Yersinia pestis ATCC ® BAA-1611D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Yersinia pestis strain Kim TypeStrain=False Application:
The studies apply the well established polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting Yersinia pestis DNA in suspected human specimens, rodents and their fleas by DNA extraction and primers targeting the plasminogen activator gene. In Tanzania, 516 rodent and nine human samples were analysed for the presence of Yersinia pestis DNA. Of these samples, four rodent samples belonging to Mastomys and Tatera species and two human specimens were found positive. As for Zambia, 810 rodent samples were collected and analysed. Yersinia pestis DNA was detected in 33 samples, belonging to the Tatera, Rattus and Mastomys species. As for fleas, the Xenopsylla species from rodents were positive for Yersinia pestis DNA. The isolated bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity tests, with results indicating a response pattern as recommended by the World Health Organization in the treatment of plague. In case of anthrax, suspected samples from hippopotamuses, soil and humans were screened through bacteria ...
The studies apply the well established polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting Yersinia pestis DNA in suspected human specimens, rodents and their fleas by DNA extraction and primers targeting the plasminogen activator gene. In Tanzania, 516 rodent and nine human samples were analysed for the presence of Yersinia pestis DNA. Of these samples, four rodent samples belonging to Mastomys and Tatera species and two human specimens were found positive. As for Zambia, 810 rodent samples were collected and analysed. Yersinia pestis DNA was detected in 33 samples, belonging to the Tatera, Rattus and Mastomys species. As for fleas, the Xenopsylla species from rodents were positive for Yersinia pestis DNA. The isolated bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity tests, with results indicating a response pattern as recommended by the World Health Organization in the treatment of plague. In case of anthrax, suspected samples from hippopotamuses, soil and humans were screened through bacteria ...
Throughout human history Yersinia pestis bacteria have brought about the deaths of hundreds of millions of people. Find out more about how Yersinia Pestis attack and spread. Their success is due in great part to being able to avoid a host immune response. This article also includes some information on Yersinia pestis treatment.
Pneumonic plague, caused by inhalation of Yersinia pestis, represents a major bioterrorism threat for which no vaccine is available. Based on the knowledge that genetic delivery of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors results in rapid, high-level antibody expression, we evaluated the hypothesis that Ad-mediated delivery of a neutralizing antibody directed against the Y. pestis V antigen would protect mice against a Y. pestis challenge. MAbs specific for the Y. pestis V antigen were generated, and the most effective in protecting mice against a lethal intranasal Y. pestis challenge was chosen for further study. The coding sequences for the heavy and light chains were isolated from the corresponding hybridoma and inserted into a replication-defective serotype 5 human Ad gene transfer vector (AdαV). Western analysis of AdαV-infected cell supernatants demonstrated completely assembled antibodies reactive with V antigen. Following AdαV administration to mice, ...
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The Yersinia pestis low-Ca2+ response stimulon is responsible for the temperature- and Ca(2+)-regulated expression and secretion of plasmid pCD1-encoded antihost proteins (V antigen and Yops). We have previously shown that lcrD and yscR encode proteins that are essential for high-level expression and secretion of V antigen and Yops at 37 degrees C in the absence of Ca2+. In this study, we constructed and characterized mutants with in-frame deletions in yscC, yscD, and yscG of the ysc operon that contains yscA through yscM. All three mutants lost the Ca2+ requirement for growth at 37 degrees c, expressed only basal levels of V antigen and YopM in the presence or absence of Ca2+, and failed to secrete these proteins to the culture supernatant. Overproduction of YopM in these mutants failed to restore YopM export, showing that the mutations had a direct effect on secretion. The protein products of yscC, yscD, and yscG were identified and localized by immunoblot analysis. YscC was localized to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A review of methods for subtyping Yersinia pestis. T2 - From phenotypes to whole genome sequencing. AU - Vogler, Amy J.. AU - Keim, Paul S. AU - Wagner, David M. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Numerous subtyping methods have been applied to Yersinia pestis with varying success. Here, we review the various subtyping methods that have been applied to Y. pestis and their capacity for answering questions regarding the population genetics, phylogeography, and molecular epidemiology of this important human pathogen. Methods are evaluated in terms of expense, difficulty, transferability among laboratories, discriminatory power, usefulness for different study questions, and current applicability in light of the advent of whole genome sequencing.. AB - Numerous subtyping methods have been applied to Yersinia pestis with varying success. Here, we review the various subtyping methods that have been applied to Y. pestis and their capacity for answering questions regarding the population ...
Three pandemics have been attributed to plague in the last 1,500 years. Yersinia pestis caused the third, and its DNA was found in human remains from the second. The Antiqua biovar of Y. pestis may have caused the first pandemic; the other two biovars, Medievalis and Orientalis, may have caused the second and third pandemics, respectively. To test this hypothesis, we designed an original genotyping system based on intergenic spacer sequencing called multiple spacer typing (MST). We found that MST differentiated every biovar in a collection of 36 Y. pestis isolates representative of the three biovars. When MST was applied to dental pulp collected from remains of eight persons who likely died in the first and second pandemics, this system identified original sequences that matched those of Y. pestis Orientalis. These data indicate that Y. pestis caused cases of Justinian plague. The two historical plague pandemics were likely caused by Orientalis-like strains.
Towards the synthesis of a Yersinia pestis cell wall polysaccharide: enantioselective synthesis of an L-glycero-D-manno-heptose building block ...
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Deletion mutants in the lpxM gene in two Yersinia pestis strains, the live Russian vaccine strain EV NIIEG and a fully virulent strain, 231, synthesise a less toxic penta-acylated lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Analysis of these mutants revealed they possessed marked reductions in expression and immunoreactivity of numerous major proteins and...
Summary: The bacteria Yersinia pestis is the etiological agent of plague and has caused human pandemics with millions of deaths in historic times. How and when it originated remains contentious. Here, we report the oldest direct evidence of Yersinia pestis identified by ancient DNA in human teeth from Asia and Europe dating from 2,800 to 5,000 years ago. By sequencing the genomes, we find that these ancient plague strains are basal to all known Yersinia pestis. We find the origins of the Yersinia pestis lineage to be at least two times older than previous estimates. We also identify a temporal sequence of genetic changes that lead to increased virulence and the emergence of the bubonic plague. Our results show that plague infection was endemic in the human populations of Eurasia at least 3,000 years before any historical recordings of pandemics ...
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced ...
Objectives: To determine the susceptibility of southern African strains of Yersinia pestis to novel as well as conventional antimicrobial agents.. Materials and methods: The MICs of 28 strains of Yersinia pestis from a southern African plague focus were determined by agar dilution.. Results: The most active agents were cefditoren and the fluoroquinolones, both conventional and novel. The in vitro activity of macrolides was poor against this member of the Enterobacteriaceae.. Conclusion: Further investigation of the novel quinolones olamufloxacin (HSR 903) and ABT 492 in animal models of plague would seem to be justified.. ...
Author Summary Bubonic plague cycles depend on the ability of Yersinia pestis to alternately infect two very different hosts-a mammal and a flea. Like any arthropod-borne pathogen, Y. pestis must sense host-specific environmental cues and regulate gene expression accordingly to produce a transmissible infection in the flea after being taken up in a blood meal, and again when it exits the flea and enters the mammal. We examined the Y. pestis phenotype at the point of transmission by in vivo gene expression analyses, the first description of the transcriptome of an arthropod-borne bacterium in its vector. In addition to genes associated with physiological adaptation to the flea gut, several Y. pestis virulence factors required for resistance to innate immunity and dissemination in the mammal were induced in the flea, suggesting that the arthropod life stage primes Y. pestis for successful infection of the mammal.
... , also known as Yersins bacillus, is a rod-shaped gramnegative bacterium which causes the plague. Its reproduction is slow in ordinary cultures and needs high humidity rates and oxigen to multiply, in 25-30º C temperatures. The Pasteurella pestis secrets endotoxins which attack either the lymphatic system or the lungs. It is transmitted to man through an insect vector: the rats flea. It was discovered by Alexandre Yersin in 1894. ...
Author Summary The outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is mainly composed of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). The structure of the bioactive component of LPS, lipid A, varies between bacteria and even within the same species grown under different environmental conditions. Yersinia pestis has been associated with highly lethal bubonic plagues of the past. It alters the structure of its LPS based on temperature. When grown at ambient temperatures comparable to fleas in temperate climates, the LPS is mainly hexa-acylated. However, upon growth at 37°C, the mammalian host temperature, Y. pestis switches to synthesize a hypo-acylated LPS that is less stimulatory to the human compared with murine LPS receptor complex composed of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and MD-2. To test whether the change in LPS structure associated with replication at mammalian temperature promotes Y. pestis virulence by evading recognition by the human receptor complex, we generated
Objectives. The plague, which is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, still threatens many populations in several countries. The worldwide increase in human plague cases and the potential use of the bacteria as a biological weapon reinforce the need to study the immunity that is induced by potential vaccine candidates. To determine the immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the F1 protein and the total extract from Y. pestis, we assessed the role of these antigens in inducing an immune response.. Methods. The immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the Y. pestis (YP) total extract and the Y. pestis fraction 1 capsular antigen protein (F1) was determined in Swiss-Webster mice immunized with 40μg or 20μg for each preparation. Immunophenotyping was performed by flow cytometry.. Results. Animals immunized with the YP total extract did not elicit detectable anti-F1 antibodies (Ab) in the hemaglutination/inhibition (HA/HI) test. Animals immunized with 40μg or 20μg ...
Zhou SG, Deng W, Anantharaman TS, Lim A, Dimalanta ET, Wang J, Wu T, Chunhong T, Creighton R, Kile A, et al. A whole-genome shotgun optical map of Yersinia pestis strain KIM. Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 2002 ;68:6321-6331. ...
The present invention provides antigens and vaccines useful in prevention of infection by |i|Yersinia pestis. |/i|The present invention provides pharmaceutical compositions of such antigens and/or vac
Yersinia pestis ATCC ® BAA-1608D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from strain Kim (ATCC BAA-1608**) TypeStrain=False Application: Vector borne research
Plague is caused by Yersinia pestis. Yersinia pestis can be detected based on direct examination of the blood, sputum, or pus from buboes. Yersinia pestis is a gram negative rod. There are three different forms of plague caused by yersinia pestis.
Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, specializes in causing dense bacteremia following intradermal deposition of a small number of bacteria by the bite of an infected flea. This robust invasiveness requires the ability to evade containment by the innate immune system. Of the various mechanisms employed by Y. pestis to subvert the innate immune response and to proliferate rapidly in mammalian tissue, only a few are well-characterized. Here, I present two complementary genetic analyses of Y. pestis adaptations to the mammalian environment. In the first, genome-wide fitness profiling for Y. pestis by Tn-seq demonstrates that the bacterium has adapted to overcome limitation of diverse nutrients during mammalian infection. In the second, a series of combinatorial targeted mutations disentangles apparent functional redundancy among the effectors of the Y. pestis type III secretion system, and we report that YpkA, YopT, and YopJ contribute to virulence in mice. We have also begun to investigate a
Plague is characterized by geographical foci from which it re-emerges after decades of silence, a fact currently explained by enzootic and epizootic cycles between plague-susceptible and plague-resistant rodents. To assess the potential role of soil in plague epidemiology, we experimentally investigated whether Yersinia pestis could persist alive and virulent in soil. Sterilized soil inoculated with virulent Y. pestis biotype Orientalis was regularly sampled for 40 weeks in duplicate. Each sample was observed by acridine orange staining and immunofluorescence using an anti-Y. pestis polyclonal antibody, and DNA was extracted for PCR amplification and sequencing of the Y. pestis ureD, caf1 and pla genes. All samples were inoculated onto selective agar, and samples from soil that had been incubated for 10, 60, 165, 210 and 280 days were also inoculated into each of two BALB/c female mice. The mouse experiment was performed in triplicate. Non-inoculated, sterilized soil samples were used as negative
The lcrF gene of Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, encodes a transcription activator responsible for inducing expression of several virulence-related proteins (Yops) in response to temperature. The mechanism of this thermoregulation was investigated. Using a yopE::lacZ reporter fusion, lcrF-mediated thermal regulation was observed in Y. pestis and Escherichia coli. The lcrF gene was sequenced, the 30.8 kDa. LcrF protein identified and purified, and LcrF-dependent yopE-specific DNA binding activity was detected. A sequence similarity search revealed that LcrF exhibits 98% homology to VirF of Yersinia enterocolitica and significant homology to the carboxy termini of other members of the AraC family of transcription activators. During localization studies, a significant proportion of LcrF was found associated with the membrane fraction in E. coli. However, pulse-chase experiments indicated that this result is an artifact of fractionation. lcrF-mediated thermal induction of the yopE::lacZ
Traditionally, the gold standard for testing fleas for Y. pestis infection has been the inoculation of mice with ground flea suspensions. Inoculated mice are monitored for death, which usually takes at least 21 days; tissues from these dead mice are then tested by fluorescent antibody analysis for evidence of Y. pestis infection. This testing approach, however, requires considerable time and personnel involvement. False negative results can occur when death is used as the assay endpoint, because some mice occasionally survive the infection. Molecular detection is a rapid, sensitive, specific and safer alternative for identification of Y. pestis ...
Publication date: Available online 25 June 2019Source: Microbes and InfectionAuthor(s): Christian Demeure, Olivier Dussurget, Guillem Mas Fiol, Anne-Sophie Le Guern, Cyril Savin, Javier Pizarro-CerdáAbstractPlague is a vector-borne disease caused by Yersinia pestis. Transmitted by fleas from rodent reservoirs, Y. pestis emerged less than 6000 years ago from an enteric bacterial ancestor thr...
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... is an infectious disease for which the bacteria Yersinia pestis are responsible, and depending on sanitary conditions or lung infection, the disease can spread by direct contact, through the air, or very rarely by contaminated undercooked food. This is the forum for discussing anything related to this health condition
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Antibiotics are a very important part of our lives because through these antibacterial and antimicrobial medicines, we are able to get rid of bacteria that can cause serious harm to our body. Bacterial infections and bacterial diseases were once dreaded conditions in the past as the people from back then did not know what they were dealing with, especially since bacteria are microscopic in nature. Infections like the bubonic plague caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, or simple infections like the E. coli and salmonella caused misery for the people in the middle ages, yet all of these infections can be treated using antibiotics. Click to continue…. ...
Genome wide data from ancient microbes may help to understand mechanisms of pathogen evolution and adaptation for emerging and re-emerging disease. Using high throughput DNA sequencing in combination with targeted DNA enrichment we have reconstructed the ancient genome of Yersinia pestis from skeletons securely dated to the Black Death pandemic from the East Smithfield cemetery in London, England, 1348 - 1350. Phylogenetic analysis indicate that the ancient organism is ancestral to most extant Y. pestis strains and falls very close to the ancestral node of human infectious Y. pestis that had their genome sequenced. Temporal estimates suggest that the Black Death of 1346 - 1351 was the main historical event responsible for the introduction and worldwide dissemination of currently circulating Y. pestis strains pathogenic to humans, and further indicates that contemporary Y. pestis epidemics have their origins in the medieval era. Comparisons against modern genomes reveal no unique derived ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 3lxy.1. Crystal structure of 4-hydroxythreonine-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Yersinia pestis CO92
3v4z is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Yersinia pestis co92. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA. For a guided tour on the structure components use FirstGlance ...
We have traveled off on a tangent of Shakespeare. Dancer loves anything from this period of history so we have gotten quite deep into our study. Spark isnt as interested but he is being a good sport about it and I think he is starting to really get into it. Today we were learning about how the houses where made during this time and how they were perfect havens for rats. Well, with the rats came fleas and with the fleas came the bubonic plauge. Many Elizabethans thought that this plauge was caused by foule stinkyng aire (bad smelling air). To combat this bad smelling air one of their defenses was to make the air smell sweet with pomander balls. They would carry these balls in their hands, in boxes or in their pockets to protect themselves. They would also put them on a chain and hang them around their necks or waists. Of course, today we know that the plauge came from the bacteria Yersinia pestis and it is treatable not the death sentence it was back in Shakespeares time. You know for a good ...
A human pathogen is a pathogen (microbe or microorganism such as a virus, bacterium, prion, or fungus) that causes disease in humans.. The human physiological defense against common pathogens (such as Pneumocystis) is mainly the responsibility of the immune system with help by some of the bodys normal flora and fauna. However, if the immune system or "good" microbiota are damaged in any way (such as by chemotherapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or antibiotics being taken to kill other pathogens), pathogenic bacteria that were being held at bay can proliferate and cause harm to the host. Such cases are called opportunistic infections.. Some pathogens (such as the bacterium Yersinia pestis, which may have caused the Black Plague, the Variola virus, and the malaria protozoa) have been responsible for massive numbers of casualties and have had numerous effects on afflicted groups. Of particular note in modern times is HIV, which is known to have infected several million humans globally, ...
Its caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, a plague that is primarily a disease of wild rodents and is spread by their fleas. It is one of the "oldest identifiable diseases known to man", according to the World Health Organization (WHO), and believe it or not, it has never been wiped out. Luckily nowadays, almost all cases are curable if diagnosed in time ...
...Northwestern Medicine scientists are continuing to unravel the molecul...When the bacterium Yersinia pestis enters the lungs it causes pneumon...Following a 2007 study demonstrating that the presence of a protein ca...The activator shuts down a molecule Fas ligand (FasL) which stimulat...,Plague,alters,cell,death,to,kill,host,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE FOR THE SCIENCE OF HUMAN HISTORY-A team of researchers led by scientists at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History has sequenced the first six European genomes of the plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis dating from the Late Neolithic to the Bronze Age (4,800 to 3,700 years ago).
Infection with the bacterium Yersinia pestis, transmitted to man by rat-flea bite. Plague still occurs in India, Pakistan, China, Indonesia and Africa, but is
General Information: Causative agent of plague. Specific virulence factors are encoded within pathogenicity islands (PAIs) that are required for the invasive phenotype associated with Yersinia infections. One key virulence plasmid contained by the three human-specific pathogens is pCD1/pYv, which encodes a type III secretion system for the delivery of virulence proteins that contribute to internalization into the host cell. It is the causative agent of plague (bubonic and pulmonary) a devastating disease which has killed millions worldwide. The organism can be transmitted from rats to humans through the bite of an infected flea or from human-to-human through the air during widespread infection. Yersinia pestis is an extremely pathogenic organism that requires very few numbers in order to cause disease, and is often lethal if left untreated. The organism is enteroinvasive, and can survive and propagate in macrophages prior to spreading systemically throughout the host. Yersinia pestis consists of ...
Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of disease in a variety of mammals, and humans can become infected when human and animal ecologies intersect. This has le...
Using sequences from a 4,900-year-old Swedish gravesite, researchers identified a pathogenic form of Yersinia pestis circulating in Europe during the Neolithic Period.
1G9U: Unusual molecular architecture of the Yersinia pestis cytotoxin YopM: a leucine-rich repeat protein with the shortest repeating unit.
p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc.,/p> ,p>,a href="/manual/evidences">More…,/a>,/p> ...
Dr. Lutwick responded: Depends where u are . The risk depends on whether you are in an endemic area and if you are, the highest risk time is when a die off of the rodent reservoir occurs producing a lot of hungry infected fleas.
Title: Bacterial Adaptation and Infection. VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Michael D. Boyle and Richard Lottenberg. Affiliation:Department of Biology, Juniata College, 1700 Moore St., Huntingdon, PA 16652, USA.. Keywords:Bacteria, homeostasis, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, innate immunity, acquired immunity, homeostatic pathways, molecular pathogenesis, homeostatic systems, immune system, coagulation, pathogenesis, Kochs postulates, Salmonella typhimurium, immunocompetent host, transgenic, infectious agents, microbe, bacteria colonize, inflammatory response, plasmin(ogen), plasminogen activation, chemotactic signaling, zymogen substrates, firbrinopeptides, monocytes, granulocytes, Borellia burgdorefri, Yersinia pestis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Plasminogen, streptokinase (SK), streptokinase-plasminogen complex, Yersinia pestis model, Staphylococcus aureus, symbiotic relationship, spirochetes, spirochetemia, bacterial endocarditis, zymogen proteins, Staphylocoagulase, bacteria-fibrin-platelet, ...