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*  Dietary Marine n-3 Fatty Acids in Relation to Risk of Distal Colorectal Adenoma in Women | Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers &...
In this large prospective study, higher intake of marine n-3 fatty acids was not associated with risk of distal colorectal adenoma. In addition, no significant associations were observed between this dietary variable and risks of small adenoma, distal colon adenoma, and rectal adenoma, although a nonsignificant, suggestive, inverse association was noted for large adenoma. Similarly, we found no significant associations between n-3/n-6 ratio and risks of distal colorectal adenoma.. We did find a suggestively decreased risk of large adenoma associated with higher dietary marine n-3 fatty acid intake (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.54-1.01). Interestingly, we also noted that high n-3 intake was associated with a nonsignificant increase in risk of small adenoma. We thus conducted a post hoc analysis and found that among women with a diagnosis of adenoma, those with high ...
http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/14/4/835.long
*  Pituitary adenoma - Wikipedia
Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. Pituitary adenomas are generally divided into three categories dependent upon their biological functioning: benign adenoma, invasive adenoma, and carcinomas. Most adenomas are benign, approximately 35% are invasive and just 0.1% to 0.2 are carcinomas. Pituitary adenomas represent from 10% to 25% of all intracranial neoplasms and the estimated prevalence rate in the general population is approximately 17%. Non-invasive and non-secreting pituitary adenomas are considered to be benign in the literal as well as the clinical sense; however a recent meta-analysis (Fernández-Balsells, et al. 2011) of available research has shown there are to date scant studies - of poor quality - to either support or refute this assumption. Adenomas which exceed 10 millimetres (0.39 in) in size are defined as ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pituitary_adenoma
*  Clinicopathological Correlations in Pituitary Adenomas | CushieBlog
Ozgur Mete, Sylvia L. Asa. Article first published online: 14 JUN 2012. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3639.2012.00599.x. Keywords:. corticotroph adenoma;gonadotroph adenoma;immunohistochemistry;lactotroph adenoma;pituitary adenoma;somatotroph adenoma;thyrotroph adenoma;transcription factors. Abstract. Pituitary adenomas are common neuroendocrine neoplasms arising from adenohypophysial cells. Recent progress in our understanding of pituitary tumorigenesis as well as pathways involved in molecular cytodifferentiation of the adenohypophysis has impacted on the classification of pituitary adenomas.. The detailed comprehensive classification of pituitary adenomas is now well recognized to reflect specific clinical features and genetic changes that predict targeted treatments, as well as prognostic information for patients with pituitary adenomas.. ...
https://cushieblog.com/2012/06/16/clinicopathological-correlations-in-pituitary-adenomas/
*  Mesalazine Effects in Sporadic Colorectal Adenoma Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Rationale: Patients with sporadic colorectal adenomatous polyps removed by polypectomy have a high rate of polyp recurrence and carry an increased risk for the development of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Chemoprevention may lower the rate of adenoma recurrence after polypectomy, thereby reducing the risk of development or death from CRC. Mesalazine is an attractive candidate for chemoprevention, since even during long-term use it has only limited systemic adverse effects and no gastrointestinal toxicity. In a prospective trial a trend towards reduced adenoma recurrence has been observed in high risk patients with a history of at least 3 sporadic colorectal adenomas treated with mesalazine. Identification of biologically relevant antineoplastic properties of mesalazine in patients with sporadic adenomatous polyps will support further investigation of mesalazine as chemopreventive agent against colorectal neoplasia in the ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01894685?recr=Open&cond=%22Adenoma%22&rank=20
*  Health Sciences Research Commons - GW Research Days 2016 - Present: Race Does Not Affect the Prevalence of Sporadic Adenomas in...
Background: Sporadic adenoma formation found on surveillance colonoscopies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents a significant risk for cancer. Certain racial groups like African Americans (AA) are at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), but there is conflicting literature on differences in sporadic adenoma formation. Some data suggests AA are at increased risk for large adenomas, more proximal lesions, and increased prevalence. These data, however, are studying the general population and to our knowledge no study has looked at differences in adenoma formation by race in IBD patients. The present retrospective study analyzes the prevalence of adenomas in IBD patients. Methods: All IBD patients who received a surveillance colonoscopy within the past year were included in the present study. Sporadic adenomas included serrated, tubular, villous, and tubulovillous ...
https://hsrc.himmelfarb.gwu.edu/gw_research_days/2016/SMHS/15/
*  Serrated adenoma and APC gene mutation | Journal of Medical Genetics
A small study suggests that serrated adenoma may be a form of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and not a separate type of colorectal cancer.. Three serrated adenomas were found separately in three out of 11 Japanese patients from three families with FAP. Colorectal polyps numbered ,100 in each of the three, and all serrated adenomas were found in the rectum. All three patients with serrated adenomas had mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene-two proximal to the site of the gene, at codon 161, 332 and the third at the most distal site, codon 1556. Mutations in the other patients were located between codons 554 and 1324.. The rate of occurrence of serrated adenoma in the study was 30 times that in the general population so APC mutation may influence pathogenesis of serrated adenoma. The genetic results are compatible with a recent report describing colonic ...
http://jmg.bmj.com/content/39/7/462
*  Evaluation of Clinico-Radio-Pathological Features of Tubular Adenoma of Breast: a Study of Ten Cases with Histopathological...
Background & Objectives: Tubular adenomas are rare benign epithelial tumours of breast affecting predominantly females of child bearing age group. Till now, very small number of cases have been reported in the literature. Present study was carried out to evaluate the clinico-pathological features of tubular adenoma cases diagnosed during three years study period along with discussion of possible differential diagnoses. Methods: Overall, 346 female breast biopsies were diagnosed as benign lesions in three years (2010-2012), of which 10 cases of tubular adenomas were identified. Available clinical, radiological and cytological data of these cases were analysed retrospectively in detail. Result: Tubular adenomas were identified from 16 to 48 years of age with a predilection to younger age group (60% within 30 years). Most of the tubular adenomas were small and circumscribed mimicking fibroadenoma in almost ...
http://ijp.iranpath.org/article_8287.html
*  Prestren | Pituitary adenoma - Prestren
Pituitary Cancer. Pituitary tumors are unusual growths found in the pituitary organ which makes hormones that influence development and the functions of different glands in the body.. The pituitary organ is a pea-sized, reddish dim organ in the focal point of the brain, just above and behind the nose.. Pituitary carcinomas happen in both sexes, usually by the third or fourth decades of life. These tumors are very basic with 25% of individuals having small pituitary tumors on autopsy however most are sans symptom and the vast larger part of pituitary adenomas go undiagnosed all through life.. Types of Pituitary Tumors. The types are named after the types of hormones the pituitary makes and incorporate prolactin-delivering adenomas, somatotrophin-secreting adenomas, corticotrophin-secreting adenomas, gonadotrophin-secreting adenomas, thyrotrophin-secreting adenomas, invalid cell adenomas, and ...
http://www.prestren.com/pituitary-adenoma/
*  Thyroid adenoma
Medical information, Thyroid adenoma. Definition of Thyroid adenoma, symptoms of Thyroid adenoma, treatment of Thyroid adenoma, and prevention of Thyroid adenoma. Exams and Tests Thyroid adenoma.
http://diseasereference.net/info/thyroid-nodule/209201.html
*  Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and macrophage cyclooxygenase 2 expression in colonic adenoma
Background and aims: Cyclooxygenase 2(COX-2) expression in subepithelial macrophages of colorectal adenoma has been suggested as the first in a series of steps leading to colorectal tumorigenesis. We tested the hypothesis that chemokines released from human colorectal adenoma epithelium might be involved in COX-2 expression in macrophages of the lamina propria. Methods: Endoscopic samples of sporadic colorectal adenomas were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for chemokines involved in macrophage chemotaxis. Localisation of adenoma macrophage chemoattractant protein 1(MCP-1) and COX-2 were determined by immunohistochemistry. The effects of MCP-1, in the presence or absence of celecoxib, on COX-2 expression, and prostaglandin (PG) E2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release, were examined in human macrophages isolated from peripheral blood. Results: MCP-1 levels were markedly higher in adenoma with ...
http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/19623584/monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-macrophage-cyclooxygenase-2-expression-colonic-adenoma
*  Treatment of gonadotroph and other clinically nonfunctioning adenomas
Gonadotroph adenomas are the most common pituitary macroadenomas, comprising about 80 percent of clinically nonfunctioning adenomas. These adenomas are difficult to identify because their secretory products usually do not cause a recognizable clinica
http://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-gonadotroph-and-other-clinically-nonfunctioning-adenomas
*  PLOS ONE: Down-Regulation of CDH1 Is Associated with Expression of SNAI1 in Colorectal Adenomas
Introduction Down-regulation of E-cadherin (CDH1) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are considered critical events for invasion and metastasis of colorectal carcinoma. Here we tested whether the important regulators of E-cadherin expression SNAI1 and TWIST1 are already detectable in human colorectal adenomas. Methods RNA was extracted from a set of randomly selected formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) colorectal adenomas (n = 41) and normal colon mucosa (n = 10). Subsequently mRNA expression of CDH1, CDH2, SNAI1 and TWIST1 was analysed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. CDH1 as well as SNAI1 protein expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results SNAI1 mRNA was expressed in 78% (n = 32/41), TWIST1 mRNA in 41% (n = 17/41) and CDH2 mRNA in 41% (n = 17/41) of the colorectal adenoma tissue, while normal colon mucosa was negative for these transcription factors. We found a significant correlation between reduced CDH1 and the ...
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/related?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0046665&imageURI=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046665.g008
*  Down-Regulation of CDH1 Is Associated with Expression of SNAI1 in Colorectal Adenomas
Introduction Down-regulation of E-cadherin (CDH1) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are considered critical events for invasion and metastasis of colorectal carcinoma. Here we tested whether the important regulators of E-cadherin expression SNAI1 and TWIST1 are already detectable in human colorectal adenomas. Methods RNA was extracted from a set of randomly selected formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) colorectal adenomas (n = 41) and normal colon mucosa (n = 10). Subsequently mRNA expression of CDH1, CDH2, SNAI1 and TWIST1 was analysed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. CDH1 as well as SNAI1 protein expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results SNAI1 mRNA was expressed in 78% (n = 32/41), TWIST1 mRNA in 41% (n = 17/41) and CDH2 mRNA in 41% (n = 17/41) of the colorectal adenoma tissue, while normal colon mucosa was negative for these transcription factors. We found a significant correlation between reduced CDH1 and the ...
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0046665&imageURI=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046665.g008
*  The prevalence of colorectal adenomas in asymptomatic Korean men and women
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer incidence is rapidly rising in many Asian countries, with rates approaching those of Western countries. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and trends of colorectal adenomas by age, sex, and risk strata in asymptomatic Koreans. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 19,372 consecutive participants aged 20 to 79 years undergoing screening colonoscopy at the Center for Health Promotion of the Samsung Medical Center in Korea from January 2006 to June 2009. RESULTS: Among participants at average risk, those without a history of colorectal polyps or a family history of colorectal cancer, the prevalence of colorectal adenomas and advanced adenomas were 34.5% and 3.1%, respectively, in men and 20.0% and 1.6%, respectively, in women. The prevalence of adenomas increased with age in both men and women, with a more marked increase for advanced adenoma. Participants with a family history of colorectal ...
http://spm.um.edu.my/publication/abstracts/2014-Cancer%20Epidemiol%20Biomarkers%20Prev-23-499-507.php
*  Plus it
Background: Colorectal adenomas are precursor lesions of colorectal cancer. About 5% of colorectal adenomas are estimated to progress to colorectal cancer (CRC). The currently used histo-pathological characteristics to identify adenomas at risk of malignant progression, i.e. scoring of size ≥ 10mm, villous component or high grade dysplasia, are not sufficiently sensitive and specific and prone to inter-observer variability. Integrating molecular markers reflecting the underlying biology of CRC into the current classification system is expected to better characterize adenomas at high-risk of progression.. Aim: Here we compared the prevalence of genetic changes, in particular DNA copy number changes, between advanced and non-advanced adenomas.. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 121 patients (mean age 65.4±11.6, 52.9% male) with colorectal adenomas (63 non-advanced ...
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/77/3_Supplement/A04
*  Plus it
In this large cross-sectional study of asymptomatic men and women attending a health screening program, among those at average risk of colorectal adenoma we found that 34.5% of men and 20.0% of women had prevalent colorectal adenomas, and 3.1% of men and 1.6% of women had prevalent advanced adenomas. The prevalence of colorectal adenomas and of advanced adenomas increased significantly with age in both men and women, particularly for multiple, larger, and advanced adenomas. The prevalence of adenomas increased annually over the study period in both men and women.. Our estimates of the prevalence of colorectal adenomas are consistent with previous studies based on more selected and smaller screening samples (7, 11). In one study, the prevalence of colorectal adenomas among average risk asymptomatic Koreans 50 years of age or older were 39.9% and 23.0% among ...
http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/23/3/499
*  No Association between Circulating Levels and Genetic Variants of IL-6 and TNF-α and Colon Adenoma - Semantic Scholar
BACKGROUND & AIMS Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), two important inflammatory cytokines, have been inconsistently associated with risk of colon neoplasia in epidemiological studies. However, research to date has not adequately assessed whether race-specific differences may exist in associations between biomarkers and genetic variants of these cytokines and colorectal adenoma - the precursor lesions of colorectal cancer. We sought to determine whether circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, or genetic polymorphisms in IL-6and TNF-α were associated with colon adenoma and if so, whether that association differed by race. METHODS We analyzed the associations of circulating levels and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-6 and TNF-α with risk of colon adenomas in a colonoscopy -based case-control study of 401 incident adenoma cases and 1,050 controls. We used multivariate unconditional logistic regression ...
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/No-Association-between-Circulating-Levels-and-Gene-Vaughn-Ochs-Balcom/382ec6b306fa9afad6e1291547c2b1fbb6b170ba
*  FTO polymorphisms are associated with adult body mass index (BMI) and colorectal adenomas in African-Americans : Carcinogenesis...
Obesity is a known risk factor for colon cancer and higher body mass index (BMI) has been associated with colorectal adenomas, which are precursor lesions to most colorectal cancers. Polymorphisms in the fat-mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with BMI and larger effects in older versus younger children have been reported. However, no studies have examined associations between FTO polymorphisms, BMI throughout adulthood and colorectal adenomas. Therefore, we evaluated associations between FTO polymorphisms (rs1421085, rs17817449, rs8050136, rs9939609, rs8044769), adult BMI (at recruitment, 50s, 40s, 30s, 20s age decades) and colorectal adenomas in 759 Caucasians and 469 African-Americans. We found that the highest versus the lowest BMI tertile at recruitment [odds ratio (OR) = 1.82; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-2.16] and in the 30s (OR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.04-2.15) was associated with higher adenoma risk. ...
http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/carcin/bgr026
*  Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in human anterior pituitary adenomas
RESULTS. VEGF121 and VEGF165 were expressed in 65 % and 75% respectively of the adenomas and the level of this expression varied greatly. There was no correlation between expression of the two receptors or between VEGF expression and adenoma type. Only two adenomas didn't express any VEGF. VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 were expressed in 35 % and 25 % respectively of the adenomas and the level of this expression again varied greatly. There was no correlation between receptor expression and VEGF expression, or receptor expression and adenoma type. 55 % of the adenomas didn't express any receptor. Only one adenoma was found not to express any VEGF or receptor ...
http://www.endocrine-abstracts.org/ea/0005/ea0005p150.htm
*  GastroHep News Story
The team performed a case-control study in 18 endoscopic units of French nonuniversity hospitals.. A colonoscopy was offered to first-degree relatives of 306 index cases with adenomas of 10 mm if they were alive, aged 40 to 75 years.. Among them, 168 were examined and matched for age, sex, and geographical area with 307 controls.. Controls were randomly selected from 1362 consecutive patients aged 40 to 75 years having undergone a colonoscopy for minor symptoms.. The researchers found the prevalence of large adenomas and cancers was 8% and 4%, in relatives and controls, respectively.. Odds ratios associated with a history of large adenomas in relatives were 2.3 with cancers or large adenomas, 1.2 for small adenomas, and 1.6 for all colorectal neoplasia.. The team found the risk of large adenomas and cancers was higher in relatives of index cases younger than 60 years.. In addition, the research team noted ...
https://www.gastrohep.com/news/news.asp?id=105294
*  Study of Prevalence of Colorectal Adenoma in 30- to 49-year-old Subjects With a Family History of Colorectal Cancer - Full Text...
Colorectal cancer screening is recommended for average-risk persons beginning at age 50. A family history of colorectal cancer is recognized as a risk factor for colorectal adenoma. However, the strength of this association is uncertain. Current guidelines for initiating screening colonoscopies in patients younger than 50 years of age who have a first relative history of colorectal cancer have proved controversial. The conflicting recommendations are partly attributable to the lack of data about the prevalence of CRC and adenomas among 30- to 49-year-old individuals with a first relative history of colorectal cancer. This prospective study will quantify the prevalence of adenomas (any size) and advanced adenomas among 30- to 49-year-old individuals undergoing their first screening colonoscopy because of a first relative history of colorectal cancer and compare the data with controls(asymptomatic subjects without a first relative history of ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01428752
*  PTU-004 Safe and Effective Day Case Endoscopic Resection of Giant Colorectal Adenomas Greater than 8CM is Achievable in a...
Results 88 lesions greater than or equal to 8 cm were resected with a median size of 10 cm (range 8 cm-16cm). Mean age was 74 years. 49 lesions were in the rectum or rectosigmoid, 13 in the right colon and 27 in the descending and sigmoid colon. There were 6 tubular adenomas, 73 tubulovillous adenomas, 7 adenocarcinomas and 1 sessile serrated adenoma. The recurrence rate was 17%, 64% detected at the first surveillance endoscopy and 36% later recurrences. Of these, 2 patients required surgery in the form of TEMS and a right hemicolectomy, 1 died of unrelated causes, and the rest were managed with a repeat endoscopic resection and were free from recurrence at last surveillance. There were no clinically significant perforations. 3 perforations were closed with endoscopic clips and managed conservatively without complications. There were 2 unplanned admissions for bleeding which did not require further intervention. The recurrence and complication rate were ...
http://gut.bmj.com/content/65/Suppl_1/A53.3
*  Sessile serrated adenomas: prevalence of dysplasia and carcinoma in 2139 patients | Journal of Clinical Pathology
We identified low-grade dysplasia in 12.0% of our patients with SSAs, high-grade dysplasia in 2.1% and adenocarcinoma in 1.0%. Remarkably similar proportions of our patients with conventional adenomatous polyps had high-grade dysplasia (2.2%) and adenocarcinoma (2.5%). The percentage of women increased progressively from 53% for SSAs without dysplasia to 57% for SSA with low-grade dysplasia, 69% for SSA with high-grade dysplasia and 76% for SSA with adenocarcinoma. In contrast, no significant gender differences were present in the progression of adenomas to high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma (figure 2).. Over the last several years, it has been suggested that SSAs may progress to adenocarcinoma more rapidly than conventional adenomas.2 3 5 These concerns have led to the suggestion that screening guidelines based upon the progression rates of conventional adenomas may not be adequate for SSAs,17 and surgery for cancer prevention has been ...
http://jcp.bmj.com/content/63/8/681
*  GastroHep News Story
They recorded the characteristics of any adenomas using standardized protocol. Characteristics were recorded at baseline and at 3 years.. The main outcomes measured by the team were the 3-year overall recurrence, recurrence of multiple and advanced adenomas, and proximal and distal recurrence.. The researchers observed a 3-year recurrence 22% of patients. More than 50% had recurrent adenomas on the proximal colon. After adjustment, the team found that the number of adenomas and their proximal location at baseline were the main predictors of recurrence. When compared with patients who had 1 or 2 adenomas on the distal colon, patients with ≥3 adenomas with at least one of these on the proximal colon had a greater risk of overall recurrence (5.3). These patients also had a greater risk of proximal recurrence (8.5), and advanced adenoma recurrence (5.5).. Dr Bonithon-Kopp's team concluded, ...
http://www.gastrohep.com/news/news.asp?id=2598
*  Role of NQO1C609T and EPHX1 gene polymorphisms in the association of smoking and alcohol with sporadic distal colorectal...
NADP(H):quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1, also mEH) are attractive candidate enzymes for association with colorectal neoplasia because they metabolize a number of compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have been linked with colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined the relationship between NQO1C609T, mEH3, mEH4 and risk of sporadic distal colorectal adenomas in one of the largest case-control studies of 946 polyp-free controls and 894 cases, all participants of the UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Screening (UKFSS) Trial. The polymorphisms were examined as independent risk factors and evidence for interaction with smoking and alcoholic drinks was sought. The NQO1 609*T allele was positively associated with high-risk adenoma in this population [odds ratio (OR), 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.83]. Elevated risk estimates were seen in smokers independently of the genotype but the association was stronger among ...
http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/carcin/bgl194