Three new 14-membered resorcylic acid lactones, two with a rare natural acetonide group and one with a 5-chloro-substituted lactone, named cochliomycins A-C (1-3), together with four known analogues, zeaenol (4), LL-Z1640-1 (5), LL-Z1640-2 (6), and paecilomycin F (7), were isolated from the culture broth of Cochliobolus lunatus, a fungus obtained from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected in the South China Sea. Their structures and the relative configurations of 1-3 were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods including NOESY spectra and chemical conversions. A transetherification reaction was also observed in which cochliomycin B (2) in a solution of CDCl3 slowly rearranged to give cochliomycin A (1) at room temperature. These resorcylic acid lactones were evaluated against the larval settlement of barnacle Balanus amphitrite, and antifouling activity was detected for the first time for this class of metabolites. The antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of these compounds ...
Resorcylic acid lactones (RALs) are biologically active polyketide natural products with typically a large macrocyclic ring fused to a resorcylic unit.i This thesis outlines novel biomimetic syntheses of such natural products utilizing intramolecular capture of acylketenes for macrolactonization and subsequent transannular aromatization to form resorcylic cores in a one-pot procedure. This strategy is sufficiently concise for analogue synthesis and therefore has potential use for pharmaceutical applications. One of the RAL family, namely (S)-zearalenone (5), was successfully synthesized following our developed strategy. The key acylketene precursor 3 was prepared in eight steps from norbonene 1 via alkene 2 in excellent E/Z selectivity. Thermolysis of 3 provided macrocycle 4 by retro-Diel-Alder fragmentation which in turn underwent ketal deprotection and transannular aromatization to give the natural product 5 in high yields.ii [Molecular structure diagrams appear here. To view, please open pdf ...
Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium plant pathogen species have harmful effects on humans and livestock by natural contamination in food and feed. Zearalenone, one of the well-known Fusarium mycotoxins, causes hyperestrogenism and toxicosis resulting in reproductive dysfunction in animals. This study investigated the occurrence of zearalenone in feedstuffs (compound feeds, feed ingredients) between 2009 and 2016 in South Korea to obtain information on zearalenone contamination in feeds for management. A total of 653 animal feed samples (494 compound feeds, 159 feed ingredients) produced domestically were sampled five times from 2009 to 2016 (2009, 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016) from feed factories in South Korea. The levels of zearalenone were analyzed every year by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after pretreatment with an immunoaffinity column showing limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1-3 μg/kg and 0.3-8 μg/kg, respectively. Four feed samples out of 494 compound
The Influence of Low Doses of Zearalenone on Distribution of Selected Active Substances in Nerve Fibers Within the Circular Muscle Layer of Porcine Ileum. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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article{680923, abstract = {A high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was developed and validated for the detection of zearalenone (ZON), alpha-zearalenon (alpha-ZOL) and beta-zearalenol (beta-ZOL) in in vitro biological samples. Furthermore, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the detection of ZON, alpha-ZOL, beta-ZOL, alpha-zearalanol (alpha-ZAL) and beta-zearalanol (beta-ZAL) in in vitro biological samples. Zearalanone (ZAN) was used as internal standard in both methods. The limit of detection/limit of quantitation (LOD/LOQ) values of ZON, alpha-ZOL and beta-ZOL were 2/7, 2/7 and 4/13 mu g 1(-1), respectively, for the HPLC-FLD method. For the LC-MS/MS method LOD/LOQ values for ZON, alpha-ZOL, beta-ZOL, alpha-ZAL and beta-ZAL were 6/20, 5/17, 4/14, 9/30 and 6/19 mu g 1(-1), respectively. Within-day and between-day precision were less then 11 and 14\%, respectively for the HPLC-FLD ...
The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) causes functional and morphological alterations in reproductive organs of pigs. In the field, diagnosis of ZEN-induced disorders is often challenging, as relevant feed lots are no longer available, or feed analysis results are not conclusive. Here, we report a field case of hyperestrogenism in newborn piglets. Surprisingly, more than 50 fungal metabolites were detected in hay pellets fed to gestating sows, including ZEN and its modified form zearalenone-14-sulfate (ZEN-14-S). Despite the broad contamination range in this unconventional feed component, a definite diagnosis of mycotoxicosis could not be achieved. In this context, current limitations regarding the confirmation of suspected cases of ZEN-induced disorders are discussed, covering both feed analysis and the biomarker approach. A piglet producer with 200 sows experienced a sudden increase in suckling piglet losses up to 30% by lower vitality and crushing. Predominant clinical signs were splay legs and signs of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Occurrence of zearalenone in Korean barley and corn foods. AU - Park, J. W.. AU - Kim, E. K.. AU - Shon, D. H.. AU - Kim, Y. B.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The presence of zearalenone (ZEN) in Korean foods such as barley, barley-based foods, corn, corn-based foods, fruits and vegetables was investigated by direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dcELISA) and the liquid chromatography (LC) method. A total of 164 samples was collected from Seoul, Korea, in 1998 and 1999 including 30 barley, 32 barley-based foods, 18 corn, 47 corn-based foods, 19 dried red pepper, nine dried jujube, and nine dried persimmon. Average recoveries of ZEN from barley and corn by dcELISA were 138 and 145%, and by LC were 91 and 83% respectively at spiking levels of 5-500 ng g-1. The detection limit for ZEN was 3 ng g-1 by dcELISA and 4 ng g-1 by LC. From 164 samples analysed, ZEN was found by dcELISA in 35 samples (21%) with a mean level of 30 ng g-1. Barley-based foods had the highest ...
Veratox for Zearalenone is a competitive direct ELISA that provides a quantitative analysis of zearalenone in such commodities as corn, wheat, barley and DDGs.
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FLOW-THROUGH RAPID TEST KIT FOR ZEARALENONE • Screening of Zearalenone in food and feed • A precise, and highly sensitive assay • Simple sample
RIDASCREEN®FAST Zearalenon [R5502] - Intended use: RIDASCREEN®FAST Zearalenon is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative analysis of zearalenone in cereals and feed. The test was validated with different matrices of cereals and composed feed.General information: The mycotoxin zearalenone is formed by fungi of the genus Fusarium. Zearalenone is a phytohormone which displays, apart
4.2.2 Occurrence The occurrence of zearalenone in foodstuffs has been reviewed by Stoloff (1976). Zearalenone has been encountered as a natural contaminant, particularly in maize, but occasionally in other cereals and in feedstuffs. In a survey of maize in the USA during the period 1968-69, zearalenone was found in 6 out of 576 (1%) samples at levels ranging from 450 to 800 g/kg (Shotwell et al., 1971). In 1972, when conditions in the USA were conducive to Fusarium ear rot, zearalenone was found in 17% of 223 samples of maize at levels ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 mg/kg (Eppley et al., 1974). It has also been detected in maize in France and in barley and mixed feed in England, Finland, and Yugoslavia (Stoloff, 1976). Nine out of 11 commercial corn meal samples in the USA contained zearalenone at levels ranging from 12 to 69 g/kg (Ware & Thorpe, 1977). The compound has been found in one sample of cornflakes (13 g/kg) (Scott et al., 1978), and in maize beer, in Zambia, in the range of 0.01-4.6 mg/litre ...
Zearalenone (ZEN) is an oestrogenic mycotoxin commonly found in food and feed products and can affect reproduction and development in both humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of ZEN on maternal SD rats and the F1 female offspring. Sixty-four pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups and exposed to feed contaminated with ZEN (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg feed) on gestational days (GDs) 0-21. Compared with the controls, the groups exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN showed significantly decreased feed intake and body weight of pregnant rats and/or female offspring. Meanwhile, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly decreased the birth weight and viability of F1 newborn rats. Moreover, 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN diets increased follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations but decreased oestradiol in both maternal and F1 adult rats. In the F1 generation, ZEN caused no pathological changes in ovaries and uterus in weaned rats, but significant follicular atresia and a thinning uterine layer were found in F1
Is zearalenone (ZEA) a problem for pigs? In fact, every mycotoxin can be an issue for animals, but ZEA deserves special attention in swine reproduction. In spite of good preventive measures, it proves to be one of the most serious problems in farrowing units.
Sekiyama, B.L., Ribeiro, A.B., Machinski, P.A. and Machinski Jr., M. (2005) Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin A and Zearalenone in Maize-Based Food Products. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 36, 289-294.
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a well-known exogenous endocrine disruptor and can lead to severe negative effects on the human and animal reproductive process. Using a follicle culture model, we have previously shown that ZEA exposure significantly affected the follicular development and antrum formation but the underlying mechanisms are not well known. Therefore, in this study, we explored the metabolomic changes of granulosa cell (GC) culture media with or without ZEA exposure. The results showed that ZEA significantly increased phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidyl ethanolamine adducts in culture medium. A comprehensive analysis with the metabolome data from follicular fluid of small and large antral follicles showed that lyso phosphatidylcholine (LPC) was accumulated during follicle growth, but was depleted by ZEA exposure. Exogenous supplement with LPC to the follicle growth media or oocyte maturation media can partly protect the defect of ZEA exposure on follicular antrum formation and oocyte maturation.
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The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was asked to deliver a scientific statement on the increase of risk for public health related to a possible temporary derogation from the maximum level (tML) of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FUMO) and zearalenone (ZON) in maize and maize products. EFSA relied on occurrence data reflecting levels of these mycotoxins in the 2013 maize harvest. Depending on the mycotoxin, mean levels estimated considering tMLs were increased by a factor comprised between 7.6 and 27 % in maize and maize milling fractions, and up to 99 % in some processed maize-based products, compared to levels estimated considering current ML. Chronic exposure levels estimated across the population groups - representing different age classes and countries - were increased by a factor up to 17 % for fumonisins, 20 % for deoxynivalenol and 83 % for zearalenone. The tolerable daily intake (TDI) for zearalenone set by EFSA at 0.25 µg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day, and the group provisional ...
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The β-resorcylic acid (1) unit can be found in a number of biologically active natural products including montagnetol (2), hair-growth stimulant pochonin G (3), antioxidant erythrin (4), antifungal agents 15G256b (5) and mycotoxin (S)-zearalenone (6). A conventional total synthesis of 15G256b (5), from β-resorcylic acid units, was fraught with difficulties.1 Consequently, we established a novel biomimetic strategy for the synthesis of natural product 6, by utilising a late stage aromatisation step, starting from polyketide precursor 7. Two main issues needed to be solved: a flexible synthesis to build polyketides and mild conditions to construct the aromatic ring. [Molecular structure diagrams appear here. To view, please open pdf attachment]. Diketo-dioxinone 10 was found to be an equivalent of a polyketide. Its synthesis was accomplished by reaction of deprotonated dioxinone 8 and benzotriazole derivative 9 (obtained from thermolysis of dioxinone 8 2). [Molecular structure diagrams appear ...
Sixteen polyketides belonging to diverse structural classes, including monomeric/dimeric tetrahydroxanthones and resorcylic acid lactones, were isolated from an organic extract of a fungal culture Setophoma terrestris (MSX45109) using bioactivity-directed fractionation as part of a search for anticancer leads from filamentous fungi. Of these, six were new: penicillixanthone B
The natural product aigialomycin D (1) is a member of the resorcylic acid lactone (RAL) family possessing protein kinase inhibitory activities. This paper describes the synthesis of aigialomycin D and a series of its analogues and their activity for the inhibition of protein kinases related to cancer pathways. A preliminary study of these compounds in the inhibition of CDK2/cyclin A kinase has found that aigialomycin D and analogues 11 and 23 are moderate CDK2/cyclin A inhibitors with IC 50 values of ca. 20 μM. Kinase profiling of aigialomycin D against a panel of kinases has led to the identification of MNK2 as a promising target (IC 50 = 0.45 μM), and preliminary structure-activity relationship studies have been carried out to identify the essential functional groups for activity. © 2011 American Chemical Society ...
Mycotoxins is a serious problem threatening human and animal health and detection is the most important steps to get rid of them. The impact of these mycotoxins on seed physiological characteristics as discoloration is important things that are related with seed quality as well as marketing. The fungal isolation was conducted from three cultivars of bean seeds (Giza3, Giza4 and Giza6) after dividing into groups depending on their color. Sixteen fungal species were associated with discolored bean seed samples. The Aflatoxin (AF), Alternariol (AOH) and Zearalenone (ZON) were determined using immunoaffinity columns and GC-MS. Aflatoxin was existed in all colored seeds while, the dark brown colored seeds contaminated with AF, AOH and ZON. The highest concentration was found in dark brown colored seeds followed by golden brown. However, Zearalenone (ZON) was detected only in the dark brown in high concentration (45 μg kg-1 seeds). AOH toxin excreted by both isolates of A. alternata ranged from 1.0 ...
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Gu JX,Li ZY,Lin GQ. Preparation of enantiomerically pure syn-4,5-dihydroxy carboxylic acid lactones by microbial reduction[J]. CHIN. CHEM. LETT.,1991,2(5):345-346 ...
Contamination can occur in any country around the world and at any stage of production. Herein lies the issue of how to prevent mycotoxin pollution, to tackle the issue head on and work towards a mycotoxin free product is the joint responsibility of feed producers, supply chain partners and quality control laboratories ensuring the complete safety of the product.. How can you tell if an animal has ingested pet food contaminated with mycotoxins?. In terms of animal health, mycotoxins can cause a variety of problems. Severity and symptoms can vary from animal to animal but general symptoms include; hyperactivity, vomiting, high temperature and loss of coordination. If you suspect your pet has been affected by mycotoxins you must bring them to the vet for immediate treatment.. The European Union currently regulate all the mycotoxins listed above and are subject to maximum or recommended residue limits. In the US, FDA regulations are limited to aflatoxins, DON and fumonisins, see table below for FDA ...
Can produce trichothecenes (type B); T-2 toxin; zearalenone (F-2 toxin), vomitoxin, deoxynivalenol, and fumonisin. Zearalenone is not acutely toxic, and actually may have positive effects with controlled ingestion.. ...
Division of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Department of Veterinary Health Protection, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland ...
In contrast to cis-ZEN, trans-ZEN shows a clearer boundary between the electrons locations of the C16-hydroxy hydrogen and the C1 carbonyl oxygen as depicted in the electron desities computed with Gaussian indicating keto-enol tautomerism and suggesting resonance-stabilization of both involved oxygens of cis-ZEN. This assumption was confirmed by the estimation of pKa values for both ZEN isomers as well as for two molecules obtained by transferring the C16 hydroxy hydrogens to the respective C1 carbonyl oxygen. With 7.69 and 7.67, the pKa difference between cis-ZEN and its modified form is indeed negligible, whereas the values computed for trans-ZEN and its tautomeric counterpart differ considerably with 7.43 and 7.18, respectively. Hence, the cis-isomer of ZEN has more equally likely tautomeric end states than trans-ZEN which prefers residing in one state only revealing a significantly larger entropy of cis-ZEN, possibly explaining its higher concentration at equilibrium.. Steady state ...
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2012) in varying importance but not investigated in humans so far to the best of our knowledge. However, due to an average urinary excretion rate of 72% ( Turner et al., 2010) it can be derived that excretion via feces is not the main route in humans. Two recent in vitro studies examined the metabolism of DON and its plant metabolite DON-3-Glc by the human fecal microbiota and found that DON can be. released from its glycosylated form ( DallErta et al., 2013 and Gratz et al., 2013). Zearalenone metabolism was studied in various animals, especially Selleck NVP-BGJ398 in pigs as they are particularly sensitive to associated adverse effects such as decreased fertility. Biotransformation takes place in two major pathways: Hydroxylation forms the phase-I-metabolites α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), while conjugation of ZEN GW3965 manufacturer and its reduced forms with glucuronic acid and sulfate leads to the formation of typical phase-II-conjugation products. This was recently ...
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Grešáková, Ľubomíra and Bořutová, Radka and Faix, Štefan and Plachá, Iveta and Čobanová, Klaudia and Košíková, Božena and Leng, Ľubomír (2012) Effect of lignin on oxidative stress in chickens fed a diet contaminated with zearalenone. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 60 (1). pp. 103-114. ISSN 0236-6290 Faixová, Zita and Faix, Štefan and Bořutová, Radka and Leng, Ľubomír (2010) Effects of feeding diets contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on blood biochemical parameters of broiler chickens. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 58 (3). pp. 275-285. ISSN 0236-6290 ...
& Vomitoxin started to be detected at high concentrations in corn, wheat and soya affecting animal production.Fumonisin, Zearalenone & Vomitoxin started to be detected at high concentrations in corn, wheat and soya affecting animal production.
10.10.2019 - Early childhood life in the womb is particularly sensitive to the effects of environmental pollutants. A team from Empa and the University of Vienna has now for the first time been able to show how a pollutant from contaminated food - the environmental estrogen zearalenone - spreads in the womb and is metabolized into harmful metabolites.
An Anniversary Collection volume. Contributors: Raphael Zon, William S. Cooper, Gustaf A. Pearson, Homer L. Shantz, A. E. Douglas, Charles G. Abbot, Paul B. Sears, Ellsworth Huntington, Morris L. Cooke, Samuel T. Dana, Milton S. Eisenhower, Julian F. McGowin.. , View your shopping cart , Browse Penn Press titles in Natural History, History of Science , Join our mailing list. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Felnöttek kórházon kívüli hirtelen halála. T2 - Az újraélesztés aktuális kérdései. AU - Rudas, L.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. KW - Resuscitation. KW - Sudden death. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=82455186116&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=82455186116&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:82455186116. VL - 86. SP - 261. EP - 265. JO - Orvoskepzes. JF - Orvoskepzes. SN - 0030-6037. IS - 2-3. ER - ...
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DJ Romeo from KISS 108 stopped by Childrens recently to take a tour of our zebrafish lab. Take a look at his video featuring Dr. Leonard Zon to learn more about the work being done here.. ...
Aaronson, S A. and Stephenson, J R., "Widespread natural occurrence of high titers of neutralizing anti- bodies to a specific class of endogenous mouse type-c virus." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 1462 ...
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T-2 toxin is one of a family of closely related compounds produced by several Fusarium species. These compounds are derivatives of a ring system referred to as
Zon adopted the zebrafish as a model organism largely because fertilization occurs exogenously, which makes it much easier to study blood development during early growth in the external embryo. "I wanted a period of time when there werent blood cells and a period of time when these arose, so that I could study that process," Zon commented. He argued that the zebrafish is as good as any other vertebrate model, including humans, for studying the fundamental mechanisms of blood development: "I now think all vertebrates are equally complex as far as the blood system is concerned.". Zon conceded that this observation does not apply to complex neuronal function; but that even here, animal models have helped to elucidate many of the pathways underpinning the more complex behavioural functions of higher mammals. Jerry Yin, Professor of Genetics and Psychiatry at the University of Wisconsin‐Madison (Madison, WI, USA), chose to use Drosophila to study the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory ...
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