TY - JOUR. T1 - Laboratory aspects of zirconia restorations. AU - Millen, Christopher. AU - Bhatia, Krishnakant. AU - Ibbetson, Richard. PY - 2012/6. Y1 - 2012/6. N2 - UNLABELLED: Zirconia restorations are now accepted and commonly prescribed in dentistry. However, these materials undergo hydrothermal ageing which can reduce their clinical performance. Appropriate handling is essential to limit the restorations susceptibility to low temperature degradation/ageing. Through appropriate clinical prescribing and laboratory manufacture, an aesthetic, strong and long-lasting restoration can be fabricated.CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This article will inform the reader about zirconia as a dental material as well as how best to handle a zirconia restoration.. AB - UNLABELLED: Zirconia restorations are now accepted and commonly prescribed in dentistry. However, these materials undergo hydrothermal ageing which can reduce their clinical performance. Appropriate handling is essential to limit the restorations ...
The production methods for dental ceramics have improved greatly over the years . Increased proportion of crystalline particles has led to higher resistance to functional loads, but also changed the optical properties of the material . An yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) popularly called "zirconia" has been the most common dental high-strength ceramic for some years. Y-TZP contains only polycrystalline particles in a metastable tetragonal crystal structure, and is the dental ceramic material with the highest fracture strength available today . Dental zirconias are mainly used for crowns, fixed dental prostheses and implant components. The strength of zirconia depends on the density of the polycrystalline particles and quality of the product . The manufacturing process among the zirconia restorations differs with regard to material composition, processing and machining process of the milling blanks . The machining process can be "hard-machining" or "soft-machining". The ...
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Mucosal seal formation around dental abutments is critical to the successful integration of dental implants into the human oral cavity. No information exists for how clinically relevant polishing procedures for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufactured (CAD/CAM) zirconia abutments affects cellular responses important to mucosal seal formation. CAD/CAM zirconia was divided into four groups for clinically relevant polishing utilizing commercial polishing heads: control, coarse, coarse plus medium, and coarse plus medium plus fine. Surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical profilometry (OP). Subsequently, human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were seeded onto the zirconia surfaces. Proliferation was measured via a quantitative SEM technique and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation status was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed an increase in proliferation on all polished surfaces as compared
Yttrium boride refers to a crystalline material composed of different proportions of yttrium and boron, such as YB2, YB4, YB6, YB12, YB25, YB50 and YB66. They are all gray-colored, hard solids having high melting temperatures. The most common form is the yttrium hexaboride YB6. It exhibits superconductivity at relatively high temperature of 8.4 K and, similar to LaB6, is an electron cathode. Another remarkable yttrium boride is YB66. It has a large lattice constant (2.344 nm), high thermal and mechanical stability, and therefore is used as a diffraction grating for low-energy synchrotron radiation (1-2 keV). Yttrium diboride has the same hexagonal crystal structure as aluminium diboride and magnesium diboride - an important superconducting material. Its Pearson symbol is hP3, space group P6/mmm (No 191), a = 0.33041 nm, c = 0.38465 nm and the calculated density is 5.05 g/cm3. In this structure, the boron atoms form graphite like sheets with yttrium atoms between them. YB2 crystals are unstable ...
Ceramic abrasive grits comprising alpha alumina and at least about 0.5 percent by weight yttria are prepared by mixing an aqueous dispersion of alpha alumina monohydrate and yttrium compound, gelling the resultant mixture, drying the gel to produce a dried solid, crushing the dried material to produce grits, calcining the dried grits to substantially remove bound volatile materials, and firing the grits to produce a ceramic material. The yttrium for the most part is in the form of a yttrium aluminum garnet. Abrasive products comprising the abrasive grits are also claimed as is a method of grinding a workpiece with such abrasive products.
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Calcium silicide (CaSi2), also called calcium disilicide, is an inorganic compound, a silicide of calcium. It is a whitish or dark grey to black solid matter with melting point 1033 °C. It is insoluble in water, but may decompose when subjected to moisture, evolving hydrogen and producing calcium hydroxide. Decomposes in hot water. It is flammable and may ignite spontaneously in air. Its CAS number is 12013-56-8. Industrial calcium silicide usually contains iron and aluminium as the primary contaminants, and low amounts of carbon and sulfur. Calcium silicide is used for manufacture of special metal alloys, e.g. for removing phosphorus and as a deoxidizer. In pyrotechnics, it is used as fuel to make special mixtures, e.g. for production of smokes, in flash compositions, and in percussion caps. Specification for pyrotechnic calcium silicide is MIL-C-324C. In some mixtures it may be substituted with ferrosilicon. Silicon-based fuels are used in some time delay mixtures, e.g. for controlling of ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about yttrium at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about yttrium easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuus millions of monthly readers. Title: A Holistic Framework on Information Systems Evaluation with a Case Analysis, Author: Academic Conferences and publishing International, Name: A Holistic Framework on Information Systems Evaluation with a Case Analysis, Length: 8 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2011-04-17
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Abstract Objectives The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the centric and eccentric quasi-static and fatigue fracture strength of industrially prefabricated resin-bonded three-unit inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses (IPIRFDPs). The IPIRFDPs consisted of industrial manufactured yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) frameworks with an industrially added microhybrid composite veneering. Methods Identical IPIRFDP-models consisted of a…
Yttrium oxide, also known as yttria, is Y2O3. It is an air-stable, white solid substance. Yttrium oxide is used as a common starting material for both materials science as well as inorganic compounds Y2O3 is widely used to make Eu:YVO4 and Eu:Y2O3...
Feature of Silicide aluminum powder Item Appearance Si Average size AlSi2 black powder 50-51% 1-10um 99.5% 、60-325mesh 99.5% or custom-made Application of Silicide aluminum powder Used as powder metallurgy raw materials, aluminum silicide at high temperat
Hi all -- I asked Jun to clarify his nickel silicide process as follow up to his request a couple of weeks ago and his original request in July. Attached here is the proposed flow. I spoke with Jim McV and Jun about this. Jun agrees that he will do all the wet cleans in his own decontaminated lab ware at wbgeneral. This should, we hope, address concerns about possible contamination in the wet benches. If Ive understood correctly, this is what Jim McV recommends: Ni dep - SCT -- Jun will have to work with Ed on this. Anneal - AG4108 -- this is OK if metal silicide quartzware is used LTO dep - OK on the metal side Contact etch - OK on the amtetcher Al deposition - OK on the gryphon if pre-dep etch is not used (will have to check with Jun) The remaining issues (which I neglected to ask Jun or Jim): P5000 Al etch -- is this OK? (Presumably, no nickel silicide is exposed?) Plasma O2 clean - where? (Im presuming this is necessary) Al dep - check if Jun needs pre-dep etch How does this sound so far? ...
Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulation on cubic ZrO 2 and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to elucidate defect cluster formation resulting from radiation damage, and evaluate the impact of Y-dopants. Interstitial clusters composed of split-interstitial building blocks, i.e., Zr-Zr or Y-Zr are formed. Moreover, oxygen vacancies control cation defect migration; in their presence, Zr interstitials aggregate to form split-interstitials whereas in their absence Zr interstitials remain immobile, as isolated single-interstitials. Y-doping prevents interstitial cluster formation due to sequestration of oxygen vacancies. ...
Background: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease in which microorganisms play an important role. Recently, herbs have been tried as mouthrinses to combat the side effects of chemical mouthrinses. The anticaries efficacy of Sodium fluoride, Tulsi leaf, and Black myrobalans fruit extracts on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) have been reported in the literature, but no comparative study has been done yet. Aim: This study aims to observe the change in the pH of saliva and to assess the efficacy of the herbal rinses-Tulsi and Black myrobalans on S. mutans count while comparing it with Sodium fluoride mouthrinse. Methods: Herbal ethanolic extracts of Tulsi (4%) and Black myrobalans (2.5%) were prepared as mouthrinses and compared with sodium fluoride mouthrinse (0.05%). Sixty high caries risk patients were selected and allocated randomly into three groups [n = 20], categorized as Group A-Sodium fluoride mouthrinse, Group B-Tulsi mouthrinse, and Group C-Black myrobalans mouthrinse. They were ...
Jayasingh, EM and Tantria, TA and Bhaskaran, TA and Biswas, SK and Ramasesha, Sheela K (2002) Performance of monolithic and TiBlt;subgt;2lt;/subgt; reinforced MoSilt;subgt;2lt;/subgt; in dry sliding contact with steel. Materials Letters, 53 (4-5). pp. 379-383. Tantri, PS and Jayasingh, EM and Biswas, SK and Ramasesha, Sheela K (2002) Role of in situ generated tribofilm on the tribological characteristics of monolith and TiB2 reinforced MoSi2 intermetallic. Materials Science and Engineering A, 336 (1amp;2). pp. 64-71. Mitra, Nibedita and Vijayan, Kalyani and Bai Pramila, BN and Biswas, SK (1995) Phase Transformation Introduced by Mechanical and Chemical Surface Preparations of Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystals. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 76 (2). pp. 533-535. Biswas, SK and Vijayan, Kalyani (1992) Friction and wear of PTFE-a review. Wear, 158. pp. 193-211. Vijayan, Kalyani and Biswas, SK (1991) Wear of polytetrafluoroethylene: some crystallographic observations. Wear, 150. pp. ...
Free Essay: Theoretical Framework on Domestic Violence Theoretical Framework Domestic Violence among Women and Children A Theoretical Framework are theories...
Oxidation of FeCrAl(Re), when exposed to similar to 35 ppm of water as sole supply of oxygen in predominantly nitrogen atmosphere, has two characteristic signatures. One is the internal nitridation owing to chromia nodules acting windows toward nitrogen permeation locally short-circuiting the protective alpha-Al2O3 scale. The second remarkable feature is the growth of thick, apparently defect-rich alumina scale under yttria-rich nodules. Hence, one part of the present study comprises exploratory DFT calculations to discriminate between the impacts of chromia and yttria viz. nitrogen permeation. The second part concerns boundary conditions for apparent rapid growth of alumina under yttria nodules. Yttria-associated surface energy stabilization of defect-rich alumina in presence of water was argued to involve hydrolysis-driven hydroxylation of said interface. Subsequent inward growth of the alumina scale was associated with outward diffusion of oxygen vacancies to be accommodated by the remaining proton
The invented method can be used to form silicide contacts to an integrated MISFET device. Field isolation layers are formed to electrically isolate a portion of the silicon substrate, and gate, source and drain regions are formed therein. A polysilicon runner(s) that makes an electrical connection to the integrated device, is formed on the isolation layers. The structure is subjected to ion implantation to amorphized portions of the silicon gate, source, drain and runner regions. A metal layer is formed in contact with the amorphized regions, and the metal layer overlying the active region of the integrated device is selectively irradiated using a mask. The light melts part of the gate, and amorphized source and drain regions while the remaining portions of the integrated device and substrate remain in their solid phases. Metal diffuses into the melted gate, source and drain regions which are thus converted into respective silicide alloy regions. Preferably, during selective irradiation, a portion of
Plasma spray forming ceramic components on a mandrel provides a way of net shape forming of difficult to machine materials. In addition, the structure of plasma sprayed ceramics contains fine porosity that improves strain accommodation as compared to sintered ceramics. However, plasma spray forming causes complex stress states in materials that may lead to cracking during spraying or during separation from the mandrel. Monitoring surface temperatures by infrared videography and controlling deposit surface temperature by directed cooling can be used to minimize thermal gradients and minimize part cracking. Control of thermal stresses is also necessary for proper separation of the sprayed part from the mandrel. Details of the plasma spray forming of yttrium oxide crucibles show how temperature monitoring, directed cooling, and robot manipulation are used to produce a crack free crucible.. ...
Alfa Aesar™ Yttrium(III) oxide sputtering target, 76.2mm (3.0 in.) dia. x 6.35mm (0.250 in.) thick, 99.99% (metals basis) 1 each Alfa...
To see a rotating video of (almost) any of the samples of Yttrium from The Elements, click it below. Links will open in a new window ...
In this report, the global Yttrium market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at
Swedish chemist Carl Gustaf Mosander discovered terbium in 1843. He detected it as an impurity in yttrium oxide, Y2O3. Yttrium is named after the village of Ytterby in Sweden. Terbium was not isolated in pure form until the advent of ion exchange techniques.[13]. Mosander first separated yttria into three fractions, all named for the ore: yttria, erbia, and terbia. "Terbia" was originally the fraction that contained the pink color, due to the element now known as erbium. "Erbia" (containing what we now call terbium) originally was the fraction that was essentially colorless in solution. The insoluble oxide of this element was noted to be tinged brown. Later workers had difficulty in observing the minor colorless "erbia", but the soluble pink fraction was impossible to miss. Arguments went back and forth as to whether erbia even existed. In the confusion, the original names got reversed, and the exchange of names stuck, so that the pink fraction referred eventually to the solution containing ...
Presented here is a chiral microporous metal-organic framework material with a three-fold interpenetrating diamond-type structural topology and interesting properties for selective separation. The material has a high storage capacity for CO2 gas (4.23 mmol g−1 at 273 K and 1 bar) and shows fantastic temperature-dependent selectivity for CO2 over N2. Moreover, this multifunctional material, which has a rich π system, can selectively adsorb benzene over cyclohexane at low pressure (0.05 bar) at 298 K. ...
The Influence of Silicon and Silicides on the Properties of Near-Alpha Titanium Alloys Neal, D. F.; Fox, S. P.; The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society ...
Magnesium Silicide (Mg2Si) Sputtering Targets. Stanford Materials Corporation (SMC) offers innovative solutions for optimal sputtering results and an efficient coating process.
This report examines international trade and worldwide market trends pertaining to hydrides, nitrides, azides, silicides and borides. The report will
Page contains details about NaYF4:Yb3+,[email protected]@NaYF4:Nd3+ core/shell/shell nanocrystals . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
This 2017 report sets out recommendations for branch mismatch rules that would bring the treatment of these structures into line with the treatment of hybrid mismatch arrangements as set out in the 2015 Report on Neutralising the Effects of Hybrids Mismatch Arrangements (Action 2 Report). Branch mismatches arise where the ordinary rules for allocating income and expenditure between the branch and head office result in a portion of the net income of the taxpayer escaping the charge to taxation in both the branch and residence jurisdiction. Unlike hybrid mismatches, which result from conflicts in the legal treatment of entities or instruments, branch mismatches are the result of differences in the way the branch and head office account for a payment made by or to the branch. The 2017 report identifies five basic types of branch mismatch arrangements that give rise to one of three types of mismatches: deduction / no inclusion (D/NI) outcomes, double deduction (DD) outcomes, and indirect deduction / no
A composite thermal barrier coating for a substrate has a first layer including a first ceramic material and a second layer including a second ceramic material impregnated with a glass, the glass being a ternary eutectic. The glass may consist of about 14.6 weight percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, about 23.3 weight percent CaO, and about 62.1 weight percent SiO.sub.2. The first and second ceramic materials may include yttria-stabilized zirconia.
Interactive 3D chemistry animations of reaction mechanisms and 3D models of chemical structures for students studying University courses and advanced school chemistry hosted by University of Liverpool
Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) Y3Al5O12 bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. Term contracts & credit cards/PayPal accepted.
China Zirconia Grinding Media manufacturers - Select 2017 high quality Zirconia Grinding Media products in best price from certified Chinese Garnet manufacturers, Zirconia Grinding suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
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This report examines the Zirconia Crucibles market standing and opportunity of global plus major regions, from plans of manufacturers, regions, product types and end industries; this report investigates the best manufacturers in global and major regions and splits the Zirconia Crucibles market by product type and applications/end industries. The Global Zirconia Crucibles market is considered…
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MoSi2 is used for the heating element of the ceramic heater. Even at the high temperature of 1,700¡æ, it has maintains good oxidation resistance by the formation of protective membrane on the surface. ...
That electric bicycle runs on fuel cells. Not just any ordinary fuel cell, though. Instead, its using a new fuel cell technology thats safe, efficient and
A framework of micro-pave crystals drips with faceted cubic zirconia on these tiered heart earrings. Cubic zirconia, metal 2.75 L, 1.25 W Imported  
The fourth module of the Foundations in Biomedical Sciences course will focus on the mechanisms of cell communication. This module will begin by discussing overarching concepts before examining the specific types of molecules that initiate and transduce signals. Examples of cell signaling and subsequent cellular responses will then be considered in different contexts to provide a framework on which future learning can be applied. As the module progresses, the complexity of the systems explored will increase from individual cells to multicellular environments such as tissues, organs, and organisms. In addition, normal processes as well as the dysregulation of cell-cell communication is disease will be studied. This course is part of a series of four core integrated courses and additional elective courses aimed towards first year Ph.D. students in the Division of Graduate Medical Sciences. The four cores will be integrated in content and structure, and therefore are intended to be taken as a ...
This is the first of a three part series that deals with the issue of faking test data in the context of a legacy app that was built with Microsofts Entity Framework on top of an MS SQL Server database - a scenario that can be found very often, and that originally came up in the broader context of writing User Acceptance Tests. It describes a sample application, discusses some general aspects of unit testing in a database context, and also some more specific aspects of the here discussed EF/MSS. Posted On Sunday, November 6, 2011 10:25 AM ...
This section is informative.. The modularization approach used in this specification derives from that set forth in XHTML Modularization [XMOD]. The framework on which SMIL Modularization and Profiling is based, is informally described here.. A Module is a collection of semantically-related XML elements, attributes, and attribute values that represents a unit of functionality. Modules are defined in coherent sets. This coherency is expressed in that the elements of these modules are associated with the same namespace.. A Language Profile is a combination of modules. Modules are atomic, i.e. they cannot be subset when included in a language profile. Furthermore, a module specification may include a set of integration requirements, to which language profiles that include the module must comply.. Commonly, there is a main language profile that incorporates nearly all the modules associated with a single namespace. For example, the SMIL 2.0 language profile uses most of the SMIL 2.0 modules. ...
Probability and combinatorics are the conceptual framework on which the world of statistics is built. Besides this important role, they are just fascinating and surprisingly fun!
Probability and combinatorics are the conceptual framework on which the world of statistics is built. Besides this important role, they are just fascinating and surprisingly fun!
M. Ravber, D. Pečar, A. Goršek, J. Iskra, Ž. Knez, M. Škerget, Hydrothermal degradation of rutin : identification of degradation products and kinetics study, J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 64, 9196-9202, 2016 ...
YIG (Yttrium Iron Garnet ) epitaxial thin film on GGG single substrate is an excellent alternative for expensive YIG crystal . MTI supplies YIG film on GGG upto 12 micron thickness and 3 diameter, and provides various size upon customer request.