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*  Immunostimulant Drugs for Autoimmune Disease: Safer Alternatives to Steroids and Other Immunosuppressive Treatment - Roomatic
Traditionally immunostimulants have been believed to worsen autoimmune disease, to the point that some immunostimulants have originally been classified as immunosuppressants because they were found to improve autoimmune disease. But in practice it does not seem to work like that.. If the theory that autoimmune disease is in fact a type of an immune deficiency - or that there are components of immune deficiency, as the immune system is highly complex and not necessarily easy to define as "overactive" or "underactive" - is correct, immunostimulants would be the rational choice of treatment.. Immunostimulants are not completely without risks or side effects, but some of them can get quite close. They do not increase the risk of infections and cancer - and may even reduce the risk.. The most conventionally accepted immunostimulant therapy for autoimmune diseases is intravenous immunoglobulin (also known as IVIG and gammaglobulin), a blood product that contains antibodies from thousands of donors. It ...
http://www.roomatic.com/drugs-for-autoimmune-disease/
*  Immunologic adjuvant - Wikipedia
In immunology, an adjuvant is a component that potentiates the immune responses to an antigen and/or modulates it towards the desired immune responses. The word "adjuvant" comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid. "An immunologic adjuvant is defined as any substance that acts to accelerate, prolong, or enhance antigen-specific immune responses when used in combination with specific vaccine antigens." A magazine article about vaccine adjuvants in 2007 was headlined "Deciphering Immunology's Dirty Secret" to refer to the early days of vaccine manufacture, when significant variations in the effectiveness of different batches of the same vaccine were observed, correctly assumed to be due to contamination of the reaction vessels. However, it was soon found that more scrupulous attention to cleanliness actually seemed to reduce the effectiveness of the vaccines, and that the contaminants - "dirt" - actually enhanced the immune response. There are many known ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immunologic_adjuvant
*  HIV/AIDS Vaccines | News | AIDSinfo
To augment the immune responses elicited by these and other vaccines, scientists use immunologic adjuvants. Currently, only one adjuvant -- alum, first discovered in 1926 -- is incorporated into vaccines licensed for human use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). An adjuvant may work well with one experimental vaccine and not another. Therefore, the FDA licenses the vaccine formulation, or the antigen-adjuvant combination, rather than the adjuvant alone. Experimental adjuvants can increase the type, strength and durability of immune responses evoked by an experimental vaccine. For example, some vaccine antigen/adjuvant combinations can induce cell-mediated immune responses, even if the vaccine antigen by itself does not. Some adjuvants also stimulate mucosal immunity. Alum primarily increases the strength of antibody responses generated by the vaccine antigen. Because of its limited activity, other adjuvants may be better suited ...
https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/news/70/hiv-aids-vaccines
*  Immunostimulant - Wikipedia
Immunostimulants, also known as immunostimulators, are substances (drugs and nutrients) that stimulate the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of any of its components. One notable example is the granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. There are two main categories of immunostimulants: Specific immunostimulants provide antigenic specificity in immune response, such as vaccines or any antigen. Non-specific immunostimulants act irrespective of antigenic specificity to augment immune response of other antigen or stimulate components of the immune system without antigenic specificity, such as adjuvants and non-specific immunostimulators. Many endogenous substances are non-specific immunostimulators. For example, female sex hormones are known to stimulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. Some autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus strike women preferentially, and their onset often coincides with puberty. Other hormones appear to regulate the ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immunostimulant
*  A Phase I, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial to Compare the Safety and Immunogenicity of Recombinant...
One approach to improve the immunogenicity of an HIV-1 subunit protein vaccine is to combine the immunogen with an adjuvant. Adjuvants may augment vaccine immunogenicity by several mechanisms, and as a result induce a more favorable antibody response with high titers, which appear earlier in the course of immunization and persist over time.. Volunteers are randomized to receive 50 mcg rgp120/HIV-1SF2 in combination with one of seven different adjuvants: aluminum hydroxide (alum), monophosphoryl lipid A, liposome-encapsulated monophosphoryl lipid A, MF59, MTP-PE/MF59, Syntex adjuvant formulation (SAF/2), and SAF/2 plus threonyl muramyl dipeptide (threonyl MDP). An additional placebo control arm of volunteers receive alum only. Doses are administered at 0, 2, and 6 months. Volunteers are followed for 1 year after the last immunization. Per 8/5/94 amendment, eligible volunteers except those who received monophosphoryl lipid A for the first three immunizations may receive a ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00001042
*  The role of inflammasomes in the immunostimulatory effects of particulate vaccine adjuvants - Harris - 2010 - European Journal...
Most purified protein and peptide antigens are poorly immunogenic so adjuvants must be included in vaccines to activate and direct adaptive immune responses. The most commonly used adjuvants in clinical use are aluminium salts, particularly aluminium hydroxide adjuvant, which is chemically crystalline aluminium oxyhydroxide 1, 2 and comprises nanoparticles that form porous aggregates of 1-20 μm in diameter 2. Although not technically correct, aluminium-containing adjuvants are generally referred to as "alum". Alum is not an optimal adjuvant for all protein antigens and is a relatively poor inducer of cell-mediated immunity. As a result, other particulate adjuvants, including chitosan, liposomes and biodegradable microparticles and nanoparticles are being investigated 3. However, despite the widespread use of particulates in both clinical and research settings for over 80 years, their mode of action is still not fully understood.. In 2007 it ...
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200940172/full
*  Vaccines | Free Full-Text | Co-Administration of Molecular Adjuvants Expressing NF-Kappa B Subunit p65/RelA or Type-1...
DNA vaccine-induced immunity can be enhanced by the co-delivery of synthetic gene-encoding molecular adjuvants. Many of these adjuvants have included cytokines, chemokines or co-stimulatory molecules that have been demonstrated to enhance vaccine-induced immunity by increasing the magnitude or type of immune responses and/or protective efficacy. In this way, through the use of adjuvants, immune responses can be highly customizable and functionally tailored for optimal efficacy against pathogen specific (i.e., infectious agent) or non-pathogen (i.e., cancer) antigens. In the novel study presented here, we examined the use of cellular transcription factors as molecular adjuvants. Specifically the co-delivery of (a) RelA, a subunit of the NF-κB transcription complex or (b) T-bet, a Th1-specific T box transcription factor, along with a prototypical DNA vaccine expressing HIV-1 proteins was evaluated. As well, all of the vaccines and ...
http://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/2/2/196
*  The effect of immaturity of the calf on immunological responses to strain 19 and killed 45/20 adjuvant vaccines | Veterinary...
Thirty brucellosis free calves with zero titres to the serum agglutination test (SAT), complement fixation test (CFT) and antiglobulin test (ABGT) were vaccinated with strain 19 at ages from seven hours to 198 days. Calves 75 days of age and older responded with normal serological patterns, developing high titres to all three tests. At 45 days and younger most calves responded with much reduced titres, some were negative to the SAT and CFT but all develped titres to the ABGT. Two of the younger group were subjected to an anamnestic test at about a year old and gave a positive response, indicating that the calf may be effectively primed with S19 as early as the first day of life. Three of the group were colostrumdeprived yet the patterns of their responses were similar to those of the colostrum-fed calves. Seventy-four zero titres calves were vaccinated with killed 45/20 adjuvant vaccine at ages from 60 to 320 days. Up to 200 days of age only seven of 33 calves gave positive response. From 200 to ...
http://veterinaryrecord.bmj.com/content/101/14/283
*  Indian Patents. 228778:A VACCINE COMPOSITION COMPRISING POLYPEPTIDE ADJUVANT AND AN ANTIGEN
The invention relates to a set of novel immunological adjuvants based upon so called 'polyladder' proteins of nematode worms. These proteins are typified by repeating units separated by a protease cleavage motif of RX(K/R)R or RXFR where R is arginine, X is any amino acid, K is lysine and F is phenylalanine. These motifs are preceded by a cysteine residue at around 7, 8 or 9 residues upstream. Polyladder proteins or fragments of polyladder proteins may be used as immunological adjuvants either mixed with, or conjugated to a vaccine antigen, and will strongly enhance the immune response against the antigen. Conjugation may take the form of a genetic fusion between adjuvant and antigen. Antigens may be derived from pathogens, or may be tumour antigens, autoantigens, or antigens of other kinds. Vaccines may be used for prophylaxis or therapy ...
http://www.allindianpatents.com/patents/228778-a-vaccine-composition-comprising-polypeptide-adjuvant-and-an-antigen
*  New Adjuvant Breast Cancer Treatments Found Cost-effective ( Two new studies have found that new adj...)
Health,Two new studies have found that new adjuvant treatments for breast can... Published in the August 1 2007 issue of Cancer a journal of t...In a Canadian economic study of estrogen receptor positive breas...In another of study of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 ...Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality second only ...,New,Adjuvant,Breast,Cancer,Treatments,Found,Cost-effective,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
http://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-news/New-Adjuvant-Breast-Cancer-Treatments-Found-Cost-effective-22548-1/
*  Human prophylactic vaccine adjuvants and their determinant role in new vaccine formulations
Adjuvants are molecules, compounds or macromolecular complexes that boost the potency and longevity of the specific immune response to antigens (1). Most adjuvant research has been an empirical process until recently, when an increased understanding of the mechanisms of immune response induction and the essential bridging of innate and adaptive immune responses has paved the way to a more rational adjuvant design. These breakthrough advances involve a deeper knowledge of how the innate immune system acts to recognize pathogens and damage-associated signals and how this recognition by different receptors may ultimately influence the potency and polarization of the immune responses.. A functional classification of adjuvants was elaborated by Schijns (2), categorizing these molecules as facilitators of signal 1 (delivery of antigen) or signal 2 (i.e., appropriate immunostimulation; costimulation). Later, Valenti and O'Hagan (3) divided adjuvants into immune ...
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2012007500067&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Vaccines | Free Full-Text | Vaccine Potentiation by Combination Adjuvants | HTML
Adjuvants are crucial components of vaccines. They significantly improve vaccine efficacy by modulating, enhancing, or extending the immune response and at the same time reducing the amount of antigen needed. In contrast to previously licensed adjuvants, current successful adjuvant formulations often consist of several molecules, that when combined, act synergistically by activating a variety of immune mechanisms. These
http://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/2/2/297/htm
*  Adjuvance Technologies, Inc.
Adjuvance Technologies is a private biopharmaceutical company dedicated to empowering global health through fundamental breakthroughs in adjuvant design. Adjuvants improve the efficacy, dose-sparing and immunopotentiation of otherwise inactive antigens and as important as adjuvants are, there are currently only two approved for use by the FDA. Adjuvance is commercializing synthetic methods of producing the world's leading adjuvant molecule QS-21, which is extremely difficult to procure through other methods. Adjuvance is developing a portfolio of novel vaccine adjuvants using its proprietary Triterpene Saponin Synthesis Technology (TriSST). TriSST is a novel tool that allows us to synthesize a natural product that is the world's leading vaccine adjuvant candidate (QS-21), which is extremely difficult to procure through either direct purchase or extraction/purification procedures. For the first time, TriSST provides a commercially viable ...
http://www.techconnectworld.com/Nanotech2010/a.html?i=40154
*  IMMUNOSTIMULANT COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING A NUCLEOBASE AND A POLYSACCHARIDE OBTAINABLE FROM FUNGI, YEAST OR BACTERIA - Patent...
0110] 78 dairy replacement calves (initial age=18±6.3 days and body weight=43±6.1 kg) were fed with 2 L of milk replacer (MR) twice daily via a bottle at 07.30 h and 16.30 h until 45 days of life, and then a daily dose of 2 L of MR at 07.30 h for an additional week. At 37 day of age half of the calves received a daily dose of 3 g of the combination of Nucleoforce® (Bioiberica, Spain) and AHCC (AminoUp, Japan) supplemented through the morning feeding of MR until weaning time (52 days). After weaning, calves were moved from individual hutches into pens holding 8 animals until reaching 111±2.1 days (when the study was completed). Animal performance was monitored from 52 until 111 days of life. Respiratory afflictions were monitored daily from 37 to 111 days of life. Blood samples from half of the animals randomly chosen from each treatment group were obtained by venipuncture of the jugular vein at the age of 37 days and 52 days. Incidence of respiratory afflictions was analyzed using ...
http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20110213020
*  Adjuvant-Incomplete Freund s Adjuvant (IFA);vaccine adjuvant-Alpha Diagnostic International Inc.
Incomplete Freund s Adjuvant (IFA);vaccine adjuvant Adjuvant AV-3015-10 Incomplete Freund s Adjuvant (IFA);vaccine adjuvant Adjuvant AV-3015-10
http://4adi.com/ccpc2761-28763-incomplete-freund3fs-adjuvant-28ifa293bvaccine-adjuva-adjuvant-av-3015-10.htm
*  Roo's Clues
Immune challenges during early development, including those vaccine-induced, can lead to permanent detrimental alterations of the brain and immune function. Experimental evidence also shows that simultaneous administration of as little as two to three immune adjuvants can overcome genetic resistance to autoimmunity. In some developed countries, by the time children are 4 to 6 years old, they will have received a total of 126 antigenic compounds along with high amounts of aluminum (Al) adjuvants through routine vaccinations. According to the US Food and Drug Administration, safety assessments for vaccines have often not included appropriate toxicity studies because vaccines have not been viewed as inherently toxic. Taken together, these observations raise plausible concerns about the overall safety of current childhood vaccination programs. When assessing adjuvant toxicity in children, several key points ought to be considered: (i) infants and children should not be viewed as ...
http://roosclues.blogspot.com
*  Breaking the Non-Responsiveness of C57BL/6 Mice to the Malarial Antigen EB200 - The Role of Carrier and Adjuvant Molecules
New efficient vaccines against infectious diseases are in demand. Some important factors impeding the vaccine development are the poor immunogenicity and the MHC restriction of the immune responses to a number of antigens. The use of novel vaccine adjuvants or carrier proteins, which are known to enhance the immunogenicity of the subunit antigens and provide T-cell help, can circumvent these problems. The potential of heat shock proteins (HSPs) to function as adjuvants when fused to or co-delivered with protein antigens, make them attractive vaccine candidates. In this thesis we have evaluated the potency of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) as a possible vaccine adjuvant and studied the mechanisms behind the adjuvanticity.. The first article aims to evaluate the carrier effect of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) on a malarial antigen EB200 that induces a MHC restricted response in mice. Immunization of CBA and C57BL/6 mice, high and low responders to EB200, respectively, with ...
http://su.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:193906
*  2dde » Cinnamycin - Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database
Can act as inhibitor of phospholipase A2, and of the angiotensin-converting enzyme. Shows inhibitory activities against herpes simplex virus and immunopotentiating activities ...
http://opm.phar.umich.edu/protein.php?pdbid=2dde
*  KAKEN - Research Projects | Development of immunoadjuvants for vaccine. (KAKENHI-PROJECT-07557336)
Principal Investigator:AZUMA Ichiro, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Section:展開研究, Research Field:Immunology
https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-07557336/
*  Synergistic vaccine adjuvants that stimulate both innate and adaptive immunities - Marciani Dante
The objective is to develop a glycoside adjuvant or immune agonist carrying the chemical structures needed to concurrently stimulate in a cooperative manner bot...
http://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R43-AI089138-02
*  Vaccine Adjuvants; The Good, The Bad And The Ugly | 20476
H ighly purified antigens suffer from poor immunogenicity. Current paradigms to address this problem focus onuse ofpotent innate immune activators as adjuvant...
https://www.omicsonline.org/proceedings/vaccine-adjuvants-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly-20476.html
*  WinField - Winfield Professional Products Group
Our cutting-edge adjuvants help protect your spray investment by optimizing product performance. We offer a complete line of rigorously tested adjuvants that can be added to a spray mix to aid or modify the activity of a pesticide. WinField® United adjuvants are formulated to help spray applications hit the intended target for improved coverage, optimized spray deposition and reduced drift. ...
http://www.winfieldpro.com/Products/?market=All%20Markets&supplier=All%20Suppliers&category=Pest%20Management
*  Adjuvants: Quality as well as quantity
I, for one, (and I think most of the field) would have said 'No'; no matter what your adjuvant is, the response would be qualitatively the same. Why would one
http://www.iayork.com/MysteryRays/2008/06/19/adjuvants-quality-as-well-as-quantity/