |...
The funding mechanism for all awards issued under STAR solicitations will consist of assistance agreements from the EPA. All award decisions are subject to the availability of funds. In accordance with the Federal Grant and Cooperative Agreement Act, 31 U.S.C. 6301 et seq., the primary purpose of an assistance agreement is to accomplish a public purpose of support or stimulation authorized by federal statute, rather than acquisition for the direct benefit or use of the Agency. In issuing a grant, the EPA anticipates that there will be no substantial EPA involvement in the design, implementation, or conduct of the research. However, the EPA will monitor research progress through annual reports provided by grantees and other contacts, including site visits, with the Principal Investigator(s).. If you wish to submit applications for more than one STAR funding opportunity you must ensure that the research proposed in each application is significantly different from any other that has been submitted ...
https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/fuseaction/display.rfatext/rfa_id/532
*  Cellphone-based Time-activity Data for Air Pollutant Exposure Estimation - Epidemiology and Environmental Health - University...
Abstract: Measuring human exposures to ambient air pollutants is challenging, particularly in large epidemiologic studies in which direct monitoring is not feasible. Thus, several exposure estimation methods, including land use regression and Kriging, have been developed to estimate individual exposures within urban areas. A major limitation of these methods is their use of residential address to estimate exposures. Because of the variation in air pollutant concentrations within an urban area, a residential exposure may differ substantially from exposures experienced while away from home.. We are developing an innovative, feasible and cost-effective method to measure time-activity data, i.e. human movement over time, and incorporate these data into current residence-based methods of air pollutant exposure estimation. We will use cellphones equipped with global positioning system (GPS) to measure the daily movements of 40 cellphone-using ...
http://sphhp.buffalo.edu/epidemiology-and-environmental-health/research-and-facilities/research-listings/cellphone-based-data-for-air-pollutant-exposure-estimation.html
*  Asthma Hospital Admissions and Ambient Air Pollutant Concentrations in New York City
Air pollution is considered a risk factor for asthma. In this paper, we analyze the association between daily hospital admissions for asthma and ambient air pollution concentrations in four New York City counties. Negative binomial regression is used to model the association between daily asthma hospital admissions and ambient air pollution concentrations. Potential confounding factors such as heat index, day of week, holidays, yearly population changes, and seasonal and long-term trends are controlled for in the models. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) show the most consistent statistically significant associations with daily hospitalizations for asthma during the entire period (1996-2000). The associations are stronger for children (0 - 17 years) than for adults (18 - 64 years). Relative risks (RR) for the inter-quartile range (IQR) of same day 24-hour average pollutant concentration and asthma hospitalizations for ...
http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=22946
*  Air Pollutant Emissions Trends Data | Air Emissions Inventories | US EPA
Current emission trends data and the documentation of estimation methods are available via the links below. The latest version of the 1970 - 2016 data show the trends for Tier 1 categories which distinguish pollutant emission contributions among major source types. The trends shown are for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and precursors covered by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), excluding lead. Lead emissions sharply declined after it was eliminated from gasoline and have remained low. As inventory methods are improved over time, for some emission sources and improved estimation method may be applied 'backwards' to previous year trend estimates.. Average Annual Emissions(1 pg, 97 K) Criteria pollutants National Tier 1 for 1970 - 2016. State Average Annual Emissions Trend(1 pg, 2 MB) Criteria pollutants State Tier 1 for 1990 - 2016.. Trends Procedural Documentation - Any changes in the data or methodologies ...
https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/air-pollutant-emissions-trends-data
*  Genomics and the respiratory effects of air pollution exposure - HOLLOWAY - 2012 - Respirology - Wiley Online Library
Adverse health effects from air pollutants remain important, despite improvement in air quality in the past few decades. The exact mechanisms of lung injury from exposure to air pollutants are not yet fully understood. Studying the genome (e.g. single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) ), epigenome (e.g. methylation of genes), transcriptome (mRNA expression) and microRNAome (microRNA expression) has the potential to improve our understanding of the adverse effects of air pollutants. Genome-wide association studies of SNP have detected SNP associated with respiratory phenotypes; however, to date, only candidate gene studies of air pollution exposure have been performed. Changes in epigenetic processes, such DNA methylation that leads to gene silencing without altering the DNA sequence, occur with air pollutant exposure, especially global and gene-specific ...
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1440-1843.2012.02164.x/abstract
*  Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants | RTI
Delfino, R. J., Gong, H., Linn, W. S., Pellizzari, E., & Hu, Y. (2003). Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(4), 647-656. ...
https://www.rti.org/publication/asthma-symptoms-hispanic-children-and-daily-ambient-exposures-toxic-and-criteria-air
*  Air pollution, epigenetics, and asthma | Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology | Full Text
The prevalence and incidence of allergic diseases, including asthma, have been increasing worldwide since the 1960s [17, 18]. While asthma prevalence has plateaued in developed countries, in developing countries where the prevalence was previously low, allergic diseases are on the rise [19]. Environmental changes are suspected to be the major driver of this increasing trend [20], with air pollution identified as an important exposure [21]. Motor vehicles produce a complex mixture of air pollutants including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter (PM) of varying size, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs-e.g. benzo(a)pyrene), volatile organic compounds (VOCs-e.g. benzene, acetaldehyde) and other hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Collectively referred to as traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP), these are the primary source of intraurban variability in air ...
https://aacijournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13223-016-0159-4
*  Associations of Short-Term and Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollutants With Hypertension | Hypertension
Hypertension is a major disease of burden worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that air pollution might be a risk factor for hypertension, but the results were controversial. To fill this gap, we performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to investigate the associations of short-term and long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants with hypertension. We searched all of the studies published before September 1, 2015, on the associations of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO2 and NOX), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) with hypertension in the English electronic databases. A pooled odds ratio (OR) for hypertension in association with each 10 μg/m3 increase in air pollutant was calculated by a random-effects model (for studies with significant heterogeneity) or a fixed-effect model (for studies without significant heterogeneity). A total of 17 studies examining the effects of ...
http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/early/2016/05/31/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.07218
*  Pollution Free Cities: How do Fireworks Affect Local Air Quality?
Today we review a nation-wide assessment of the impact of fireworks on local air quality in the USA. Results indicate tht the particulates emitted during these displays increased particulate pollution by 42% on average, although individual cities had increases of 400% temporarily and other venues such as the International Fireworks Competition in Montreal and New Years Eve in Germany showed increases of 40 to 50 times more. As the particulate emissions from these eruptions last only for a few hours, the higher pollution levels are not counted in either the national air quality regulations (such as National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 in the USA or European Union PM10 air quality standard). Clearly short term air quality forecasts could be improved using the results from this study. In addition, spectators would be well advised to stay upwind from the fireworks to avoid polluted air and the health ...
http://pollutionfreecities.blogspot.com/2015/09/how-do-fireworks-affect-local-air.html
*  U.S. GAO - Environmental Protection Agency: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating...
RIN: 2060-AQ58). (i) Cost-benefit analysis. EPA states that the final amendments are expected to reduce the overall cost of the original 2010 RICE NESHAP amendments. EPA estimates that with these final amendments incorporated, the total annual cost of the rule for existing stationary RICE will be $115 million for SI engines and $373 million for CI engines (2010 dollars), and total capital costs will be $103 million for SI engines and $740 million for CI engines (2010 dollars). EPA includes for comparison the costs that EPA previously estimated for the 2010 amendments to the RICE NESHAP. EPA did not estimate costs associated with the changes to the new source performance standards (NSPS) for stationary CI and SI engines. According to EPA, the changes to the NSPS are minor and are not expected to impact the costs of those rules.. EPA states that emission controls installed to meet the requirements of this final rule will generate benefits by reducing emissions of hazardous air ...
http://www.gao.gov/products/D04111
*  Air Pollution's Health Risks Underestimated?
The health risks associated with air pollution may be nearly three times greater than previously thought, according to a new report.
https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20051003/air-pollutions-health-risks-underestimated
*  National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1997 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect
Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, ...
https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/304039
*  "Effects of air pollutants on cold-desert cyanobacterial-lichen crusts " by Jayne Belnap
Belnap, J., 1990, Effects of air pollutants on cold-desert cyanobacterial-lichen crusts and rock lichens: Chlorophyll degradation, electrolyte leakage and nitrogenase activity, Proceedings: Measurement of Toxic and Related Air Pollutants, Environmental Protection Agency/Air & Waste Management Association International Symposium, April 30-May 4, 1990, Raleigh, North Carolina: Raleigh, North Carolina, Environmental Protection Agency, p. 661-666.. ...
http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/crc_research/604/
*  National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating) Operations, 78369...
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating) Operations, 78369-78374 [E6-22426]
https://regulations.justia.com/regulations/fedreg/2006/12/29/E6-22426.html
*  EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0058 - Supporting Documents for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial /...
EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0058 - Supporting Documents for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial / Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters at Notice and Comment.
https://www.noticeandcomment.com/EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0058-fsd-902.aspx
*  Hazardous Air Pollutants | HAPs | HazardousAirPollutants.com
Hazardous Air Pollutants, advertising, book, business development, conference, engineering, flare gas recovery, marketing, clean power, emissions abatement, net zero energy and renewble energy solutions
http://hazardousairpollutants.com
*  California Hazardous Air Pollutants regulations & environmental compliance analysis
California Hazardous Air Pollutants federal, national and state compliance resources - regulations, laws, and state-specific analysis for employers and environmental professionals
http://www.blr.com/Environmental/Air/Hazardous-Air-Pollutants-in-California
*  Air pollutant exposure and inhaled dose during urban commuting: a comparison between cycling and motorized modes | SpringerLink
Active commuting has great health, environment, economic, and social benefits. However, cyclists are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. Consequently, more information on differences in inhaled doses between different transport modes is needed. The aim of this study is to assess and map the exposure of travelers to air pollutants using different transportation modes and to consider minute ventilation variablity and travel duration for the calculation of inhaled dose. Particulate matter (PM10, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1), CO, volatile organic compound (VOC), CO2, and O3 were measured between December 2013 and March 2014 in a total of 75 travels performed by bus, metro, car, bicycle, and motorcycle at five periods of the day (8, 11, 14, 17:30, and 21 h). Results showed that car drivers and bus passengers in urban streets may be exposed to higher pollutant ...
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-015-0389-5
*  A study of diurnal and seasonal variation of particulate pollutants (pm10 and pm2.5) and air quality index in Jabalpur | Asian...
Particulate pollutant gives harmful effects to our environment as well as human beings and became one of the main causes of the cultural heritage deterioration. The research is focuses on the particulates at the Jabalpur city. The BAM (Beta Attenuation Monitoring) instrument is used for analyzing sample coarse and fine particulate matter (PM10 & PM2.5). Jabalpur it is a fast growing city and in one of five biggest city of Madhya Pradesh air quality parameter as PM10 and PM2.5 was analyzed at sampling station at Jabalpur results shows increased values of parameters at severed sampling station. ...
http://journalajst.com/study-diurnal-and-seasonal-variation-particulate-pollutants-pm10-and-pm25-and-air-quality-index-jaba
*  Context: Ambient Air Pollutant Analyses-Integral Part Of An Environmental Impact Study
Analyses of the primary ambient air pollutants are presented. Discussion of their emission, reactions and rate, in the ambient air are discussed. Conclusions are drawn as to their significance in an environmental impact study of highway construction.. ...
http://bibliography.library.villanova.edu/Record/5713/HierarchyTree?hierarchy=folder-5
*  Impacts of air pollutants on vegetation in developing countries - Murdoch Research Repository
The predicted increases in emissions of primary pollutants in many rapidly industrializing countries may have severe consequences for the health and productivity of forest trees and agricultural crops. This paper presents a review of air pollution impacts on vegetation in developing countries by summarising information describing the direct impacts to vegetation caused by a number of air pollutants (sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3) and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM)). This information has been collected by experts from a number of rapidly industrializing countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa and includes observations of visible injury in the field and the use of transect studies and controlled experimental investigations to ascribe damage to different pollutant concentrations. The ability to synthesise this information to define exposure-response relationships and subsequent air quality ...
http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/15238/
*  IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to...
Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NOx, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the ...
http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/12/12/15007