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Dengue virus (DENV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) are flaviviruses, which can cause lethal hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the TBEV-NS5 and DENV-NS5 proteins use an internal binding mechanism to target human PDZ proteins. TBEV-NS5 has high affinity to regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis-2 (RIMS2) and Scribble, whereas DENV-NS5 binds primarily to the tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). Targeting of TBEV-NS5 to the plasma membrane is stabilised by ZO-1; however, DENV-NS5 co-localises with ZO-1 in the nucleus. These interactions have potential important roles in the ability of flaviviruses to manipulate cell proliferation, junction permeability and the interferon pathways.. ...
Quantification of Zonula Occludens-1 mRNA expression in cultu-red bovine retinal endothelial cells, using SYBR green real-time PCR, Sekaran Muniandy, Koon Chu Yaiw, Jack Bee Chook,
Tight junctions and EGF receptor localization in mouse epidermis: whole-mount immunohistochemistry image of newborn epidermis stained for the tight junctional protein ZO-1 (red) and the EGFR tyrosine kinase receptor (EGFR, green). EGFR colocalizes at or near the tight junctional barrier in the granular layer of the epidermis. Confocal image of selected stacks of a 3D image.
The overlying stratum corneum is para- keratotic. Not more than 0. 0 пReference ciprр (a). The ap1colateral cell JUnctiOn consists of a zonula occludens (ZO) (t1ght junction).
Connexin. 43 (Cx43) is the predominant gap junction (GJ) protein in the mammalian ventricular myocardium. The precise spatial order of Cx43 GJ channels in the heart is thought vital for maintaining cardiac synchrony. Disruption or remodelng of this order is a hallmark of arrhythmic disease and has been reported in ischemic and diabetic hearts. Protein-protein interactions and modifications of the Carboxyl-terminus (CT) of CX43 are major determinants of GJ function, size, distribution and organization during normal development and disease processes. The extreme CT domain of CS43 interacts directly with the second PDZ domain of the MAGUK protein Zonula Occludens 1 (ZO-1). It has been reported that this interaction regulates phosphorylation of Cx43 and directs Cx43 GJ localization at the intercalated disk. Additionally, levels of this interaction are increased in the ischemic and dilated heart suggesting a role of Cx43 ZO-1 association in disease. Recent work from the Gourdie laboratory has ...
Gap junctions are membrane specialization domains identified in most tissue types where cells abut each other. The connexin channels found in these membrane domains are conduits for direct cell-to-cell transfer of ions and molecules. Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most ubiquitous connexin, with critical roles in heart, skin, and brain. Several studies described the interaction between Cx43 and the cytoskeleton involving the actin binding proteins Zonula occludens (ZO-1) and drebrin, as well as with tubulin. However, a direct interaction has not been identified between drebrin and Cx43. In this study, co-IP and NMR experiments were used to demonstrate that the Cx43-CT directly interacts with the highly conserved N-terminus region of drebrin. Three Cx43-CT areas were found to be involved in drebrin binding, with residues 264-275 being critical for the interaction. Mimicking Src phosphorylation within this region (Y265) significantly disrupted the interaction between the Cx43-CT and drebrin. Immunofluorescence
A high molecular weight tight junction-associated protein, ZO-1, has been demonstrated in liver (hepatocytes) and in both epithelium and endothelium. We carried out studies to examine the presence of the protein in vascular endothelial cell cultures and several other types of cultured cells, and the relationship between the ZO-1 protein content and confluency of endothelial cell monolayers. Immunofluorescence labelling of endothelial monolayers and two types of epithelial monolayers, IEC-6 and MDCK, with monoclonal antibody against ZO-1 protein localized the protein to the cell peripheries. Its association with the cell periphery only occurred when cells had contact with one another as demonstrated in endothelial cells. We have been able to show a positive correlation between the ZO-1 content of the cells and the extent of monolayer confluency in the endothelial cells by immunoblotting. The protein is much less expressed in nonconfluent endothelial cell monolayers and totally absent from mouse ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The tight junction protein ZO-2 localizes to the nucleus and interacts with the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein scaffold attachment factor-B. AU - Traweger, Andreas. AU - Fuchs, Renate. AU - Krizbai, I.. AU - Weiger, Thomas M.. AU - Bauer, Hans Christian. AU - Bauer, Hannelore. PY - 2003/1/24. Y1 - 2003/1/24. N2 - Zonula occludens proteins (ZOPs), currently comprising ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3, belong to the family of membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologue (MAGUK) proteins that are involved in the organization of epithelial and endothelial intercellular junctions. ZOPs bind to the cytoplasmic C termini of junctional transmembrane proteins linking them to the actin cytoskeleton. They are characterized by several conserved modules, including three PDZ domains, one SH3 domain, and a guanylate kinase-like domain, elements indicating that ZOPs may serve multiple purposes. Interestingly, ZOPs contain some unique motifs not shared by other MAGUK family members, including ...
Characterization of the tight junction is proceeding rapidly and has stimulated advances in the fields of cell-cell interactions and epithelial cell biology. In addition to the list of proteins now found at the tight junction, we have learned that two previously characterized tight junction components, ZO-1 and ZO-2, are members of a larger protein family that appear to function in the organization of specific areas of the cell surface (11, 21, 23, 24, 27, 41, 44). Moreover, data suggest that some members of this family are involved in signal transduction and/or tumor suppression (1, 41, 46, 47), highlighting the importance of analyzing these molecules.. Here we present evidence of a novel member of the MAGUK family of proteins found at the tight junction. This 130-kD polypeptide, named ZO-3 because of homology to ZO-1 and ZO-2 (Figs. 5, Tables II and III) and localization at the tight junction (Figs. 7 and 8), contains 3 PDZ domains, an SH3 domain and a GUK region (Fig. 3). The arrangement of ...
Tight junction-associated protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TJAP1 gene. TJAP1 has been shown to interact with DLG1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000137221 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000012296 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Kawabe H, Nakanishi H, Asada M, Fukuhara A, Morimoto K, Takeuchi M, Takai Y (Dec 2001). "Pilt, a novel peripheral membrane protein at tight junctions in epithelial cells". J Biol Chem. 276 (51): 48350-5. doi:10.1074/jbc.M107335200. PMID 11602598. "Entrez Gene: TJAP1 tight junction associated protein 1 (peripheral)". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, et al. (1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5-end-enriched cDNA library". ...
As a model for flow through the slit diaphragms which connect the epithelial foot processes of renal glomerular capillaries, finite element solutions of Stokes equations were obtained for flow perpendicular to a row of cylinders confined between parallel walls. A dimensionless "additional resistance" (f ), defined as the increment in resistance above the Poiseuille flow value, was computed for L/W ≤4 and 0.1≤ R/L ≤0.9, where L is half the distance between cylinder centers, W is half the distance between walls and R is the cylinder radius. Two factors contributed to f : the drag on the cylinders, and the incremental shear stresses on the walls of the channel. Of these two factors, the drag on the cylinders tended to be dominant. A more complex representation of the slit diaphragm, suggested in the literature, was also considered. The predicted hydraulic permeability of the slit diaphragm was compared with experimental values of the overall hydraulic permeability of the glomerular capillary ...
Identify an antibody against an adhesion junction protein that is commercially available. Add a link to the original data sheet page and identify the type of adhesion junction. Include the following information: type of antibody (polyclonal, monoclonal), species raised in, species reacts against, types of application uses, and if available any reference using that antibody. Tight Junction Protein 1 Antibody Original Data Sheer for Tight Junction Protein 1 Antibody Type of adhesion junction: human zona occludens 1, specifically ZO-1 alpha-minus found both in endothelial cells and the highly specialized epithelial junctions of renal glomeruli and Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules. Type of antibody: Polyclonal Species raised in: Guinea Pig Species reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, and Canine Types of application uses: Immunohistology, immunofluorescence and Western blotting References that uses this antibody: 1. ,pubmed,22314269,/pubmed,[3] 2. ,pubmed,22162948,/pubmed,[4] ...
Identify an antibody against an adhesion junction protein that is commercially available. Add a link to the original data sheet page and identify the type of adhesion junction. Include the following information: type of antibody (polyclonal, monoclonal), species raised in, species reacts against, types of application uses, and if available any reference using that antibody. Tight Junction Protein 1 Antibody Original Data Sheer for Tight Junction Protein 1 Antibody Type of adhesion junction: human zona occludens 1, specifically ZO-1 alpha-minus found both in endothelial cells and the highly specialized epithelial junctions of renal glomeruli and Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules. Type of antibody: Polyclonal Species raised in: Guinea Pig Species reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, and Canine Types of application uses: Immunohistology, immunofluorescence and Western blotting References that uses this antibody: 1. ,pubmed,22314269,/pubmed,[3] 2. ,pubmed,22162948,/pubmed,[4] ...
Occludin is an integral membrane protein, encoded by the OCLN gene, that is located at tight junctions. Tight junctions act as a physical barrier to prevent solutes and water from passing freely through the paracellular space. Occludin is also known as BLCPMG. It is known to interact with several cytoplasmic proteins via its C terminus, while its extracellular loops are thought to be involved in the regulation of paracellular permeability and cell adhesion. When occludin is expressed in cells that lack tight junctions, it is able to induce cell adhesion. Mutations in the OCLN gene are associated with an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder known as band-like calcification with simplified gyration and polymicrogyria (BLC-PMG).. ...
Occludin is an integral membrane protein, encoded by the OCLN gene, that is located at tight junctions. Tight junctions act as a physical barrier to prevent solutes and water from passing freely through the paracellular space. Occludin is also known as BLCPMG. It is known to interact with several cytoplasmic proteins via its C terminus, while its extracellular loops are thought to be involved in the regulation of paracellular permeability and cell adhesion. When occludin is expressed in cells that lack tight junctions, it is able to induce cell adhesion. Mutations in the OCLN gene are associated with an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder known as band-like calcification with simplified gyration and polymicrogyria (BLC-PMG).. ...
Clone REA199 recognizes CD144 (VE-Cadherin), a 120 KDa type II cadherin. Cadherins are cell adhesion molecules and mediate Ca2+ dependent homophilic interactions. CD144 contains five extracellular cadherin (EC) domains and like other cadherins can interact directly via its C-terminus with cytoplasmic proteins such as β-catenin, plaktoglobin, and p120. Plaktoglobin und β-catenin bind to α-catenin, which in turn interacts with several actin-binding proteins, α-actinin, ajuba, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). Further indirect interactions of CD144 with partners such as SHP-2, VEGFR-2, Csk, and PAR-3, 6 allows CD144 to not only regulate the stability and strength of cell adhesion but also to serve functions such as sensing of shear forces, anti-proliferative, and anti-apoptotic effects. Additional information: Clone REA199 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Schweiz
Epithelial layers are integral for many physiological processes and are maintained by intercellular adhesive structures. During disease, these structures can disassemble, leading to breakdown of epithelia. TJs (tight junctions) are one type of intercellular adhesion. Loss of TJs has been linked to the pathogenesis of many diseases. The present review focuses on the role of vesicle trafficking in regulation of TJs, in particular trafficking of the TJ protein occludin. We examine how endocytosis and endosomal recycling modulate occludin localization under steady-state conditions and during stimulated TJ disassembly. ...
Buy our Recombinant Human Occludin protein. Ab114190 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides…
The TJP2 protein (Tight Junction Protein 2, sometimes called ZO2) plays a role in "tight junctions". Tight junctions are areas where the membranes of two adjacent cells join to form a barrier. The barrier controls what molecules are able to pass between cells. Such junctions are important throughout the body, and TJP2 is not specific to the liver. A mild form of liver disease associated with mutations in the TPJ 2 gene was previously called familial hypercholanaemia (which means high bile salts in blood). Only a small number of patients with PFIC caused by TJP2 mutation have been studied so far, so it is not yet understood of what manifestations, other than liver disease and its consequences that TJP2 deficiency patients may have.. ...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant PLEKHA5. Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids of human PLEKHA5. (PAB22925) - Products - Abnova
The tight junction (TJ) is a dynamic structure that is controlled, in part, by the activity of the cytoskeleton. It has become abundantly clear that, in the presence of Ca2+, assembly of the TJ is the result of cellular interactions that trigger a complex cascade of biochemical events that ultimatel …
Figure 8. AdhRhoA2 induced changes in ZO-1 distribution in SC cells. Monolayers of 4-day confluent SC cells were infected with 500 pfu/cell AdhRhoA2. After 48 h, cells were fixed, permeablized and double-stained with specific antibodies against RhoA and ZO-1 using Cy2 (RhoA) and Cy3 (ZO-1) conjugated secondary antibodies. ZO-1 staining is present in the vehicle-treated cells at the cell-cell junctions and appear as a segmented border. Cells infected with AdhRhoA2 are devoid of this apportioned ZO-1 staining at the intercellular junctions. Original magnification noted at the right of the microphotographs.. ...
Aim of this volume is to clarify the relationship between molecular structure and function of tight junction proteins, as well as their regulation and their role in diseases. Current research may form a basis for future diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to diseases which seem to have not much in common but are characterized by defects of organ barriers, like Crohns disease, renal hypertension, inner ear deafness, and cancerous diseases. Topics include the functions of distinct tight junction proteins as barrier or channel formers for solutes and water, characteristics of the tight junction in inflammatory bowel diseases, posttranslational modifications of tight junction proteins, the relation between renal tight junction proteins and blood pressure control, and the molecular structure of claudin-claudin interactions NOTE: Annals volumes are available for sale as individual books or as a journal. For information on institutional journal subscriptions, please visit www.blackwellpublishing.com/nyas.
Congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) is a severe autosomal recessive human diarrheal disorder with characteristic intestinal epithelial dysplasia. CTE can be caused by mutations in genes encoding EpCAM, a putative adhesion molecule, and HAI-2, a cell surface protease inhibitor. A similar phenotype occurs in mice whose intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) fail to express the tight junction-associated protein claudin-7. EpCAM stabilizes claudin-7 in IECs, and HAI-2 regulates the cell surface serine protease matriptase, a known modifier of intestinal epithelial physiology. Therefore, we hypothesized that HAI-2, matriptase, EpCAM, and claudin-7 were functionally linked. Herein we have demonstrated that active matriptase cleaves EpCAM after Arg80 and that loss of HAI-2 in IECs led to unrestrained matriptase activity and efficient cleavage of EpCAM. Cleavage of EpCAM decreased its ability to associate with claudin-7 and targeted it for internalization and lysosomal degradation in conjunction with ...
Purpose: The outer limiting membrane (OLM) is considered to play a role in maintaining the structure of the retina through mechanical strength. However, the observation of junction proteins located at the OLM and its barrier permeability properties may suggest that the OLM may be part of the retinal barrier. Material and methods: Normal and diabetic rat, monkey, and human retinas were used to analyze junction proteins at the OLM. Proteome analyses were performed using immunohistochemistry on sections and flat-mounted retinas and western blotting on protein extracts obtained from laser microdissection of the photoreceptor layers. Semi-thin and ultrastructure analyses were also reported. Results: In the rat retina, in the subapical region zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), junction adhesion molecule (JAM), an atypical protein kinase C, is present and the OLM shows dense labeling of occludin, JAM, and ZO-1. The presence of occludin has been confirmed using western blot analysis of the microdissected OLM region. In
Mouse monoclonal ZO1 tight junction protein antibody [mAbcam 61357] validated for WB, IP, Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Referenced in 2 publications and 5…
Autophagy is of importance in the regulation of cell differentiation and senescence in podocytes, the highly differentiated glomerular epithelial cells. It is possible that derangement of autophagy under different pathological conditions activates or enhances Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in podocytes, resulting in glomerular sclerosis. To test this hypothesis, the present study produced lysosome dysfunction by inhibition of vacuolar- type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) to test whether deficiency of autophagic flux enhances EMT in podocytes. By Western blot analysis, inhibition of lysosome function by V-ATPase inhibitor or its siRNA was found to induce a significantly enhanced EMT in cultured podocytes, as shown by marked decreases in P-cadherin (P-cad) and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) as epithelial markers and simultaneous increases in the mesenchymal markers, fibroblast specific protein-1 (FSP-1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). These changes in EMT markers were confirmed by confocal microcopy.
Cingulin is specifically localized at tight junctions in epithelial cells, unlike ZO-1, which is also detected at adherens-type junctions in non-epithelial cells ... development, cingulin is detected at a cortical localization, and then accumulates at apical junctions, unlike ZO-1 and other junctional proteins, that are targeted to the new regions ... Cingulin interacts with ZO-1 and several other tight junction proteins, in addition to interacting with actin and myosin ...
Tight junctions (TJs) are essential for establishing a selectively permeable barrier to diffusion through the paracellular space between neighboring cells. TJs are composed of at least three types of transmembrane protein -occludin, claudin and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs)- and a cytoplasmic plaque consisting of many different proteins that form large complexes. These are proposed to be involved in junction assembly, barrier regulation, cell polarity, gene transcription, and other pathways ...
Tight junctions (TJs) are essential for establishing a selectively permeable barrier to diffusion through the paracellular space between neighboring cells. TJs are composed of at least three types of transmembrane protein -occludin, claudin and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs)- and a cytoplasmic plaque consisting of many different proteins that form large complexes. These are proposed to be involved in junction assembly, barrier regulation, cell polarity, gene transcription, and other pathways ...
Obat ketika masuk tubuh mengalami nasib yaitu: absorbsi, distribusi, metabolisme, dan ekskresi (ADME). Obat utamanya masuk ke dalam sel. Sebenarnya aliran senyawa melalui paraseluler bisa terjadi, namun ada halangan yaitu adanya tight junction, misal di SSP. Obat bisa ditransport secara pasif maupun aktif. Transport pasif artinya mengikuti gradien konsentrasi yaitu dari konsentrasi tinggi ke konsentrasi…
The municipal wastewater is mainly composed of water containing anthropogenic wastes that are rich in nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous. The cost for biological treatment of wastewater is increasing globally due to the population growth in urban cities. In general, the activated sludge (AS) process is a biological nutrient removal process used in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The AS is composed of different microorganisms in which bacteria play a crucial role in wastewater treatment (WWT). During the process, air is bubbled to supply oxygen and methanol is added to improve nitrogen removal, which is released as a gas. Phosphorous is removed in the expense of precipitation chemicals. Altogether, the current process requires electrical energy, precipitation chemicals, handling of excess sludge and it emits carbon dioxide (CO2) as a by-product. This process is still in practise in the WWTPs since 1914 although numerous modifications are implemented to meet the stringent ...
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the possible role of tight junction protein Occludin in nasal polyps. METHODS The expression of Claudin-1, Occludin and ZO-1 in nasal polyps (n = 20) and healthy uncinate mucosa (n = 15) were examined using immunohistochemical staining, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis. The regulatory effects of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-17, TGF-β, TGF-α) on the expression of Occludin in cultured human nasal epithelial cells were investigated. RESULTS The immunohistochemical results showed that Claudin-1, Occludin and ZO-1 were detected both in the nasal polyp group and the control group. The expression sites were the cell membrane and cytoplasm of nasal mucosa epithelial cells. The mean optical density of Claudin-1, Occludin and ZO-1 were 0.187 ± 0.076,0.172 ± 0.109 and 0.098 ± 0.035 respectively in the nasal polyp group and were significantly lower than those in the control group (0.312 ± 0.101, 0.220 ± 0.069 and 0.233
Tight junctions between epithelial and endothelial cells form selective barriers and paracellular channels and regulate paracellular transport of solutes, immune cells, and drugs. More specifically, tight junctions consist of proteins that laterally interconnect neighboring cells of epithelia and endothelia. Certain proteins seal the tight junction, so that a nearly impermeable barrier develops, whereas others form channels that allow for permeation between the cells. Recent investigations have focused on tight junction proteins, belonging to the claudin family (claudins-1 to -27 in humans) and the newly defined group of TAMP (three proteins: occludin, Marvel-D2, and tricellulin). Barriers and Channels Formed by Tight Junction Proteins I showcases work in this area clustered around three major themes: the molecular properties of tight junctions, for example, the role of the claudin family of proteins and the formation of ion and charge-selective channels; the regulation of tight junction
in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2011), 286(19), 16879-90. Extracellular Ca(2+) is essential for the development of stable epithelial tight junctions. We find that in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and glycogen ... [more ▼]. Extracellular Ca(2+) is essential for the development of stable epithelial tight junctions. We find that in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta inhibition independently induce the localization of epithelial tight junction components to the plasma membrane. The Ca(2+)-independent deposition of junctional proteins induced by AMPK activation and GSK-3beta inhibition is independent of E-cadherin. Furthermore, the nectin-afadin system is required for the deposition of tight junction components induced by AMPK activation, but it is not required for that induced by GSK-3beta inhibition. Phosphorylation studies demonstrate that afadin is ...
Our knowledge of the fine structure of the Human Spiral Ganglion (HSG) is still inadequate and new treatment techniques for deafness using electric stimulation, call for further information and studies on the neuronal elements of the human cochlea. This thesis presents results of analyses of human cochlear tissue and specimens obtained during neurosurgical transpetrosal removal of life-threatening meningeomas. The use of surgical biopsies produced a well-preserved material suitable for ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies on the human inner ear. The SG was studied with respect to fine structure, using TEM technique and the immunostaining pattern of synaptophysin, which is an integral membrane protein of neuronal synaptic vesicles. The immunostaining patterns of the tight junctional protein ZO-1 and the gap junctional proteins Cx26 and Cx43 in the human cochlea were also studied. The ultrastructural morphology revealed an absence of myelination pattern in the HSG, thus differing from ...
0011]The tight junctions form a selective barrier regulating the passage of ions and molecules through paracellular space. Under electron microscopy, it is noted that the tight junctions form a series of fusion points between the outer leaflets of the plasma membranes of two adjacent cells. These membrane contact zones appear, by freeze fracture, in the form of a continuous network that surrounds the apex of each cell. This network is constituted by membrane protein polymers, the claudins and occludin which are themselves connected to cytoplasmic proteins among which in particular the zonula occludens proteins (ZO-1 to 3) are to be found. Occludin, the claudins as well as the ZO-1s are often the target for bacterial toxins, leading to an alteration in the organisation and the function of the tight junctions (Coraux et al., Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2004, 5:605-612 ...
NPHS2 was recently identified as a gene whose mutations cause autosomal recessive steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Its product, podocin, is a new member of the stomatin family, which consists of hairpin-like integral membrane proteins with intracellular NH2- and COOH-termini. Podocin is expressed in glomerular podocytes, but its subcellular distribution and interaction with other proteins are unknown. Here we show, by immunoelectron microscopy, that podocin localizes to the podocyte foot process membrane, at the insertion site of the slit diaphragm. Podocin accumulates in an oligomeric form in lipid rafts of the slit diaphragm. Moreover, GST pull-down experiments reveal that podocin associates via its COOH-terminal domain with CD2AP, a cytoplasmic binding partner of nephrin, and with nephrin itself. That podocin interacts with CD2AP and nephrin in vivo is shown by coimmunoprecipitation of these proteins from glomerular extracts. Furthermore, in vitro studies reveal direct interaction of ...
Inflammation caused by either intrinsic or extrinsic toxins results in intestinal barrier dysfunction, contributing to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other diseases. Vitamin A is a widely used food supplement although its mechanistic effect on intestinal structures is largely unknown. The goal of this study was to explore the mechanism by investigating the influence of vitamin A on the intestinal barrier function, represented by tight junctions. IPEC-J2 cells were differentiated on transwell inserts and used as a model of intestinal barrier permeability. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was used as an indicator of monolayer integrity and paracellular permeability. Western blot and the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were used to assess the protein and mRNA expression of tight junction proteins. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the localization and expression of tight junctions. Differentiated cells were treated with a vehicle control (Ctrl), ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
Restore optimal gut environment leads to great gut health with carbon rich alkaline liquid lignite extracts to strengthen tight junction cells
It is well known that this reagent leads to a depletion of extracellular Ca2+ which in turn causes a disassembly of tight junction [1, 2]. The latter is reflected by a significant drop in the TER readings. Subsequent replacement of the EGTA containing medium by standard medium led to a regeneration of the tight junctions network as revealed by increasing TER readings. For validation of the temporary break down of the barrier function two cell cultures were fixed just before removal of EGTA. Samples were then stained for immunofluorescent analysis of cell nuclei and ZO-1 proteins. Imaging by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and comparison with the untreated reference cell culture clearly revealed the disintegration of the tight junctions network induced by EGTA exposure. These findings are in excellent agreement with the TER results and demonstrate the benefits of using a label-free and noninvasive technique as implemented in the cellZscope.. Cell layer formation. Application of impedance ...
Expression of PLEKHA5 (FLJ10667, KIAA1686, PEPP2) in epididymis tissue. Antibody staining with HPA035923 and HPA035924 in immunohistochemistry.
View Notes - Exam 2 Qwizdom from BIO 172 at University of Michigan. Mutations in one of the junctional complexes below causes an irregular heartbeat. Which one do you think it is. A) B) C) D) E)
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|p||strong|SYIS AMPULKY ZO SLIZOM SLIMÁKA HELIX EXTRACT SERUM 3X3ML|/strong||/p| |p|Ampulky vhodné pre všetky typy pokožky.|/p| |p|Vďaka obsahu kyseliny glykolovej a vitamínov A, C a E nachádzajúcich sa v crypto
ആവരണകലയിലെ കോശങ്ങളെ നന്നായി അടുക്കി ക്രമീകരിച്ചിരിക്കുന്നതിനാൽ കോശങ്ങൾക്കിടയിൽ കോശാന്ത്ര സ്ഥലം കുറവാണ്. അടുത്തടുത്ത രണ്ട് കോശങ്ങളുടെ പ്ലാസ്മാ സ്തരങ്ങൾ ചിലയിടങ്ങളിൽ കൂട്ടിയുറപ്പിച്ചിരിക്കുന്നു. ഇത്തരം സ്ഥാനങ്ങൾ കോശസന്ധികൾ (cell junctions). ടൈറ്റ് ജംങ്ഷനുകൾ ഉദാഹരണം. ഇത്തരം കോശസന്ധികൾ പദാർത്ഥസംവഹനത്തെ വൃതിവ്യാപനം (ഓസ്മോസിസ്), അന്തർവ്യാപനം (ഡിഫ്യൂഷൻ) എന്നിവ വഴി ...