TY - JOUR. T1 - Nodal/Bozozok-independent induction of the dorsal organizer by zebrafish cell lines. AU - Hashiguchi, Megumi. AU - Shinya, Minori. AU - Tokumoto, Mika. AU - Sakai, Noriyoshi. PY - 2008/9/15. Y1 - 2008/9/15. N2 - Formation of the dorsal organizer (Spemann organizer) is an important process in early vertebrate development. In zebrafish, two molecular cascades-Bozozok/Dharma (Boz) and Nodal signaling-act in parallel to induce the dorsal organizer. However, the complete molecular mechanism regulating this event remains unclear. Here we report that zebrafish cell lines derived from various developmental stages can induce a secondary axis when they are implanted into the mid-blastula but not the early gastrula. The implanted cellsthemselves did not differentiate, but instead induced ectopic expression of dorsal organizer markers incells around the implanted cells and induced notochord formation in the secondary axis. These results indicate that cultured cell lines have the ability to ...
View details for Studies on the effect of certain supplements in cryoprotective medium on zebrafish (Danio rerio) oocytes quality after controlled slow cooling..
The availability of a gynogenetic isogenic homozygous diploid clonal strain (C) of the zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio), combined with the small adult body size of the species, made possible a study of the following two questions. (1) Is the genetic uniformity of a group of fish reflected in decreased variability of features of organismic performance physiology? (2) Is the metabolic cost of subcarangiform swimming significantly different in small fishes compared with large ones? Wild-type (WT) and C strain zebrafish maintained at 28 °C can all swim very rapidly [up to relative swimming speeds of 13 body lengths s-1 (BL s-1)] for extended periods (at least 2 h) without visibly tiring. Oxygen consumption rates were measured for both types at swimming speeds of 1.5­13 BL s-1. Whole-body lactate concentrations were also measured during routine activity and after prolonged exercise for both fish types. The slopes of the linear regressions between the logarithm of mass-specific oxygen consumption ...
In this study we set out to investigate the transcriptome dynamics of early zebrafish embryogenesis with a comprehensive experimental set-up that interroga
Embryonic and larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) behavior is commonly used to identify neurotoxic compounds. Here, we investigated whether sub-lethal exposures to the common solvents dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 0.01-1%) and methanol (MeOH, 0.01-1%), or the anti-fungal agent methylene blue (MB, 0.0001-0.0005%), can influence larval behavior in a simple light/dark paradigm conducted in 96-well plates. In addition, we tested whether the media volume within the behavioral arena or the zebrafish strain, AB wild type, AB Tübingen (AB/TU), or Tüpfel long-fin (TL), could also influence larval behavior. Following the single exposures, we co-exposed larvae to DMSO and either MB or two other compounds with known behavioral effects in larval zebrafish, flutamide and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). We found ≥0.55% DMSO and 0.0005% MB significantly affected larval behavior, but there was no effect of MeOH. Similarly, TL showed less movement compared to AB and AB/TU strains, whereas lower media volumes also ...
Rajaram K, Harding RL, Hyde DR, Patton JG. miR-203 regulates progenitor cell proliferation during adult zebrafish retina regeneration. Dev Biol. 2014 May 20. p
Live Imaging of Host-Parasite Interactions in a Zebrafish Infection Model Reveals Cryptococcal Determinants of Virulence and Central Nervous System Invasion.
Cell cycle analysis of transgenic zebrafish embryos expressing PCNA-CB. (A) Overview of the dorsal midbrain of a wnt1:gal4,UAS:GFP (green); UAS:PCNA-CB (magenta
BioAssay record AID 620365 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiangiogenic activity in fli-1:enhanced GFP expressing transgenic zebrafish embryo assessed as inhibition of neovacularisation at 5 uM after 24 hrs relative to control.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of stanniocalcin 1 on calcium uptake in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo. AU - Tseng, Deng Yu. AU - Chou, Ming Yi. AU - Tseng, Yung Che. AU - Hsiao, Chung Der. AU - Huang, Chang Jen. AU - Kaneko, Toyoji. AU - Hwang, Pung Pung. PY - 2009/3/1. Y1 - 2009/3/1. N2 - Stanniocalcin (STC) formerly called hypocalcin or teleocalcin, is a 50-kDa disulfide-linked homodimeric glycoprotein that was originally identified in fish and secreted from the corpuscles of Stannius (CS). One of the main functions of STC-1 is Ca2+ uptake inhibition; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, we provide molecular evidence to elucidate how zebrafish STC-1 regulates Ca2+ uptake in zebrafish embryos. In a wide variety of tissues including the kidney, brain, gill, muscle, and skin, zstc-1 was expressed. Incubating zebrafish embryos in low-Ca2+ (0.02 mM) freshwater stimulated whole body Ca2+ influx and zebrafish epithelial Ca2+ channel (zECaC) mRNA expression, while downregulated ...
Claudin 5 as a prominent TJ protein is a consistent feature between the BBB and blood-CSF barrier (Bill and Korzh, 2014). Here we have used this feature to create an in vivo model for real-time analysis of the development, structure and function of the BBB and CP by generating a transgenic zebrafish line that expresses EGFP under the claudin 5a promoter. The high homology and synteny with human, the conservation along the teleost lineage and the previous characterisation of Claudin 5a in zebrafish makes cldn5a a logical candidate (Abdelilah-Seyfried, 2010; Xie et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2012).. We show that developmental expression of cldn5a:EGFP is restricted to, and starts in both CPs and the midline at 1 dpf, thereby narrowing down the previously shown whole-mount in situ hybridizations (Zhang et al., 2010). The presence of Claudin 5a at the CPs at 1 dpf coincides with the inflation of the ventricles (Zhang et al., 2010, 2012) and corroborates its role in this process. Claudin 5a is crucial ...
We have characterized Tdr1, a family of Tc1-like transposable elements found in the genome of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The copy number and distribution of the sequence in the zebrafish genome have been determined, and by these criteria Tdr1 can be classified as a moderately repetitive, interspersed …
2015. The diets of populations in industrialized nations have shifted to dramatically increased consumption of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with a corresponding decrease in the consumption of ω3 PUFA. This dietary shift may be related to observed increases in obesity, chronic inflammation, and comorbidities in the human population. We examined the effects of ω3:ω6 fatty acid ratios in the context of constant total dietary lipid on the growth, total body fat, and responses of key inflammatory markers in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish were fed diets in which the ω3:ω6 PUFA ratios were representative of those in a purported ancestral diet (1:2) and more contemporary Western diets (1:5 and 1:8). After 5 mo, weight gain (fat free mass) of zebrafish was highest for those that received the 1:8 ratio treatment, but total body fat was lowest at this ratio. Measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, mRNA levels from liver samples of 3 chronic inflammatory response genes ...
The advent of high-throughput sequencing has greatly accelerated the identification of inherited and de novo disease causing mutations. Following discovery the analysis of the developmental and cellular pathways of the affected genes is a crucial step on the path towards therapy with model organisms as the central tool. Traditionally, vertebrate model organisms such as mouse and zebrafish have been used on a gene-by-gene basis, however, in order to keep pace with the increasing speed of discovery, new approaches are needed. Owing to a high quality genome reference sequence and its genetic and embryological tractability the zebrafish is a vertebrate model especially suited for large scale studies. Previously having established methods to generate and identify disruptive zebrafish point mutations on a genome wide scale the Zebrafish Mutation Project is now assigning biological function to every protein-coding gene in the zebrafish genome. We submit alleles to a high-throughput assessment of ...
We used microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses in adult female zebrafish (Danio rerio) to identify metabolic pathways regulated by starvation in the liver and brain. The transcriptome of whole zebrafish brain showed little response to 21 days of starvation. Only agouti-related protein 1 (agrp1) significantly responded, with increased expression in brains of starved fish. In contrast, a 21-day period of starvation significantly downregulated 466 and upregulated 108 transcripts in the liver, indicating an overall decrease in metabolic activity, reduced lipid metabolism, protein biosynthesis, proteolysis, and cellular respiration, and increased gluconeogenesis. Starvation also regulated expression of many components of the unfolded protein response, the first such report in a species other than yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mice (Mus musculus). The response of the zebrafish hepatic transcriptome to starvation was strikingly similar to that of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
www.cas.vanderbilt.edu. Danio rerio commonly known as zebrafish is a tropical fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae). It is a major model for studying developmental biology; aided by the transparency of the embryo and adult body, researchers can modify the fishs genotype at the egg stage and see resulting changes as little as three days later.. Zebrafish have the ability to regenerate many of their tissues including fins, skin, heart and, in larval stages, brain. Zebrafish have been used to study cancers, including melanoma, leukemia, pancreatic cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Tubingen strain was used as the the reference strain for the genome sequencing project as it had been used extensively to identify mutations affecting embryogenesis. Sequencing revealed that 71.4% of human genes have at least one zebrafish ortholog. Currently the zebrafish genome is thought to have more than 26,000 protein-coding genes. ...
Because of its permeability to small molecules, zebrafish can be used for testing and screening of drugs affecting different biological processes.50-52 Single and multiple compounds tests can be easily and successfully achieved on both zebrafish embryos and adults.53,54 The reason for this resides in the fact that (1) a high quantity of zebrafish embryos (≈5000) can be obtained synchronously, and (2) the small size of the embryos allows them to fit in a 384-well plate and thus allows high-throughput analyses. In this way, libraries of thousands of compounds can be screened for their effects in a reasonable time frame (eg, weeks). Progresses for drug screening in zebrafish embryos are also subjected to automatic readout for phenotypic effects. An automated high-throughput platform for in vivo chemical screenings on zebrafish embryos has been developed aiming for the highest possible throughput and minimization of human error. It includes an automated method for embryo collection and ...
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized as excessive lipid accumulation within hepatocytes, is growing in prevalence. The exploitation of effective drugs for NAFLD has been proven challenging. Herein, we aimed to establish a dietary model of hepatic steatosis using transparent zebrafish larvae in which high-throughput chemical screens could be conducted. Zebrafish larvae fed with high fat (HF) diet and high fat plus high cholesterol (HFC) diet were compared to the control. We analyzed intrahepatic lipid accumulation, biological indexes and various pathways including lipid metabolism, ER stress and inflammation. In addition, the effects of ezetimibe and simvastatin on HFC diet-induced steatosis were evaluated. Zebrafish larvae fed with HF and HFC diets developed steatosis for 7 and 10 days. The incidence and degree of steatosis were more severe in HFC diet-fed larvae compared with the control and HF diet-fed larvae, suggesting that adding cholesterol to the HF diet promotes the hepatic
Won M, Ro H, Dawid IB. Lnx2 ubiquitin ligase is essential for exocrine cell differentiation in the early zebrafish pancreas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Sep
Purpose: Emran et al (2010) reported that the amplitudes of the electroretinograms (ERGs) recorded from isolated eyes of larval zebrafish were normal throughout the day, but were almost absent after several hours of darkness at night. The purpose of our study was to confirm this circadian rhythm of the ERGs in living zebrafish.. Methods: Initially, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were kept in a 14:10 light:dark cycle (room fluorescent light, 9:00 to 23 hours). ERGs were elicited by stimulus intensities of 790 mW/m2 and durations of 1000 msec. The ERGs were recorded with an Ag/AgCl wire electrode that was inserted into a glass micropipette filled with E3 medium. A glasspipette electrode was positioned in the center of the cornea and a reference electrode was an Ag/AgCl pellet that placed beneath the larvae body. The zebrafish was anesthetized by 3-aminobenzoic acid methylester and placed on its side on a moisture sponge with one eye facing toward a light. We recorded ERGs of larval (5 days ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dna hypomethylation induces a dna replication-associated cell cycle arrest to block hepatic outgrowth in uhrf1 mutant zebrafish embryos. AU - Jacob, Vinitha. AU - Chernyavskaya, Yelena. AU - Chen, Xintong. AU - Tan, Poh Seng. AU - Kent, Brandon. AU - Hoshida, Yujin. AU - Sadler, Kirsten C.. PY - 2015/2/1. Y1 - 2015/2/1. N2 - UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like, containing PHD and RING finger domains, 1) recruits DNMT1 to hemimethylated DNA during replication and is essential for maintaining DNA methylation. uhrf1 mutant zebrafish have global DNA hypomethylation and display embryonic defects, includinga small liver, and theydie as larvae. Wemake the surprising finding that, despite their reduced organ size, uhrf1 mutants express high levels of genes controlling S-phase and have many more cells undergoing DNA replication, as measured by BrdU incorporation. In contrast to wild-type hepatocytes, which are continually dividing during hepatic outgrowth and thus dilute the BrdU label, uhrf1 mutant ...
We provide the first analysis of how a segmentally reiterated pattern of neurons is specified along the anteroposterior axis of the vertebrate spinal cord by investigating how zebrafish primary motoneurons are patterned. Two identified primary motoneuron subtypes, MiP and CaP, occupy distinct locations within the ventral neural tube relative to overlying somites, express different genes and innervate different muscle territories. In all vertebrates examined so far, paraxial mesoderm-derived signals specify distinct motoneuron subpopulations in specific anteroposterior regions of the spinal cord. We show that signals from paraxial mesoderm also control the much finer-grained segmental patterning of zebrafish primary motoneurons. We examined primary motoneuron specification in several zebrafish mutants that have distinct effects on paraxial mesoderm development. Our findings suggest that in the absence of signals from paraxial mesoderm, primary motoneurons have a hybrid identity with respect to ...
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a well-recognized model for the study of vertebrate developmental genetics, yet at the same time little is known about the transcriptional events that underlie zebrafish embryogenesis. Here we have employed microarray analysis to study the temporal activity of developmentally regulated genes during zebrafish embryogenesis. Transcriptome analysis at 12 different embryonic time points covering five different developmental stages (maternal, blastula, gastrula, segmentation, and pharyngula) revealed a highly dynamic transcriptional profile. Hierarchical clustering, stage-specific clustering, and algorithms to detect onset and peak of gene expression revealed clearly demarcated transcript clusters with maximum gene activity at distinct developmental stages as well as co-regulated expression of gene groups involved in dedicated functions such as organogenesis. Our study also revealed a previously unidentified cohort of genes that are transcribed prior to the mid-blastula transition,
Purpose: Ca2+ regulates a variety of cellular processes including signal transduction, energy production, and mitochondrial function. Because photoreceptors (PRs) use significant quantities of energy, consuming more ATP/minute per gram tissue than even the brain, our goal is to understand how PRs respond to external fluctuations of Ca2+, and how intracellular Ca2+ dynamics influence energy metabolism. We have previously shown that larval zebrafish PRs display heterogeneous Ca2+ transients. In this study we investigate Ca2+ dynamics in adult zebrafish PRs.. Methods: Adult zebrafish retinas expressing the genetically encoded fluorescent Ca2+ sensor GCaMP in cone PRs were dissected, flat-mounted, and sliced into 400-µm sections. Retinas were stained with propidium iodide or BODIPY and slices were imaged in a temperature-controlled chamber. Retinas were perfused with 0 mM or 3 mM Ca2+ Ringers solution with and without 10 mM isridipine. GCaMP fluorescence was monitored by confocal ...
The genomic organization of the mammalian Pcdh and Ugt1 gene clusters is strikingly similar in that both contain a tandem array of highly similar variable exons followed by a common set of downstream constant exons (Zhang et al., 2004). In contrast to the cell-specific expression of Pcdh genes in the brain, members of the mouse Ugt1 cluster display tissue-specific expression patterns in a wide variety of tissues, especially in the digestive and respiratory systems (Zhang et al., 2004). In addition, the variable and constant genomic organizations of both the Pcdh and Ugt1 clusters are conserved in zebrafish (Wu, 2005; Li and Wu, 2007). The zebrafish has become an important vertebrate model organism for developmental biology, physiology, and pathology studies (Howe et al., 2013). Recently, there has been great interest in developing the zebrafish as a vertebrate model organism for drug discovery as well as for environmental toxicology (Hill et al., 2005; Peterson and Macrae, 2012). The full ...
We recently identified Rbm24 as a novel gene expressed during mouse cardiac development. Due to its tightly restricted and persistent expression from formation of the cardiac crescent onwards and later in forming vasculature we posited it to be a key player in cardiogenesis with additional roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. To determine the role of this gene in cardiac development, we have identified its zebrafish orthologs (rbm24a and rbm24b), and functionally evaluated them during zebrafish embryogenesis. Consistent with our underlying hypothesis, reduction in expression of either ortholog through injection of morpholino antisense oligonucleotides results in cardiogenic defects including cardiac looping and reduced circulation, leading to increasing pericardial edema over time. Additionally, morphant embryos for either ortholog display incompletely overlapping defects in the forming vasculature of the dorsal aorta (DA), posterior caudal vein (PCV) and caudal vein (CV) which are the first blood
In the past decade, the zebrafish, Danio rerio, has risen to much greater prominence as a vertebrate model system for drug discovery and toxicity testing. Zebrafish larvae represent an in vivo vertebrate model, with high throughput potential and proven efficacy as a model of human disease and drug responses. Specifically, zebrafish have been used for cardiotoxicity studies and cardiac arrhythmia modelling.. This project aims to develop and optimise tools for electrocardiographic recording in zebrafish larvae for use in cardiotoxicity screening and human arrhythmia modelling. Steps were taken towards a high throughput ECG system for zebrafish larvae through establishing viability of non-contact capillary electrode recording and development of microfabricated electrode arrays capable of replacing glass capillary electrodes. In depth analysis of atrium and ventricle signals using wavelet analysis was performed and the frequency profiles for these chambers examined. The utility of the larval ECG ...
The genetic pathways underlying the induction and anterior-posterior patterning of the heart are poorly understood. The recent emergence of the zebrafish model system now allows a classical genetic approach to such challenging problems in vertebrate development. Two large-scale screens for mutations affecting zebrafish embryonic development have recently been completed; among the hundreds of mutations identified were several that affect specific aspects of cardiac morphogenesis, differentiation, and function. However, very few mutations affecting induction and/or anterior-posterior patterning of the heart were identified. We hypothesize that a directed approach utilizing molecular markers to examine these particular steps of heart development will uncover additional such mutations. To test this hypothesis, we are conducting two parallel screens for mutations that affect either the induction or the anterior-posterior patterning of the zebrafish heart. As an indicator of cardiac induction, we ...
Had gathered much info from this site, so thought I should contribute my experience. Im new to breeding Danios, all by accident really. Within a month of setting up my 5ft tank, I had very busy zebra danios chasing each other. A few days later I did a gravel vacuum, and emptied the water into the bath, letting it go down the drain. On the 4th bucket I decided to put the plug in, and discovered babies in the bucket. (Who knows how many I sent down the drain...)We moved them to the main tank, in a floating fry tank covered with an ankle stocking around it for finer holes. Left this to float on the top. Discovered that the water surface doesnt get agitated enough in these and babies died off. When I let fresh water in the top daily, the fish were much happier. Did another gravel vac 2 weeks later, and found more fry, so suspected theyd had another batch. My Leopard Danio girl got very plump, so I moved her and her mate into a small tank for spawning one night, and the next morning she was very ...
Basic research in pattern formation is concerned with the generation of phenotypes and tissues. It can therefore lead to new tools for medical research. These include phenotypic screening assays, applications in tissue engineering, as well as general advances in biomedical knowledge. Our aim here is to discuss this emerging field with special reference to tools based on zebrafish developmental biology. We describe phenotypic screening assays being developed in our own and other labs. Our assays involve: (i) systemic or local administration of a test compound or drug to zebrafish in vivo; (ii) the subsequent detection or readout of a defined phenotypic change. A positive readout may result from binding of the test compound to a molecular target involved in a developmental pathway. We present preliminary data on assays for compounds that modulate skeletal patterning, bone turnover, immune responses, inflammation and early-life stress. The assays use live zebrafish embryos and larvae as well as adult
a. SOX10/MyoD in situ experiments on zebrafish colec11 and masp1 morphants showing an abnormal distribution of the CNCC in the hindbrain of 10 somite-stage embr
The easy-to-use in vivo model, zebrafish larva, is being increasingly used to screen chemical-induced hepatotoxicity, with a good predictivity for various mechanisms of liver injury. However, nothing is known about its applicability in exploring the mechanism called membrane remodeling, depicted as changes in membrane fluidity or lipid raft properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to substantiate the zebrafish larva as a suitable in vivo model in this context. Ethanol was chosen as a prototype toxicant because it is largely described, both in hepatocyte cultures and in rodents, as capable of inducing a membrane remodeling leading to hepatocyte death and liver injury. The zebrafish larva model was demonstrated to be fully relevant as membrane remodeling was maintained even after a 1-week exposure without any adaptation as usually reported in rodents and hepatocyte cultures. It was also proven to exhibit a high sensitivity as it discriminated various levels of cytotoxicity depending on the extent
Autoimmunity exhibits a female bias which is consistent across many disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), and rheumatoid arthritis. However, much of the interplay between environment, sex and autoimmunity is not understood. FoxP3 is the primary transcription factor controlling the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs) which help control the immune system through suppressive effects. This study aims to evaluate how an increase in dietary sodium affects the expression of zFoxP3. Additionally, this study examines if zFoxP3is differentially expressed between males and females. Zebrafish were separated into test and control groups with each group having equal numbers of male and female fish. Following an acclimation period, the diet of the test fish was modified to include a ten-times increase in sodium concentration. Three male and three female zebrafish from each group were sampled at 1, 2, and 4 weeks following the introduction of the increased sodium ...
Autoimmunity exhibits a female bias which is consistent across many disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), and rheumatoid arthritis. However, much of the interplay between environment, sex and autoimmunity is not understood. FoxP3 is the primary transcription factor controlling the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs) which help control the immune system through suppressive effects. This study aims to evaluate how an increase in dietary sodium affects the expression of zFoxP3. Additionally, this study examines if zFoxP3is differentially expressed between males and females. Zebrafish were separated into test and control groups with each group having equal numbers of male and female fish. Following an acclimation period, the diet of the test fish was modified to include a ten-times increase in sodium concentration. Three male and three female zebrafish from each group were sampled at 1, 2, and 4 weeks following the introduction of the increased sodium ...
Zebrafish neurogenesis (nerve-cell creation): Left: zebrafish brain showing microglia cells. Center: lesion (damage) results in microglia activation and
While such recovery from biological limbo seemingly defies scientific or medical explanation, researchers at Seattles Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have developed a method to induce a similar state of so-called suspended animation in the zebrafish, a relatively new model of vertebrate developmental biology.
The underlying processes of nociception and pain are, despite the rodent models available, still not fully understood. One of the drawbacks of rodent model systems is the difficulty to screen compound libraries for their influence on nociception, thus slowing down the discovery of novel analgesics for clinical use.. Rodent behavioural tasks have been previously adapted for larval zebrafish in our group and in the current manuscript we investigated the possibilities of zebrafish larvae as an additional model system to study nociception and pain and their underlying mechanisms.. Zebrafish larvae were exposed to different concentrations of diluted acetic acid, a chemical noxious stimulus, and we measured nociceptive-specific behaviours. Cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2), a gene known to be involved in nociception, was used as a marker for the activation of nociceptive pathways. Upon exposure to diluted acetic acid, five-day old larval zebrafish showed a concentration dependent increase in locomotor ...
Genomes and Genes, Publications, Species, Locale, Scientific Experts, Research Topics about Experts and Doctors on zebrafish in Iowa City, Iowa, United States
My lab uses zebrafish as a model to study myelination in the development central nervous system. The small size, optical transparency, relative simplicity, and rapid development of zebrafish embryos are properties that allow direct observation of entire developmental (or repair) events as they occur in live animals. We have developed a non-invasive transgenic method to induce demyelination in zebrafish and have also generated a suite of tools to visualise myelin and myelinated axons at high-resolution in live zebrafish, which allows us to observe cellular, sub-cellular and molecular behaviours during myelination, demyelination, and remyelination as they occur in a living animal. Zebrafish are well established as a powerful system with which to identify new genes required for biological events. In a genetic screen carried out at Stanford University I identified new roles for genes with known involvement in myelination, established zebrafish models of human disease, and identified new genes ...
Purchase Zebrafish at the Interface of Development and Disease Research, Volume 124 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128033081, 9780128033432
The zebrafish model organism database (ZFIN) provides a Web resource of zebrafish genomic, genetic, developmental, and phenotypic data
Insects represent a valuable and sustainable alternative ingredient for aquafeed formulation. However, insect-based diets have often highlighted controversial results in different fish species, especially when high inclusion levels were used. Several studies have demonstrated that nutritional programming through parental feeding may allow the production of fish better adapted to use sub-optimal aquafeed ingredients. To date, this approach has never been explored on insect-based diets. In the present study, five experimental diets characterized by increasing fish meal substitution levels with full-fat Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens; BSF) prepupae meal (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) were used to investigate the effects of programming via broodstock nutrition on F1 zebrafish larvae development. The responses of offspring were assayed through biometric, gas chromatographic, histological, and molecular analyses. The results evidenced that the same BSF-based diets provided to adults were able to ...
The zebrafish, Danio rerio, has become a popular vertebrate model for the study of infections, mainly because of its excellent optical accessibility at the
Due to the important biological role of red blood cells (RBCs) in vertebrates, the analysis of reshaping and dynamics of RBCs motion is a critical issue in physiology and biomechanics. In this paper the behavior of RBCs within the immature capillary plexus during embryonic development of zebrafish has been analyzed. Relying on the fact that zebrafish embryos are small and optically transparent, it is possible to image the blood flow.. In this way the anatomy of blood vessels is monitored along with the circulation throughout their development. Numerical simulations were performed using a specific numerical model that combines fluid flow simulation, modeling of interaction of individual red blood cells immersed in blood plasma with the surrounding fluid and modeling the deformation of individual cells. The results of numerical simulations are in accordance with the in vivo observed region of interest within the caudal vein plexus of the zebrafish embryo. Good agreement of results demonstrates the
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We investigated the effects of short-term exposure of bare TiO2NPs and polyelectrolyte-coated TiO2NPs in the 5-25 nm size range, at relatively high concentrations (of 500 and 1000 mg/L) under light or dark conditions, in D. rerio embryos. The biological endpoints investigated included embryo viability and mRNA transcript levels of antioxidant and membrane transport genes relative to control embryos. The presence of nanoparticles on the surface of embryos was assessed using TEM. The results confirm an accumulation of TiO2NPs on the outer surface (chorion) of the embryo, but not within the embryo. No significant difference in embryo viability was detected following each exposure regime. The expression of antioxidant biomarker, SOD2, was significantly impacted by the type of TiO2NP, with TiO2NPs/PSS/PAH coating exposure showing down regulation; the concentration of the nanoparticles, with down regulation at 500 mg/L; and dark/light condition with down regulation in the light. The expression levels ...
Collective migration of cells in the zebrafish Posterior Lateral Line primordium (PLLp) along a path defined by Cxcl12a expression depends on Cxcr4b receptors in leading cells and on Cxcr7b in trailing cells. Cxcr7b-mediated degradation of Cxcl12a by trailing cells generates a local gradient of Cxcl12a that guides PLLp migration. Agent-based computer models were built to explore how a polarized response to Cxcl12a, mediated by Cxcr4b in leading cells and prevented by Cxcr7b in trailing cells, determines unidirectional migration of the PLLp. These chemokine signaling-based models effectively recapitulate many behaviors of the PLLp and provide potential explanations for the characteristic behaviors that emerge when the PLLp is severed by laser to generate leading and trailing fragments. As predicted by our models, the bilateral stretching of the leading fragment is lost when chemokine signaling is blocked in the PLLp. However, movement of the trailing fragment toward the leading cells, which was ...
We investigated the mechanisms of intermediate cell mass (ICM) expansion in zebrafish chordin (Chd) morphant embryos and examined the role of BMPs in relation to this phenotype. At 24 h post-fertilization (hpf), the expanded ICM of embryos injected with chd morpholino (MO) (Chd MO embryos) contained a monotonous population of hematopoietic progenitors. In situ hybridization showed that hematopoietic transcription factors were ubiquitously expressed in the ICM whereas vascular gene expression was confined to the periphery. BMP4 (but not BMP2b or 7) and smad5 mRNA were ectopically expressed in the Chd MO ICM. At 48 hpf, monocytic cells were evident in both the ICM and circulation of Chd MO but not WT embryos. While injection of BMP4 MO had no effect on WT hematopoiesis, co-injecting BMP4 with chd MOs significantly reduced ICM expansion. Microarray studies revealed a number of genes that were differentially expressed in Chd MO and WT embryos and their roles in hematopoiesis has yet to be ...
One of the fundamental problems in developmental biology is understanding how the behaviour of single cells affects global tissue and organ morphogenesis. The development of the zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium (PLLP) provides an excellent system for the study of dynamic single cell behaviours that contribute to higher order tissue organization (Ghysen and Dambly-Chaudière, 2007). The lateral line is a sensory system found in fish and amphibians that is dedicated to the detection of water movements. These movements are registered by specialized sense organs, the neuromasts, which consist of a central mechanosensory hair cell bundle and surrounding support cells. The lateral line system itself can be divided into two parts: an anterior one, which comprises the neuromasts of the head; and a posterior one, which comprises the neuromasts of the body and tail. Most of the research in the field has focused on the development of the posterior lateral line (PLL), owing to its stereotypy and ...
Despite the well-characterized occurrence of uranium (U) in the aquatic environment, very little is known about the chronic exposure of fish to low levels of U and its potential effect on reproduction. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of environmental concentrations of depleted U on the reproductive output of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and on survival and development of the F1 embryo-larvae following parental exposure to U. For that purpose, sexually mature male and female zebrafish were exposed to 20 and 250 µg/L of U for 14 days and allowed to reproduce in clean water during a further 14-day period. At all sampling times, whole-body vitellogenin concentrations and gonad histology were analyzed to investigate the effects of U exposure on these reproductive endpoints. In addition, accumulation of U in the gonads and its genotoxic effect on male and female gonad cells were quantified. The results showed that U strongly affected the capability of fish to reproduce and to
Currently, there is no other whole-animal reporter for epigenetic regulation established in any vertebrate. The inventors generated this novel zebrafish line using a transgene construct containing dazl gene silencing sequences (CpG island) fused to a destabilized GFPd2 gene driven by the ubiquitously expressing ef1alpha promoter. The resulting transgenic line permits detailed tissue- or cellular- level visualization of dynamic changes in GFPd2 expression in response to changes in DNA methylation or downstream epigenetic regulation in developing or adult animals. GFPd2 is off in the fertilized egg but turns on during early development, peaking at approximately 24 hours post-fertilization, and is then rapidly and ubiquitously silenced. The reporter is off in adults, except in particular stages of germline development in the gonads. Experimental treatments or genetic mutants that interfere with epigenetic silencing result in global or tissue-specific reactivation of GFPd2 expression. The ...
Crude oil spills have caused substantial impacts to aquatic ecosystems. Chemical dispersants are used to palliate the impact of oil spillages, but their use is polemic due to their additional potential toxic effect when mixed with oil-derived components. In this work, we used a 16S-based metagenomic approach to analyze the changes of the gut microbiota of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of a light crude oil (35° API gravity), and the chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF), prepared with Nokomis 3-F4® dispersant. After 96 h of exposure, WAF induced an increase in the alpha and beta diversity, altering the relative abundance of Vibrio, Flavobacterium, and Novosphingobium. In contrast, CEWAF only caused an increase in the beta diversity, and an enrichment of the genus Pseudomona. Both treatments diminished the abundances of Aeromonas, Cetobacterium, Coxiella, Dinghuibacter, and Paucibacter. Moreover, the co-occurrence network among genera was more complex ...
Article Exposure to a PBDE/OH‐BDE mixture alters juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) development. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their metabolites (e.g. hydroxylated BDEs (OH‐BDEs)) are contaminants detected together frequently in human tiss...
It has been widely supported that individual animals express different strategies to cope with environmental challenge. In ectothermic species such as fish, individuals must use behavioral thermoregulation mechanisms to optimize physiological performance. In the present study, thermal preference was tested in groups of wild-type zebrafish, Danio rerio, screened for proactive and reactive animal personalities. Three replicate groups of proactive, reactive, and naive randomly sampled non-screened controls were used for the experiments. The frequency distribution of the animals was recorded in a custom-built multichamber tank under both constant temperature (temperature restricted conditions: TR) and a continuous thermal gradient profile (temperature choice: TCh ranging from 21°C to 35°C). Proactive and reactive animal personalities expressed significantly different thermal preferences and general activity within the temperature gradient. Our results show that proactive fish, generally ...
Effects of 3,4-dichloroaniline and diazinon on different biological organisation levels of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and ...
Effects of the Protein Kinase Inhibitor PKC412 on Gene Expression and Link to Physiological Effects in Zebrafish Danio rerio Eleuthero- ...
This dissertation describes research to elucidate the early steps in the process of synapse formation in the zebrafish spinal cord. One question is how presynaptic proteins are trafficked and recruited to nascent synapses. Previous work has suggested two possible models of presynaptic transport, either (1) most presynaptic proteins are transported together or (2) two types of transport packets, synaptic vesicle (SV) protein transport vesicles (STVs) and Piccolo-containing active zone precursor transport vesicles (PTVs), transport the necessary components separately. We tested these models using in vivo imaging in zebrafish spinal cord and found that the recruitment of at least three distinct transport packets during presynaptic assembly of a glutamatergic synapse occurs in an ordered sequence. First, STVs are stabilized at future synaptic sites, then PTVs, followed by a third transport packet type carrying Synapsin, a cytosolic protein that can tether SVs to actin. These results identify an ...
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The zebrafish posterior lateral line (pLL) is a sensory system that comprises clusters of mechanosensory organs called neuromasts (NMs) that are stereotypically positioned along the top of trunk. occasions that are controlled from the Wnt pathway arent known. We determined a mutant stress mutants absence posterior NMs and live imaging reveals that rosette renewal fails during later on phases of migration. Remarkably NVP-ADW742 the entire primordium patterning as assayed from the expression of varied markers shows up unaltered in mutants. Lineage tracing and mosaic analyses exposed how the leading cells (presumptive progenitors) re-locate from the primordium and so are integrated into NMs; this total leads to a reduction in the amount of proliferating progenitor cells and eventual primordium disorganization. We figured Lef1 function is not needed for preliminary primordium corporation or migration but is essential for proto-NM renewal during later on phases of pLL development. These findings ...
Macquarie University researchers have developed the first zebrafish model of the neurodegenerative Machado-Joseph Disease - and have used this model to test drugs that could potentially be used to treat the disease, which disproportionately affects Indigenous Australians.. Machado-Joseph Disease, or spinocerebellar ataxia-3, is a hereditary disease caused by a gene mutation, which leads to a progressive loss of muscle control and movement. Most people living with MJD are wheelchair bound and need constant support within 15 years of symptoms first emerging.. Researchers gave the zebrafish the human disease-causing gene, creating the first transgenic zebrafish model of MJD, allowing them to compare the movement, pathology and lifespan of fish carrying the healthy version of the human gene to those with the disease-causing version.. Zebrafish are small and transparent, allowing us to see how a disease develops. Being able to use zebrafish to model MJD is a great win for those of us working to ...
Sexually dimorphic breeding tubercles (BTs) are keratinized epidermal structures that form clusters on the dorsal surface of the anterior rays of zebrafish male pectoral fins. BTs appear during sexual maturation and are maintained through regular shedding and renewal of the keratinized surface. Following pectoral fin amputation, BT clusters regenerate after the initiation of revascularization, but concomitantly with a second wave of angiogenesis. This second wave of regeneration forms a web-like blood vessel network that penetrates the supportive epidermis of BTs. Upon analyzing the effects of sex steroids and their inhibitors, we show that androgens induce and estrogens inhibit BT cluster formation in intact and regenerating pectoral fins. Androgen-induced BT formation in females is accompanied by the formation of a male-like blood vessel network. Treatment of females with both androgens and an angiogenesis inhibitor results in the formation of undersized BT clusters when compared with females ...
LPA signaling plays important roles during cell migration and proliferation in normal and pathological conditions. However, its role during sensory organ development remains unknown. Here we show a LPA receptor Lpar2b is expressed in the posterior lateral line primordium (pLLP) and mechanosensory organs called neuromasts (NMs) in zebrafish embryos. Lpar2b loss-of-function significantly reduces the number of NMs and hair cells in the posterior lateral line (pLL). Further analysis reveals that Lpar2b regulates the patterning and organ size of the pLLP. Interestingly, we show that knocking down a Hippo effector Yap1 phenocopies the result of Lpar2b depletion, and Lpar2b regulates the phosphorylation and activity of Yap1 in the pLLP. Importantly, a phosphorylation-resistant Yap1 rescues pLLP organ size and NM number in Lpar2b-depleted embryos. Our results indicate Lpar2b controls the sensory organ size and NM number by regulating Yap1 activity in the lateral line system.
Because Ras signaling is frequently activated by major hepatocellular carcinoma etiological factors, a transgenic zebrafish constitutively expressing the krasV12 oncogene in the liver was previously generated by our laboratory. Although this model depicted and uncovered the conservation between zebrafish and human liver tumorigenesis, the low tumor incidence and early mortality limit its use for further studies of tumor progression and inhibition. Here, we employed a mifepristone-inducible transgenic system to achieve inducible krasV12 expression in the liver. The system consisted of two transgenic lines: the liver-driver line had a liver-specific fabp10 promoter to produce the LexPR chimeric transactivator, and the Ras-effector line contained a LexA-binding site to control EGFP-krasV12 expression. In double-transgenic zebrafish (driver-effector) embryos and adults, we demonstrated mifepristone-inducible EGFP-krasV12 expression in the liver. Robust and homogeneous liver tumors developed in 100% ...
Prenatal propofol exposure induced neurotoxicity in the developing brains and led to persistent learning deficits in the offspring. Our goal was to use zebrafish to explore whether the decline in learning and memory was correlated with inhibition of neuronal growth after propofol exposure. Zebrafish embryos at 6 hours postfertilization (hpf) were exposed to control or 1, 2 or 4 μg/mL propofol until 48 hpf. Spontaneous locomotor activity and swimming behavior in response to dark‐to‐light photoperiod stimulation were studied in zebrafish larvae at 6 days postfertilization (dpf). The adaptability to repeated stimulation was used to indicate learning and memory function of larvae. Transgenic NBT line zebrafish was used to quantitate the effect of propofol on motor neuronal growth of embryos in vivo. Six dpf transgenic zebrafish larvae went through photoperiod stimulation after their neuronal length had been analyzed during the embryonic period. Our data indicate that embryonic exposure to 1, 2 ...
Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) are potential endocrine disrupting compounds that have been detected in the aquatic environment around the world in the low ng/L (nanomolar) range. GCs are used as immunosuppressants in medicine. It is of high interest whether clobetasol propionate (CP), a highly potent GC, suppresses the inflammatory response in fish after exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was used to induce inflammation and thus mimic pathogen infection. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to ≤1000 nM CP from ~1 h post fertilization (hpf) to 96 hpf, and CP uptake, survival after LPS challenge, and expression of inflammation-related genes were examined. Our initial experiments were carried out using 0.001% DMSO as a solvent vehicle, but we observed that DMSO interfered with the LPS challenge assay, and thus masked the effects of CP. Therefore, DMSO was not used in the subsequent experiments. The internal CP concentration was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intrinsic expression of a multiexon type 3 deiodinase gene controls zebrafish embryo size. AU - Guo, Cuicui. AU - Chen, Xia. AU - Song, Huaidong. AU - Maynard, Michelle A.. AU - Zhou, Yi. AU - Lobanov, Alexei V.. AU - Gladyshev, Vadim N.. AU - Ganis, Jared J.. AU - Wiley, David. AU - Jugo, Rebecca H.. AU - Lee, Nicholas Y.. AU - Castroneves, Luciana A.. AU - Zon, Leonard I.. AU - Scanlan, Thomas S.. AU - Feldman, Henry A.. AU - Huang, Stephen A.. PY - 2014/10/1. Y1 - 2014/10/1. N2 - Thyroid hormone is a master regulator of differentiation and growth, and its action is terminated by the enzymatic removal of an inner-ring iodine catalyzed by the selenoenzyme type 3 deiodinase (dio3). Our studies of the zebrafish reveal that the dio3 gene is duplicated in this species and that embryonic deiodination is an important determinant of embryo size. Although both dio3 paralogs encode enzymatically active proteins with high affinity for thyroid hormones, their anatomic patterns of ...
Most human birth defects are highly variable. Our ability to diagnose, treat and prevent defects relies on our understanding of this variability. Mutation of the transcription factor GATA3 in humans causes the highly variable Hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural Deafness and Renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome. Although named for a triad of defects patients with HDR can also exhibit craniofacial defects. Through a forward genetic screen for craniofacial mutants, we isolated a zebrafish mutant in which the first cysteine of the second zinc finger of Gata3 is mutated. Because mutation of the homolgous cysteine causes HDR in humans, these zebrafish mutants will be a rapid and effective animal model for understanding the role of gata3 in the HDR disease spectrum. We demonstrate that, unexpectedly, the chaperone proteins Ahsa1 and Hsp90 promote severe craniofacial phenotypes in our zebrafish model of HDR Syndrome. The strengths of the zebrafish system, including rapid development, genetic tractability and ...
Specifically, qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression in living zebrafish embryos was applied to detect and characterize the effects of: (1) EDCs that act via ERs to induce brain P450 aromatase (P450aromB) and hepatic vitellogenin (vtg) expression; (2) EDCs that act via AhRs to reduce gonadal aromatase (P450aromA) and increase hepatic P4501A1 expression; (3) EDCs that interact directly with preformed aromatase enzymes to block aromatization; and (4) EDCs that perturb ER and AhR expression.. Primer Design and Optimization of qRT-PCR Conditions. P450aromB and -A. Assay development and validation in embryonic, larval, and adult male and female zebrafish has been completed (Sawyer and Callard, in preparation, 2004). Results show that the assay is sensitive and precise (linear between 1 x 10-6 and 1.0 ng mRNA). Reproducibility is excellent within and across operators when tested in multiple experiments and at multiple starting points within a single experiment (e.g., RNA extraction, RT, PCR)(intra- and ...
Despite detailed in vivo knowledge of glycolytic enolases and many bacterial non-enolase members of the superfamily, little is known about the in vivo function of vertebrate non-enolase enolase superfamily members (ENOSF1s). Results of previous studies suggest involvement of the β splice form of ENOSF1 in breast and colon cancers. This study used the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a vertebrate model of ENOSF1β function. Whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) showed that zebrafish ENOSF1β (enosf1b) is zygotic and expressed ubiquitously through the first 24 hours post fertilization (hpf). After 24 hpf, enosf1b expression is restricted to the notochord. Embryos injected with enosf1b-EGFP mRNA grew slower than EGFP mRNA-injected embryos but caught up to the EGFP-injected embryos by 48 hpf. Embryos injected with ATG or exon 10 enosf1b mRNA-targeting morpholinos had kinked notochords, shortened anterior-posterior axes, and circulatory edema. WISH for ntl or pax2a expression showed that embryos injected with
Using a 3D deformable cell-based simulation, coupled to reaction-diffusion PDEs for chemical concentrations, we model and simulate the polarization, migration, and neuromast deposition in the zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium (PLLP). This primordium migrates from head to tail of the fish embryo, and deposits sensory neuromasts at regular intervals in its wake. The model combines realistic cell-cell adhesion, chemotaxis and interaction forces to describe the emergence of tissue polarity, as well as the cell-cluster shape and speed of collective cell migration. We base the chemical signalling model on receptor-ligand kinetics and mutually inhibitory FGF-Wnt signalling. Our signalling submodel allows predictions to be made for the position of the front-rear boundary in the PLLP, as a function of aggregate parameters such as steady-state receptor expression levels and IC50 parameters for the mutually-inhibitory effect. Our 3D model allows an investigation of the role of cell division, ...
5G Networks Health Impact Is Predominately Benign: New Analysis From Oregon State On Zebrafish Finds That 5G Likely Not Harmful, read now.
J Vis Exp. 2012 Dec 16;(70). pii: 4243. doi: 10.3791/4243. Chang JT, Sive H. Source Department of Biology, Whitehead Institute of Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Abstract Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a protein rich fluid contained within the brain ventricles. It is present during early vertebrate embryonic development and persists throughout life. Adult CSF is thought to cushion the brain, remove waste, and carry secreted molecules(1,2). In the adult and older embryo, the majority of CSF is made by the choroid plexus, a series of highly vascularized secretory regions located adjacent to the brain ventricles(3-5). In zebrafish, the choroid plexus is fully formed at 144 hours post fertilization (hpf)(6). Prior to this, in both zebrafish and other vertebrate embryos including mouse, a significant amount of embryonic CSF (eCSF) is present . These data and studies in chick suggest that the neuroepithelium is secretory early in development and may be the major source of ...
Modeling signaling and migration of the Posterior Lateral Line primordium with agent based models Formation of the Posterior Lateral Line (PLL) is spearheaded b...
etv5a expression was analyzed by whole-mount in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR of zebrafish embryos at developmental stages ranging from one-cell stage to 48 hours post fertilization (hpf). A strong and ubiquitous signal was detected from one-cell to the oblong stage, which indicated that etv5a was expressed as a maternal mRNA (Fig. 1A-C). Ubiquitous expression was observed throughout the whole embryo before gastrulation (Fig. 1D,E). During early gastrulation (75% epiboly), expression localized to the ventral mesoderm (arrowhead in Fig. 1F,G). At later stages, etv5a expression became confined to the lateral mesoderm as demonstrated by the presence of two longitudinal stripes at the six-somite stage (Fig. 1H-J). A previous study showed that cells present in this region are multipotent progenitors that give rise to hematopoietic, endothelial and pronephric derivatives (Gering et al., 1998). etv5a expression was maintained in the posterior lateral mesoderm (Fig. 1K-N) during ...
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The use of nicotine, a known anxiolytic with addictive properties, is prevalent; however, the effects on the brain are not fully elucidated. Previous studies investigating the effects of nicotine on the brain have been limited to developmental models. In this two-part study, we investigated the effect of nicotine on protein kinase B (AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in the brain of adult zebrafish. AKT plays a role in neuronal growth, plasticity, and metabolism. AKT is activated via phosphorylation on Ser473 or Thr308 by growth factors and increased neuronal activity. AKT regulates constitutively active GSK-3β via phosphorylation on Ser9. This is important in neurophysiology, because unregulated GSK-3β is associated with cell death, dysregulated metabolic function, and neuro-inflammation. Two protocols were used for measuring the effect of nicotine on the adult zebrafish brain: an in-vivo (immersion) treatment, and an ex-vivo treatment. The protocol for immersion experiment included
2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME), an endogenous metabolite of 17β-estradiol, has been previously reported to possess antiangiogenic and antitumor properties. Herein, we demonstrate that the effects of this antiangiogenic steroid can be readily assayed in live zebrafish, introducing a convenient and robust new model system as a screening tool for both single cell and collective cell migration assays. Using the in vitro mammalian endothelial cell line EA.hy926, we first show that cell migration and angiogenesis, as estimated by wound assay and tube formation respectively, are antagonized by 2ME. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, dose-dependent exposure to 2ME diminishes (1) larval angiogenesis, (2) leukocyte recruitment to damaged lateral line neuromasts and (3) retards the lateral line primordium in its migration along the body. Our results indicate that 2ME has an effect on collective cell migration in vivo as well as previously reported anti-tumorigenic activity and suggests that the molecular mechanisms
Interest in using zebrafish is on the rise for several reasons. Zebrafish are small and inexpensive to maintain, and they produce hundreds of offspring in every mating, easily accumulating statistically significant numbers of animals. Whats more, zebrafish embryos are transparent and develop outside the uterus, making it easy to monitor developing fish. In fact, zebrafish embryos are tiny enough to be raised in microplate wells for high-throughput whole-animal assays. Many test compounds can diffuse into zebrafish embryos, simplifying drug administration. Researchers can also readily identify zebrafish with gene mutations. Lastly, as vertebrates, zebrafish and other fish have most of the same organs and organ systems that mammals do, making them more relevant in whole-animal assays than fruit flies or roundworms, which have also been used in early drug discovery screening.. ...
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Wild-type zebrafish (Danio rerio) are characterized by black and yellow stripes, which form on their body and fins due to the self-organization of thousands of pigment cells. Mutant zebrafish and sibling… ...
Avoiding temperatures outside the physiological range is critical for animal survival, but how temperature dynamics are transformed into behavioral output is largely not understood. Here, we used an infrared laser to challenge freely swimming larval zebrafish with white-noise heat stimuli and built quantitative models relating external sensory information and internal state to behavioral output. These models revealed that larval zebrafish integrate temperature information over a time-window of 400 ms preceding a swimbout and that swimming is suppressed right after the end of a bout. Our results suggest that larval zebrafish compute both an integral and a derivative across heat in time to guide their next movement. Our models put important constraints on the type of computations that occur in the nervous system and reveal principles of how somatosensory temperature information is processed to guide behavioral decisions such as sensitivity to both absolute levels and changes in stimulation ...
Danio rerio (zebrafish) have rapidly gained popularity in the study of vertebrate development and gene function. Zebrafish are an excellent model for performing large-scale genetic and drug screens to be performed coupled with the visualization of downstream perturbations on live, developing organisms. Due to the fact that large numbers of embryos are required to perform these experiments, we investigated ways to efficiently increase zebrafish embryo production while not being overly invasive or using chemicals that might affect the developmental processes. To perform these experiments, we mated wild type (wt) zebrafish while exposing them to the different wavelengths of light. Fish were exposed to 12 h of dark, followed by 4 h with the different colored light treatments. Once this light cycle was over, embryo production was enumerated. Results indicated that exposing zebrafish to the different wavelengths of fluorescent and LED light had little effect on embryo production. Further research may
The bromophenol 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) is widely used as an industrial chemical, formed by degradation of tetrabromobisphenol-A, and it occurs naturally in marine organisms. Concentrations of TBP in fish have been related to intake via feed, but little is known about effects on fish health after oral exposure. In this study, we exposed adult male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) to TBP via feed in nominal concentrations of 33, 330, and 3300 μg/g feed (or control feed) for 6 weeks to assess the effects of TBP on reproductive output, gonad morphology, circulatory vitellogenin levels, and early embryo development. The aim was also to investigate the extent to which TBP was metabolised to 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) in dietary exposed zebrafish, and the amounts of TBP and TBA found in offspring. After 6 weeks of exposure, we found about 3% of the daily dose of TBP in adult fish and the mean concentration of TBA was 25-30% of the TBP concentration. TBP and TBA were detected in offspring with ...
and Characterization of zebrafish von Willebrand factor reveals conservation of domain structure, multimerization, and intracellular storage by J. Zebrafish are ideal model animals for in vivo testing of anti-obesity NPs, and disease models of several types of obesity have been developed. Maintaining the Barrier Function of Blood Vessels. I. Zebrafish are a promising model for obesity research, as lipid metabolism pathways are conserved between mammals and fish [44-46].Zebrafish have the key organs that are important for energy homeostasis and metabolism in mammals, as well as other key functions such as appetite regulation in the brain [], insulin regulation [], endocrine signaling through leptin [], and … The present review provides a brief overview of recent studies on wild‐type and transgenic zebrafish as a model system to monitor toxic heavy metals, endocrine disruptors, and organic pollutants for toxicology. Zebrafish are ideal model animals for in vivo testing of anti-obesity NPs, ...
The epithelium is the outer most layer of cells responsible for mediating the interactions of an organism with its external environment. Squamous cells are scale-like flattened cells that form the most superficial layer of the epithelium. Regulatory errors in these cells can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of skin cancer. Understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is integral for improved diagnostics and therapeutics. IKK1 is a known regulator of several important pathways including regulation of epidermal differentiation and proliferation. Changes in IKK1 expression have been linked to tumor proliferation in squamous cell carcinomas. IKK1 -/- knockout mice have proven critical in understanding the function of IKK1 but are difficult in studies of early epidermal development. The novel zebrafish maternal-effect mutant poky contains a mutation in the zebrafish homolog ikk1. This study focuses on a related protein kinase called Ripk4. The mouse homolog RIP4 is ...
I have been reading a lot about zebrafish research lately and I thought it would be nice to share some of my favorite articles with you.
The present approach of expressing hydrodynamic scaling in terms of regimes is useful for interpreting large-scale ontogenetic change but has the danger of concealing physically important phenomena. For example, it is informative that drag varies directly with speed and not to its second power in juvenile fish. However, it would be inaccurate to predict that larvae and juvenile fish should generate identical flow fields because they both operate in the viscous regime. Inertia is present and dynamically relevant at low Re, and viscosity is required for generating turbulence at high Re. Furthermore, drag coefficients may vary with Re within regimes, although to a lesser degree than observed across regimes (Fig. 5). Hydrodynamic regime categorization provides a useful first-order approximation of dominant hydrodynamic forces but is limited in its ability to predict the flow fields that generate those forces or higher-order effects. Nonetheless, our results provide an empirical basis for verifying ...
Description Liraglutide (LRT) ELISA Kit is an ELISA kit for the quantitative in vitro measurement of liraglutide (LRT) concentrations in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernatants, and other biological fluids. Introduction Liraglutide (NN2211) is a derivative of human incretin (metabolic hormone) glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) that is used as a long-acting glucagon-like […]. ...