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*  Early Gene Expression Profile in Retinal Ganglion Cell Layer After Optic Nerve Crush in Mice | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Activating transcription factor 3 is integral to the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinase stress response. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 ... biology and nomenclature of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors ... Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) expression in the neural retina and optic nerve of zebrafish during optic nerve ... Activating transcription factor 3 and reactive astrocytes following optic nerve injury in zebrafish. Comp Biochem Physiol C ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2670450
*  Iron-Chelating Drugs Enhance Cone Photoreceptor Survival in a Mouse Model of Retinitis Pigmentosa | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Nuclear-factor kappa B is known to induce the transcription of proinflammatory genes.45,46 Nuclear factor-κB is bound to IκB in ... Activated microglia in human retinitis pigmentosa, late-onset retinal degeneration, and age-related macular degeneration. Exp ... neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF ... Vallabhapurapu S, Karin M. Regulation and function of NF-kappaB transcription factors in the immune system. Ann Rev Immunol. ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2659349
*  Eye Movement Abnormalities in Joubert Syndrome | IOVS | ARVO Journals
The centrosomal protein nephrocystin-6 is mutated in syndrome and activates transcription factor ATF4. Nat Genet. 2006;38(6)674 ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2164830
*  Frequent TERT Promoter Mutations in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia | IOVS | ARVO Journals
The transcription factor GABP selectively binds and activates the mutant TERT promoter in cancer. Science. 2015 ; 348: 1036- ... 19 recruiting transcription factors such as nuclear respiratory factor 2 (GABP),26 resulting in increased TERT gene expression ... 11 Other factors include atopic dermatitis and immunosuppression. Environmental factors, in particular ultraviolet light (UV) ... Risk factors for conjunctival squamous cell neoplasia: a matched case-control study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003; 87: 396-398. ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2436724
*  Transcorneal Electrical Stimulation Rescues Axotomized Retinal Ganglion Cells by Activating Endogenous Retinal IGF-1 System |...
Ca2+ influx regulates BDNF transcription by a CREB family transcription factor-dependent mechanism. Neuron. 1998;20:709-726. [ ... Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent retinal neovascularization by insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor ... Thus, TES activated the Müller cells to produce more IGF-1 and release it into the inner retina. A blocking of the IGF-1R by ... IGF-1 is one of the trophic factors that promote the survival of axotomized RGCs in vivo. 11 To determine whether IGF-1 is ...
http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2163762
*  Diabetes Impairs the Aldehyde Detoxifying Capacity of the Retina | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Elevated activity of transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5) and diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes. ... Previous studies have shown that a number of the ALDH and AKR genes are downstream targets of the transcription factor, Nrf2,59 ... Transcription factor Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense system in the development of diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis ... lipid aldehyde detoxifying ALDH and AKR genes may be regulated at the transcriptional level by the transcription factors, AP-1, ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2552962
*  PGC-1alpha Signaling Regulates Retinal Ganglion Cell Injury Responses And Atrocyte Reactivity | IOVS | ARVO Journals
When activated, PGC-1α interacts with transcription factors regulating metabolic, oxidative, and ischemic stress. Through these ... Purpose: Glaucomatous optic neuropathy is associated with a complex combination of risk factors, including age, increased ... We have generated data identifying the transcriptional co-activator, PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2148832
*  Phosphatidylinositol 3 Kinase Pathway and 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal-Induced Oxidative Injury in the RPE | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Nrf2 is a basic region-leucine zipper transcription factor and can be activated by reactive intermediates and electrophilic ... other transcription factors, such as NFκB and cFOS, can be activated by 4-HNE and can exert cytoprotective effects. 16 ... Transcription factor Nrf2 coordinately regulates a group of oxidative stress-inducible genes in macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2000; ... through mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated electrophile response element/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2185312
*  Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation Predominantly in Müller Cells of Retina with Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis | IOVS...
Injury-specific expression of activating transcription factor-3 in retinal ganglion cells and its colocalized expression with ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and FGF2 activate ERK in Müller cells. 33 Because ERK is ... Generally, it is well known that activated ERK is translocated into the nucleus and plays a role in transcription. Thus, the p- ... Mitogen-activated protein kinases activated by lipopolysaccharide and beta-amyloid in cultured rat microglia. Neuroreport. 1998 ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2200178
*  Murine Ccl2/Cx3cr1 Deficiency Results in Retinal Lesions Mimicking Human Age-Related Macular Degeneration | IOVS | ARVO Journals
In ER stress, transcription factors are activated to induce the expression of ER-resident chaperones to deal with accumulated ... Activated microglia are associated with AMD. 40 59 We observed microglia in the retinal lesions of Ccl2/Cx3cr1-deficient mice ... Complement factor H variant increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Science. 2005;308:419-421. [CrossRef] [ ... Genetic factors of age-related macular degeneration. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2004;23:229-249. [CrossRef] [PubMed] ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2184440
*  Aldose Reductase Inhibition Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis in Rats | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Further, ROS activate redox-sensitive transcription factors such as NF-κB and AP-1, which play a central and crucial role in ... including the activation of NF-κB and other ROS-sensitive transcription factors. Although the mechanisms by which AR activates ... Redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB is involved in the induction of COX-2, iNOS and other inflammatory markers such as ... Since redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB transcribes various inflammatory marker genes including those of TNF-α, iNOS, ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2183649
*  Double-stranded RNA Induces Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Through TLR3, NF-kB and IRF3 Signaling Pathways in Human Corneal...
... and activated NFkB p65 protein nuclear translocation in 4 hours. Furthermore, poly I:C stimulated transcription factor IRF3 ... Interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3 activity in cell nuclear extracts was measured by a TransAM IRF3 kit. ... Poly I:C activated IkB- with its dramatic degradation in 1-2 hours, ... dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) or NFkB activation, respectively. The mRNA expression was determined by RT and real time ...
http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2367909
*  Modulation of VEGF-Induced Retinal Vascular Permeability by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-β/δ | IOVS | ARVO...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors and members of the steroid nuclear hormone ... Vascular endothelial growth factor in eye disease. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2008; 27: 331-371. [CrossRef] [PubMed] ... Upregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor system in experimental ... Vascular endothelial growth factor-A. Curr Eye Res. 2000; 21: 637-645. [CrossRef] [PubMed] ...
http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2212684
*  Potential of Small Molecule-Mediated Reprogramming of Rod Photoreceptors to Treat Retinitis Pigmentosa | IOVS | ARVO Journals
... increase in the interaction of these factors leads to a reduction in the ability of the complex to activate Rho transcription, ... Oh EC, Cheng H, Hao H, Jia L, Khan NW, Swaroop A. Rod differentiation factor NRL activates the expression of nuclear receptor ... During retinal development, the expression of a few key transcription factors regulates photoreceptor cell fate and further ... 7 One critical transcription factor in the specification of cone versus rod fate is Nrl.8-10 Mice with mutations in Nrl have ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2588569
*  The Nrf-2 activator sulforaphane protects retinal cells from oxidative stress induced retinal injury | IOVS | ARVO Journals
... is known as activator of transcription factor Nrf2 which activates genes encoding for antioxidative enzymes. In this study, we ... Sulforaphane successfully induced anti-oxidant proteins HO-1, GR, GPx1, and NQO1 in a dose-depentend manner by activated Nrf2. ... Conclusions: Treatment of ARPE 19 cell with sulforaphane effectively protected cells against oxidative stress by activated the ... EMSA study showed NF-kB was deactivated and Nrf2 was activated by sulforaphane in rat's retina. ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2334162
*  MT1-MMP Modulates the Expression of FGF Receptor and VEGF in Mouse Corneal Fibroblast Cell Lines | IOVS | ARVO Journals
The transcription factor HIF-1α, was activated by bFGF on MT1-MMP wildtype (WT) and MT-MMP knock-in (KI), but not in MT1-MMP ... Transcription factor HIF-1α may play a role in MT1-MMP- and bFGF-induced VEGF expression in corneal fibroblasts. In this study ... Levels of ERK, phospho-ERK proteins and activated Ras were examined by western blot analysis in WT, MT1-MMP KO and MT1-MMP KI ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2369312
*  Crosstalk Between Histone and DNA Methylation in Regulation of Retinal Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Diabetes | IOVS | ARVO...
... activates capillary cell apoptosis. MMP-9 promoter has binding sites for many transcription factors, and in diabetes its ... The promoter of MMP-9 has many transcriptional factor binding sites,9 and the binding of transcriptional factors AP-1 and ... nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) is increased at the retinal MMP-9 promoter in diabetes.10,11 In addition to transcription factors, ... and activating MMP-9 transcription. In support, recruitment of Dnmt1 by Ezh2 at the ABCA1 promoter is shown to ...
http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2667223
*  IL-1β Induces FGF-2 Production via PI 3-kinase/p38/NF-B Pathways in Rabbit Corneal Endothelial Cells | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Inhibitors for PI 3-kinase and p38 blocked phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-ΚB. Using an NF-ΚB transcription factor ... Results: : Brief stimulation of cells with IL-1β activated PI 3-kinase and p38; FGF-2 production mediated by IL-1β was ... Conclusions: : These findings suggest that CECs utilize NF-ΚB as a major transcription factor to produce FGF-2 in response to ... We also defined that NF-ΚB is a transcription factor for induction of FGF-2 using ChIP assay in human retinal pigment ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2358532
*  Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of the Retinoschisin-Deficient Retina in Early Postnatal Mouse Development | IOVS | ARVO...
... induction by directly activating IEG promoter-bound transcription factors such as Egr1. 47 Further studies are needed to ... Egr1 transcription factor: multiple roles in prostate tumor cell growth and survival. Tumour Biol. 2002;23:93-102. [CrossRef] [ ... Regulation of life and death by the zinc finger transcription factor Egr-1. J Cell Physiol. 2002;193:287-292. [CrossRef] [ ... The zinc finger transcription factor Egr-1 is essential for and restricts differentiation along the macrophage lineage. Cell. ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2125414
*  Cluap1 is Essential for Ciliogenesis and Photoreceptor Maintenance in the Vertebrate Eye | IOVS | ARVO Journals
The centrosomal protein nephrocystin-6 is mutated in Joubert syndrome and activates transcription factor ATF4. Nat Genet . 2006 ... Capped, poly-adenylated cluap1 and cluap1-GFP were synthesized via a mMESSAGE mMACHINE SP6 Transcription Kit (Life Technologies ...
http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2129049
*  Desiccating Stress Promotion of Th17 Differentiation by Ocular Surface Tissues through a Dendritic Cell-Mediated Pathway | IOVS...
Ectopic expression of activated Stat6 induces the expression of Th2-specific cytokines and transcription factors in developing ... IL-17 activates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. 6,7 The genes encoding IL-17A ... G) Real-time PCR data showing relative expression (x-fold) of the Th17 cell transcription factor-RORγt in CD4+ T cells ... G) Real-time PCR data showing relative expression (x-fold) of the Th17 cell transcription factor-RORγt in CD4+ T cells ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2186282
*  Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 Inhibits Tumor Growth of Human Uveal Melanoma In Vivo | IOVS | ARVO Journals
... whose activity depends on binding of activated Smad3/Smad4 transcription factor complexes. 20 The BRE-luciferase construct ( ... whose activity depends on activated Smad3/4 transcription factor complexes. Addition of BMP7 to TGF-β-stimulated OCM-1 cells, ... whose activity depends on activated Smad3/4 transcription factor complexes. In the presence of TGF-β, exogenous BMP7 addition ... Bone morphogenetic protein-7 is an antagonist of transforming growth factor-β2 in human trabecular meshwork cells. Invest ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2183579
*  A PPAR-Gamma Agonist Rosiglitazone Suppresses Fibrotic Response in Human Pterygium Fibroblasts by Modulating the p38 MAPK...
... which then translocate to the nucleus to activate transcription factors to regulate the expression of target genes.32 Indeed, ... as well as collagen 1 and serum response factor (SRF), which is a transcription factor for actin cytoskeletal reorganization ... platelet derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the pterygium. Acta ... Synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) ligands have been shown to be effective antifibrotic agents ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2657533
*  Transcriptional Regulation of the Human Mimecan Gene | IOVS | ARVO Journals
DNase1 Footprinting and EMSA were used to determine the cis-elements and transcription factors that regulate the human mimecan ... factors and cytokines to modulate its expression and by recent demonstration that bovine mimecan is transcriptionally activated ... The transcription initiation sites were determined by RACE and S1 protection analyses. Luciferase reporter gene transfections, ... clone and functionally characterize the human mimecan promoter region and identify the cis-elements and transcription factors ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2420437
*  Isoform-specific inhibition of NFATc1 and NFATc2 reduces VEGF- and TNFa-induced inflammation in retinal endothelial cells |...
The nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors are also known to upregulate inflammatory ... Purpose: Retinal levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) are known to be ...
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2267571