Yellow fever virus particles (virions), coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). Yellow fever virus belongs to the Flavivirus family (subgroup arbovirus) and is an enveloped RNA virus. The virus shape is icosahedral with a lipid containing envelop. It is also known as a togavirus. Yellow fever virus is carried by mosquitoes and is common in Africa, Central and South America. In Africa, Aedes sp. is the insect vectors that carry the virus, while in South America, Haemagogus sp. is the insect vector. The yellow fever virus is transmitted to humans when an infected female mosquito bites a human. Symptoms include fever, headache and nausea (flu-like symptoms). In serious cases there may be liver and kidney damage (necrosis), and even death. Yellow fever causes yellowing of the skin due to jaundice. There is no treatment for yellow fever and 5% of those infected die. Yellow fever vaccines can provide immunity. Magnification: x30,195 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. Original image
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolutionary and ecological factors underlying the tempo and distribution of yellow fever virus activity. AU - Carrington, Christine V.F.. AU - Auguste, Albert J.. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Yellow fever virus (YFV) is historically one of the most important viruses to affect human populations. Despite the existence of highly effective vaccines for over 70. years, yellow fever remains a significant and re-emerging cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic and high-risk regions of South America and Africa. The virus may be maintained in sylvatic enzootic/epizootic, transitional and urban epidemic transmission cycles with geographic variation in terms of levels of genetic diversity, the nature of transmission cycles and patterns of outbreak activity. In this review we consider evolutionary and ecological factors underlying YFV emergence, maintenance and spread, geographic distribution and patterns of epizootic/epidemic activity.. AB - Yellow fever virus (YFV) is ...
Since YF is a mosquito-borne disease, its eradication can be quite challenging, due to the presence of a sylvatic cycle of this disease, making it a serious public health problem worldwide1 , 5 , 14 . Having a mosquito as a vector makes YF hard to be eradicated, justifying why it is essential to act on vector control measures14 , 37 .. In 1927, the yellow fever virus strain Asibi isolated from a patient in Ghana was used to formulate the first vaccine. The Asibi strain underwent serial passages in chicken tissue cultures to be attenuated for human use as a vaccine, named the 17D vaccine. There are two types of sub-strains obtained from the 17D vaccine, the 17DD and 17D-204. The 17D strain was first used in Brazil in 1937 for vaccination purposes, and since then The Oswald Cruz Foundation has produced the yellow fever 17DD (YF-17D) vaccine. To produce the 17DD vaccine, a sample of the yellow fever virus is inoculated into pathogens-free embryonated chicken eggs, as recommended by the WHO14 , 18 ...
Mouse Monoclonal. Reactivity: Yellow Fever virus. Application: ICC/IF, Functional Assay. Specificity: This antibody is specific for the envelope protein of the wild (Asibi) and vaccine strains of yellow fever virus.. Package: 100μl. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adaptation of yellow fever virus 17D to Vero cells is associated with mutations in structural and non-structural protein genes. AU - Beasley, David W.C.. AU - Morin, Merribeth. AU - Lamb, Ashley R.. AU - Hayman, Edward. AU - Watts, Douglas M.. AU - Lee, Cynthia K.. AU - Trent, Dennis W.. AU - Monath, Thomas P.. PY - 2013/9/1. Y1 - 2013/9/1. N2 - Serial passaging of yellow fever virus 17D in Vero cells was employed to derive seed material for a novel inactivated vaccine, XRX-001. Two independent passaging series identified a novel lysine to arginine mutation at amino acid 160 of the envelope protein, a surface-exposed residue in structural domain I. A third passage series resulted in an isoleucine to methionine mutation at residue 113 of the NS4B protein, a central membrane spanning region of the protein which has previously been associated with Vero cell adaptation of other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. These studies confirm that flavivirus adaptation to growth in Vero cells can ...
Yellow fever virus definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Yellow Fever Monoclonal Antibodies Yellow Fever Virus Reagents Life Science Biofront Technologies. BioFront Technologies offers anti-Yellow Fever Virus NS1 monoclonal antibodies with demonstrated to be effective for Western blot, IF, and ELISA assays. YFV NS1 Mab BF-077-100ug YFV NS1 Mab BF-077-500ug YFV NS1 Mab BF-077-1mg YFV NS1 Mab BF-087-100ug YFV NS1 Mab BF-087-500ug YFV NS1 Mab BF-087-1mg
Using a recently described hamster model of severe yellow fever (YF), we examined the hypothesis that prior infection with heterologous flaviviruses protects against severe or fatal YF. Hamsters were singly or sequentially infected with Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile, and/or dengue-1 viruses, and then challenged with a virulent strain of yellow fever virus (YFV). In contrast to control (naive) hamsters, many of which appeared clinically ill or died after YFV infection, the flavivirus-immune animals remained asymptomatic. The flavivirus-immune hamsters also had a reduced viremia and lower serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin, compared with naive hamsters, following YFV infection. Histologically, livers of animals in the flavivirus-immune and control groups showed comparable levels of multifocal necrapoptosis. However, steatosis was not observed in the flavivirus-immune animals, whereas naive hamsters developed extensive microvesicular steatosis in the
Yellow Fever Virus Reagents Research Reagents Biofront Technologies. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the American tropics have been reinfested with Aedes aegypti, the mosquito known to carry arboviruses such as Yellow Fever. Most urban dwellers are vulnerable because of low immunization coverage and Latin America is now at greater risk of epidemics than at any time in the past 50 years. The BioFront Technologies line of anti-Yellow Fever virus monoclonal antibodies have been demonstratrd to produce reliable and trusted results for researchers leading the fight against this global issue. YELLOW FEVER MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES
Previous studies provided evidence that both YFV infection and YFV-17D infection are rapidly cleared by a type I IFN-mediated innate immune response in mice (7, 12, 13). Indeed, depletion of type I IFN allows extensive viral replication, leading to death or T-cell-mediated clearance during YFV-Asibi or YFV-17D infection, respectively (12, 16). Although YFV-17D inhibits type I IFN signaling in infected cells (15), evidence suggests that type I IFN might have a role in the YFV-17D-induced immunogenicity process in human vaccinees. Analysis of the transcriptome of peripheral immune cells from human vaccinees showed that several genes involved in type I IFN pathways (STAT1) as well as interferon-stimulated genes (ISG15, MX1, and OAS1) are upregulated upon vaccination (41). This correlated with immunogenicity, suggesting a link between the type I IFN response and immunogenicity. However, the precise nature of this link remains to be understood. Although it has been reported that type II IFN signaling ...
... Designation: 17D [V-525-001-522] Application: Widely used for immunization of man against yellow fever. Widely used for immunization of man against yellow fever.
Yellow fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV) and transmitted by mosquitoes of the family Culicidae. It is well known that cellular and viral microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in modulation of viral and cellular gene expression, as well as immune response, and are considered by the scientific community as possible targets for an effective therapy against viral infections. This regulation may be involved in different levels of infection and clinical symptomatology. We used viral titration techniques, viral kinetics from 24 to 96 hours postinfection (hpi), and analyzed the expression of key proteins related to the miRNA pathway by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The expression of Dicer was different when compared over the course of infection by the distinct YFV genotypes. Drosha expression was similar during infection by YFV genotype 1 or 2, with a decrease in their expression over time and a slight increase in 96 hpi. Ago1, Ago2, and Ago4
The current yellow fever outbreak in Brazil prompted widespread yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccination campaigns, imposing a responsibility to distinguish between vaccine- and wild-type YFV-associated disease. We developed novel multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCRs that differentiate between vaccine and American wild-type YFV. We validated these highly specific and sensitive assays in an outbreak setting.
Summary Thirty monkeys of six genera which occur in the New World were inoculated with strains of type 1 and type 2 dengue virus which had never been passaged in laboratory animals. Although none of the monkeys showed overt signs of illness, almost all developed hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) or neutralizing antibodies. Viremia was demonstrated in four species of monkeys of three different genera 4 to 6 days after inoculation. The dengue and yellow fever HI antibody responses of these monkeys and others inoculated with yellow fever virus were similar to those which have been observed in persons naturally infected with these viruses.
Free Online Library: Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.(DISPATCHES) by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Cladistic analysis Analysis Phylogeny Yellow fever
Structure of Yellow Fever Virus (PDB1NA4). Yellow fever presents in most cases with fever, nausea, and pain and it generally subsides after several days although a more dangerous toxic phase can occur in some patients. - Stock Image C020/4916
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 28687779. Sci Rep 2017 Jul;7(1):4848. Yellow fever virus (YFV) causing a deadly viral disease is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. In Brazil, YFV is restricted to a forest cycle maintained between non-human primates and forest-canopy mosquitoes, where humans can be tangentially infected. Since late 2016, a growing number of human cases have been reported in Southeastern Brazil at the gates of the most populated areas of South America, the Atlantic coast, with Rio de Janeiro state hosting nearly 16 million people. We showed that the anthropophilic mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus as well as the YFV-enzootic mosquitoes Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Sabethes albiprivus from the YFV-free region of the Atlantic coast were highly susceptible to American and African YFV strains. Therefore, the risk of reemergence of urban YFV epidemics in South America is major with a virus introduced either from a forest cycle or by a traveler returning from the ...
Monkeys and mice surviving cerebral infection with yellow fever virus of relatively avirulent strains have been found to resist maximal intracerebral doses of yellow fever virus of a highly neurotropic strain. Such animals, however, do not resist more than very small doses of intracerebrally inoculated virus of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis. Animals immunized by extraneural routes, on the other hand, are not uniformly resistant to neural infection with neurotropic yellow fever virus. Monkeys which have undergone systemic infection with virus of the avirulent 17D strain or of several jungle strains resist only small intracerebral doses of neurotropic virus; while mice, even when possessed of very high serum-antibody levels as the result of intraperitoneal hyperimmunization, manifest only an irregular resistance to intracerebral challenge inocula. The difference in the resistance of neurally and extraneurally immunized animals is not related to similar differences in the levels of protective ...
Authors: Volk, David; Gandham, Sai; May, Fiona; Barrett, Alan; Gorenstein, David. Citation: Volk, David; Gandham, Sai; May, Fiona; Anderson, Anjenique; Barrett, Alan; Gorenstein, David. "NMR assignments of the yellow fever virus envelope protein domain III" Biomol. NMR Assignments 1, 49-50 (2007).. Assembly members: ...
Background: A Src kinase-activating phosphatase (PTPRE) is targeted by a genome-derived yellow fever virus (YFV) short noncoding RNA (vsRNA) in vitro. The vsRNA reduces PTPRE translation, which leads to reduced TCR signaling. vsRNA point mutations restore PTPRE expression and T cell function. We examined TCR signaling and PTPRE levels in individuals before and after YFV vaccination (YFVax). Methods: Fourteen individuals receiving YFVax (104.7–5.6) IM for travel prophylaxis provided written informed consent for these studies. Blood was obtained once before vaccination and four times after vaccination (days 3 to 28). Serum and PBMCs were purified and YFV was quantified by RNA and infectivity. PBMCs were assessed for activation following anti-CD3 stimulation by measuring phospho-tyrosine-394-Lck and IL-2 release. PBMC PTPRE levels were determined by immunoblot analyses (normalized to actin). A YFV-neutralizing antibody was determined by PRNT. Results: YFVax was administered alone (six out of 14
Miller, B.R.; Mitchell, C.J., 1986: Passage of yellow fever virus: its effect on infection and transmission rates in Aedes aegypti
Ebola virus + Rift valley virus + yellow fever virus + internal control , FR182 real time PCR kit for detection in different samples: nasal swabs, plasma, serum, stool, nasopharnygeal swabs, respiratory tract samples.
BioAssay record AID 341693 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiviral activity against IRES-luciferase tagged Yellow fever virus in BHK15 cells assessed as reduction of luciferase activity at 50 uM after 36 hrs.
The YFV 17D is a live attenuated vaccine strain and is designed to cause an immune response to confer protection to wild-type Yellow fever virus ...
ރީނދޫ ހުން (އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Yellow Fever)އަކީ ފްލެވިވިރިޑޭ(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Flaviridae) ގުރޫޕް ގައި ހިމެނޭ ފްލެވިވައިރަސް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Flavivirus) އެއްކަމުގައިވާ ރީނދޫ ހުން ޖައްސާ ވައިރަސް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Yellow Fever Virus) ގެ ސަބަބުން ޖެހޭ ބައްޔެކެވެ. ހަށިގަނޑުގެ ބައިތަކުން ލޭފޭއްދުން ކުރިމަތިކުރުވާ ބަލިތަކުގެ ތެރޭގައި ރީނދޫ ހުން ހިމެނެއެވެ. ރީނދޫ ހުން މިނަން ނިސްބަތްކުރެވެނީ ރީނދޫ ހުން ޖެހުމާއި ގުޅިގެން ކުރިމަތިވާ ރީނދޫވުން އަށެވެ. ރީނދޫ ހުން ޖައްސާ ވައިރަސް އަކީ އާރްއެންއޭ ވައިރަސް އެކެވެ. ރީނދޫ ފެތުރެނީ މަދިރީގެ ސަބަބުންނެވެ. ރީނދޫ ހުން ޖެހުމުން ...
Yellow fever is a serious hemorrhagic (bleeding) disease that may kill 15%-50% of severely infected people. Artemis One Health is conducting studies to understand the factors that would facilitate emergence of urban (within cities) yellow fever and is developing vaccine candidates that can be used to supplement the current vaccine shortage. Together with other groups we will study which mosquito species other than Aedes aegypi can be infected with the yellow fever virus. Our vaccine candidates will be based on the recombinant protein and the MVA platform (See our Approach). These platforms are convenient as they allow production of affordable vaccines that can be used in resource-poor countries.. What is the context of this research?. Yellow fever virus has the potential to cause big (urban) epidemics as exemplified by the situation before the 1950s. However, the majority of the reported outbreaks to date are mainly seen in Africa and South America and have a forest (sylvatic) origin. Important ...
Figure 2: Number of Sri Lankans travelling to yellow fever endemic countries based on registries at Port Health Medical Offices (1998 to 2011 ...
Although an effective vaccine for YFV does exist, YFV-17D (a live-attenuated strain of the virus), not much is known about the viral and host factors that contribute towards this vaccines attenuating effect.. Study lead, Alexander Ploss from Princeton University (NJ, USA), explained why investigating these factors is important: "An improved understanding of the complex mechanisms regulating YFV-17D attenuation will provide insights into key viral-host interactions that regulate host immune responses and infection outcomes, [and]open novel avenues for the development of innovative vaccine strategies.". In this study, researchers at Princeton University investigated the effects of infection with YFV-17D in type III receptor-deficient mice.. Researchers discovered that mice deficient in type III IFN alone were able to survive the infection, as they were able to control viral replication, which helped towards its rapid clearance from the body. However, when mice were deficient in both type I and ...
A method for carrying out antibody absorption studies for antigenic analysis of group B arthropod-borne (arbor) viruses is described and examples of homologous and heterologous absorption curves are presented. Evidence that antigenic structure can be a stable property was obtained with three strains of West Nile virus isolated from different hosts in different countries over a period of years. Comparative studies with viruses of the Japanese B-St. Louis-West Nile subgroup indicate that each virus contains a completely specific antigen as well as one or more cross-reactive components. Strains of yellow fever virus isolated in America were shown to lack an antigen present in strains of African origin although no differences were found between isolates from the same geographical area. The attenuated 17 D vaccine strain of yellow fever was found to have acquired an additional antigen not present in the unadapted parent or in other strains tested. However, alteration in pathogenicity for man was not ...
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Post, Paulo Roberto et al. The early use of yellow fever virus strain 17D for vaccine production in Brazil - a review. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Aug 2001, vol.96, no.6, p.849-857. ISSN 0074- ...
KRISP 2019 Journal of Virology paper that showed that during the recent epidemic YFV was re-introduced from Minas Gerais to Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro states multiple times between 2016 to 2019. The analysis of data from portable sequencing could identify the corridor of spread of YFV. These findings reinforce that continued genomic surveillance strategies can provide information on virus genetic diversity and transmission dynamics that might assist in the understanding arbovirus epidemics.
Hemorrhagic fever syndrome is caused by yellow fever virus which is a form of flavivirus. Yellow fever virus can be detected via virus specific IgM antibody.
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Differential diagnosis of infections that cause similar diseases and may be active simultaneously in the same geographical areas is greatly needed. Dengue and yellow fever viruses (DENV and YFV) are transmitted by the same species of mosquito and both can cause haemorrhagic fever symptoms. These viruses are active mainly in regions where expensive and sophisticated technologies are not available. Our objective was to develop a simple, reliable and easy-to-perform method to detect and identify these viruses. Methods ...
YABAR V, Carlos; CHOQUE P, Juana y MONTOYA P, Ysabel. Evaluación serológica de una proteína recombinante a partir de una cepa aislada del virus de la fiebre amarilla en el Perú: un estudio piloto. Rev. perú. med. exp. salud publica [online]. 2003, vol.20, n.4, pp.193-199. ISSN 1726-4634.. Objective: To assess a 66kDa (Er66) recombinant protein of yellow fever (YF) virus using immunoreactive antibodies. Material and methods: Er66 was expressed in Escherichia coli and then it was challenged against 1/100, 1/50 and 1/25 monoclonal antibodies containing dilutions, and against clinical sera containing specific IgM and IgG antibodies against YF virus using western blot assay. Likewise, total protein content from yellow fever virus and Dengue (DEN) virus were also tested as antigenicity control. Results: Er66 recombinant protein showed antigenicity against 1/50 and 1/25 titers of monoclonal antibodies (MAB8701); however, no immunoreactivity was observed in sera positive for yellow fever and dengue ...
A viral infection caused by a flavivirus called yellow fever virus. It is transmitted to humans from infected mosquitoes. The signs and symptoms range from a mild febrile illness to liver damage with jaundice and hemorrhages.
Yellow fever was a widespread and deadly disease at that time. The disease is caused by a virus. The virus is spread by the bites of certain types of mosquitoes. Theiler and other researchers wanted to find a vaccine for yellow fever. A vaccine is a substance that protects people from a disease. At first, researchers used rhesus monkeys for yellow fever experiments. In 1930 Theiler discovered that the yellow fever virus also affected mice.…
A team of researchers at the University of California - Riverside recently determined that the yellow fever virus replicates primarily in the liver and other organ failures that often follow are due to secondary effects.
The Yellow Fever virus can cause serious harm to humans and can be fatal. It is transmitted by mosquitoes. Some countries require proof of vaccination before entry.
Hepato-biliary diseases include liver diseases and biliary diseases. Their study is known as hepatology. Acute hepatitis A Acute hepatitis B Acute hepatitis C Acute hepatitis D - this is a superinfection with the delta-agent in a patient already infected with hepatitis B Acute hepatitis E Chronic viral hepatitis Other viral hepatitis viruses may exist but their relation to the disease is not firmly established like the previous ones (hepatitis F, GB virus C, hepatitis X) Hepatitis: cytomegalovirus infection herpesviral: herpes simplex infection Toxoplasmosis Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis Portal hypertension in schistosomiasis Liver disease in syphilis Epstein-Barr virus infection yellow fever virus infection rubella virus infection leptospirosis Echinococcosis Amoebiasis liver abscess autoimmune hepatitis primary biliary cholangitis (primary biliary cirrhosis) phlebitis of the portal vein granulomatous hepatitis berylliosis sarcoidosis nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) This may cause fatty ...
Yellow fever is a viral disease. It causes fever, chills, loss of appetite, muscle pain, vomiting and headaches. It is caused by the yellow fever virus and spread by the bite of the infected female mosquito.. Long before we knew about the mode of spread of this disease, there was a considerable debate regarding the same in the medical fraternity. Some of the researchers felt that this disease was contagious i.e. it spread from person to person like the common cold. But there were those that believed otherwise. Nothing is accepted until you show the prove it and the same goes for this disease as well.. There were many researchers who did the most-weird things to prove their theories about yellow fever. But Jean Guyon definitely takes the cake!. Jean Louis Genevieve Guyon was born on April 5th, 1794 in Albert, France. He came from a very modest background. His mother worked as a servant in Albert. He became a surgeon in 1811 and served as a French military doctor. He was very interested in the ...
Yellow fever is a viral disease produced by mosquitoes, and is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America. Responsible for approximately 200,000 cases of clinical disease globally, the yellow fever virus also causes 30,000 deaths annually. Clinical disease ranges from mild febrile illness to severe disease with jaundice and hemorrhage ...
Yellow fever is a viral disease produced by mosquitoes, and is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America. Responsible for approximately 200,000 cases of clinical disease globally, the yellow fever virus also causes 30,000 deaths annually. Clinical disease ranges from mild febrile illness to severe disease with jaundice and hemorrhage ...
BACKGROUND In Brazil, the Yellow Fever virus (YFV) is endemic in the Amazon, from where it eventually expands into epidemic waves. Coastal south-eastern (SE) Brazil, which has been a YFV-free region for eight decades, has reported a severe sylvatic outbreak since 2016. The virus spread from the north toward the south of the Rio de Janeiro (RJ) state, causing 307 human cases with 105 deaths during the 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 transmission seasons. It is unclear, however, whether the YFV would persist in the coastal Atlantic Forest of RJ during subsequent transmission seasons. OBJECTIVES To conduct a real-time surveillance and assess the potential persistence of YFV in the coastal Atlantic Forest of RJ during the 2018-2019 transmission season. METHODS We combined epizootic surveillance with fast diagnostic and molecular, phylogenetic, and evolutionary analyses. FINDINGS Using this integrative strategy, we detected the first evidence of YFV re-emergence in the third transmission season (2018-2019) ...
Immune responses differ between laboratory mice and humans. Chronic infection with viruses and parasites are common in humans, but are absent in laboratory mice, and thus represent potential contributors to inter-species differences in immunity. To test this, we sequentially infected laboratory mice with herpesviruses, influenza, and an intestinal helminth and compared their blood immune signatures to mock-infected mice before and after vaccination against yellow fever virus (YFV-17D). Sequential infection altered pre- and post-vaccination gene expression, cytokines, and antibodies in blood. Sequential pathogen exposure induced gene signatures that recapitulated those seen in blood from pet store-raised versus laboratory mice, and adult versus cord blood in humans. Therefore, basal and vaccine-induced murine immune responses are altered by infection with agents common outside of barrier facilities. This raises the possibility that we can improve mouse models of vaccination and immunity by ...
Discovering Drugs that Inhibit Pathogens Other Than HBV The Blumberg Institute research accomplishments transcend hepatitis B and liver cancer. Some of the assays we design, and consequently drugs we find, have activity against other viruses. One important parallel line of work involves development of drugs active against hemorrhagic and other hepatitis fever viruses of public health concern. This year, Dr. Changs lab, working closely with Medicinal Chemistry Director, Yanming Du, PhD, reported new Yellow Fever virus and Ebola virus active drugs, with efficacy alone and in combination, in animal studies, carried out with collaborators at the NIH and USAMRIID (Ma, 2017). Natural Products. This group searches for new drugs using our natural products collection, led by Matt Todd, PhD, with Jason Clement, PhD and Sung Park, PhD. Working with colleagues from Virginia Technology University and U Georgia, they identified compounds with anti-malarial activity (Presley et al, 2017) isolated from a K. ...
When individuals get infected by a pathogens, they will develop antibodies against that pathogen that will continue to circulate in their blood. By using assays that can detect these antibodies, we can develop an understanding of the proportion of the population that has been infected at any time. Further, by using models that integrate information about the age of the individual or information on where they reside we can provide insight into the past circulation of the pathogen. Such sero-epidemiological studies can provide a cost-efficient way of understanding past circulation of pathogens within a community and current levels of immunity.. Unfortunately, viruses from the same family may produce cross-reacting antibodies. For example, antibodies developed in response to a dengue infection will also recognize other flaviviruses, such as Japanese encephalitis, Zika or Yellow Fever viruses. Therefore, in settings where more than one flavivirus circulate, traditional serological tests can usually ...
When Sir Wilburforce Lungi arrives in London to negotiate independence for his African country, an attempt is made on his life. Steed investigates the delegates assistant and discovers that she is a member of an opposing group. After Steed escapes capture in Africa, he warns Dr. Keel, who is an old friend of Lungi, and Keel thwarts an attempt to replace Lungis insulin with lethal yellow fever virus.. ...