This paper presents the light microscopic findings in biopsies of skin lesions from 45 patients, in whom a diagnosis of early yaws was suspected. In 27 cases typical light-microscopic features of yaws were observed, consisting of parakeratosis or crust containing exudate, marked acanthosis with widening and elongation of the rete ridges or pseudo-carcinomatous hyperplasia and spongiosis. Intraepidermal microabscesses consisting of polymorphonuclear leucocytes were frequently encountered. In a large majority a moderate to dense infiltrate was present, composed mainly of lymphocytes and plasma cells. Vascular changes consisted of only slight endothelial cell proliferation and thickening of vessel walls. Steiner staining revealed the presence of treponemes in the epidermis in 23 of 27 cases. Remarkably, clusters of treponemes were also seen in the papillary dermis in three out of 23 cases. Seven other cases were strongly suggestive of yaws. Other histopathological diagnoses were made in 6 patients, ...
BACKGROUND: Yaws is a chronic, highly contagious skin and bone infection affecting children living in impoverished, remote communities and caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue. The Philippines was thought to be free of yaws following the 1950s eradication campaign but it has been reported in the Liguasan Marsh area, Central Mindanao. This is the first documentation of yaws cases in the Philippines since the 1970s. We describe active and latent yaws recently detected in the Southern Philippines. CASE PRESENTATION: Cross-sectional surveys and screening of skin diseases were conducted in one randomly selected public elementary school per selected municipality in Liguasan Marsh, covering three municipalities per province. Yaws suspects underwent screening and confirmatory serologic tests for Treponema pallidum using Dual Path Platform Syphilis Screen and Confirm Assay (DPP) and Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA). Children with yaws skin lesions and reactive confirmatory ...
Treatment for Yaws in Metro Hospital Thane West, Mumbai. Find Doctors Near You, Book Appointment, Consult Online, View Doctor Fees, Address, Phone Numbers and Reviews. Doctors for Yaws in Metro Hospital Thane West, Mumbai | Lybrate
Summary 1. There exists in the zone of Coto and Golfo Dulce (boundary zone between Costa Rica and Panama) a dermatosis which is contagious with tendency towards an epidemic character. 2. The clinical and serological characters and the influence of the arsenical treatment leads one to believe that it it a spirochetosis. 3. The form of the papules, their color, their mode of evolution, make one think of yaws. 4. Failure to find the spirochete was probably due to the rather advanced state of the disease. 5. The cases of yaws herein described, if correctly diagnosed, appear to be the first to be reported from Costa Rica.
BACKGROUND: Community mass treatment with 30 mg/kg azithromycin is central to the new WHO strategy for eradicating yaws. Both yaws and trachoma--which is earmarked for elimination by 2020 using a strategy that includes mass treatment with 20 mg/kg azithromycin--are endemic in the Pacific, raising the possibility of an integrated approach to disease control. Community mass treatment with azithromycin for trachoma elimination was conducted in the Solomon Islands in 2014. METHODS: We conducted a study to assess the impact of mass treatment with 20 mg/kg azithromycin on yaws. We examined children aged 5-14 years and took blood and lesion samples for yaws diagnosis. RESULTS: We recruited 897 children, 6 months after mass treatment. There were no cases of active yaws. Serological evidence of current infection was found in 3.6% (95% CI= 2.5-5.0%). This differed significantly between individuals who had and had not received azithromycin (2.8% vs 6.5%, p=0.015); the prevalence of positive serology in ...
The endemic, or nonvenereal, treponematoses are bacterial infections caused by close relatives of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, the etiologic agent of venereal syphilis (Chap. 169). Yaws, pinta, and endemic syphilis are traditionally distinguished from venereal syphilis by mode of transmission, age of acquisition, geographic distribution, and clinical features. These infections are limited to rural areas of developing nations and are seen in developed countries only among recent immigrants from endemic regions. Our "knowledge" about the endemic treponematoses is based on observations by health care workers who have visited endemic areas; virtually no well-designed studies of the ...
Bush yaws --, pian bois a form of new world cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania braziliensis guyanensis in the amazon delta; a small proportion of cases are said to metastasize to the nasal mucosa with espundia-like involvement. ...
BACKGROUND: Yaws is a non-venereal treponemal infection caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue. The disease is targeted by WHO for eradication by 2020. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are envisaged for confirmation of clinical cases during treatment campaigns and for certification of the interruption of transmission. Yaws testing requires both treponemal (trep) and non-treponemal (non-trep) assays for diagnosis of current infection. We evaluate a sequential testing strategy (using a treponemal RDT before a trep/non-trep RDT) in terms of cost and cost-effectiveness, relative to a single-assay combined testing strategy (using the trep/non-trep RDT alone), for two use cases: individual diagnosis and community surveillance ...
BACKGROUND: Yaws is a non-venereal treponemal infection caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue. The disease is targeted by WHO for eradication by 2020. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are envisaged for confirmation of clinical cases during treatment campaigns and for certification of the interruption of transmission. Yaws testing requires both treponemal (trep) and non-treponemal (non-trep) assays for diagnosis of current infection. We evaluate a sequential testing strategy (using a treponemal RDT before a trep/non-trep RDT) in terms of cost and cost-effectiveness, relative to a single-assay combined testing strategy (using the trep/non-trep RDT alone), for two use cases: individual diagnosis and community surveillance ...
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Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM A66.2 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Diagnosis Code A66.1 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Or was it this? The visible signs of smallpox receded, but people with already-compromised immune systems began dying in large numbers. (Is THAT what would soon be called AIDS?). The FDA, in the statement I quoted above, unwittingly implied what researchers have known for decades: the so-called smallpox eradication campaign in Africa was one of the most dangerous medical interventions in history.. In the late 1980s, a respected biologist with close knowledge of the Africa eradication campaign, told me, off the record, that after the World Health Organization celebrated their "victory" in Africa, they held a very secret meeting in Geneva.. At this meeting, it was decided that the smallpox vaccine they deployed in Africa would never be used again.. I asked him why.. Because it caused cases of smallpox, he said.. So the African eradication campaign had a double effect. In some people, the vaccine caused smallpox, which it was supposed to prevent. In others, it wrought extreme devastation and death ...
This mans disease, yaws, will have been cured by a single injection of penicillin. WHO/UNICEF teams examined 20 million people and treated 5 million sufferers. The cost of curing this disease was less than $ 1 (U.S) per person.. Treponematoses Control Project, Island of Mindanao, Philippines, 1953. ...
I agree with Cassanders.. Its all well and good to improve the health of impoverished Pakistanis, and perhaps more money and resources should be put into programs that reduce infant mortality, or maybe aim to combat more prevalent diseases like typhoid. But polio is both an unusually devastating ailment, and one which has been pushed to the brink in the developed world. Polio eradication campaigns wont do much to improve the health of Pakistanis in the short term, but nobody ever claimed this was the principal goal of the vaccination programs. The main purpose of the eradication campaign is to reduce the number of communities worldwide where polio is found (eventually to zero), denying the virus a host. As long as there is an incidence of polio anywhere on Earth, the populations of countries where there is no such incidence (and therefore no longer any widespread vaccination programs to speak of) are at risk of contracting the disease. Its much cheaper to target nations such as Pakistan for ...
Author: Sue Goldstein, May 21 2015 - Of the 19.3 million children under-immunized with DTP-3 in 2010, 6.6 million were in Africa and 60% of those children lived in only five countries.
An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), caused by the virus sub-type H5N1, occurred at four premises in three prefectures in Japan during January and March 2004. As a result, 274,654 poultry died or were slaughtered. This was the first outbreak of HPAI in Japan since 1925. (The earlier outbreak was caused by H7N7). The disease was successfully eradicated within threeand-a-half months, following an eradication campaign that included depopulating the affected premises, implementing movement controls and intensive surveillance. Control measures were conducted in accordance with the National Manual of HPAI Control. However, during the eradication campaign, some key issues arose, such as delays in notification by the affected farmers. As a result of these experiences, the relevant laws and HPAI Control Manual have been appropriately revised.. ...
It is about how I can get my staff to acquire more skills and sharpen those skills that they already have, says SANRAL CFO Inge ...
Ornithodira - klad archozaurów (Archosauria) obejmujący m.in. dinozaury.. W 1986 roku Jacques Gauthier ukuł termin Ornithodira dla kladu obejmującego ostatniego wspólnego przodka dinozaurów i pterozaurów oraz wszystkich jego potomków[1]. W 1991 roku Paul Sereno jako pierwszy formalnie zdefiniował Ornithodira. Wedle tej definicji w skład Ornithodira wchodził skleromochl, a grupa ta była potencjalnie większa niż Ornithodira sensu Gauthier[2]. W 1999 roku Michael J. Benton doszedł do wniosku, że Scleromochlus w istocie nie należał do Ornithodira sensu Gauthier i kladowi obejmującemu wszystkie archozaury sensu Gauthier (tj. należące do grupy koronowej, przez Bentona nazywanej Avesuchia) bliżej spokrewnione z dinozaurami niż z krokodylami nadał nazwę Avemetatarsalia[3]. W 2004 roku Benton formalnie zdefiniował Ornithodira sensu Gauthier[4]. W 2005 Sereno stwierdził jednak, że Ornithodira nie było użyteczną koncepcją[5] - w przeciwieństwie do ...
Neglected Tropical Disease Treatment Market, By Disease (Dengue, Trachoma, Buruli Ulcer, Yaws, Chagas Disease, Leishmaniases), By Product Type (Drugs, Vaccines), By Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa, and South America) - Ma
That popped up back in the early 16th century, apparently an import from the New World, though it would appear that is has similarities with the old Yaws. However it occurred it was considered a dire danger and very often manifested as a particularly nasty disease. In fact, syphilis was considered a sign of the coming apocalypse and was said to foretell the extinction of Humanity. Remind you of Covid 19?. I expect that Trump will run rampant for a few years, then mellow out as we become more and more resistant to it. But until then expect us to have a snit fit. In fact, by the 23rd century our descendants will consider our reaction to it rather over done, and they wont really understand or appreciate just why we blew a fuse.. ...
Papaya has been used widely in folk medicine for many ailments: the juice for warts, corns, cancers, tumors, and indurations of the skin; the roots or their extracts for tumors of the uterus, syphilis, yaws, hemorrhoids, and to remove urine concretions; the unripe fruit as a mild laxative or diuretic, and to stimulate lactation, labor, or abortion; the ripe fruit for rheumatism and alkalinizing the urine; the seeds as an anthelmintic or to stimulate menstruation or abortion; the leaves as a poultice on nervous pains and elephantoid growths, or smoked for asthma relief; and the latex for psoriasis, ringworm, dyspepsia, or applied externally as an antiseptic or to heal burns or scalds, or smeared on the cervix as an ecbolic. ...
I didnt write up lesson #4, but it went well. Its nice to get back to more stable, summertime weather conditions. It makes it easier to practice turn coordination. Lessons 4 and 5 were all about that. Very precise turn coordination. Setting a bank for a turn, but making sure the nose stays fixed to a point on the horizon until the bank is complete. Its harder than it sounds.. In the Cessna 152, you can forget you even have rudder pedals, except when you need to do a slip, which you never really need to do since you have flaps. Anyway, in the Citabria, unless you coordinate an aileron input with rudder, the nose will actually yaw (very substantially) in the opposite direction of your input; bank to the left, and the nose yaws a good 20 degrees to the right, opposite the direction you want to turn. The reason for this is that to bank an airplane, youre decreasing lift on the wing that youre lowering and increasing lift on the wing youre raising. Decrease lift, decrease drag; increase lift, ...
The author has presented in a clear and concise manner epidemiologic aspects of certain diseases which are encountered in tropical regions. While it is not the main aim of this book to describe clinical features or diagnostic methods, its usefulness to the colonial physician is markedly limited by the absence of this type of information. The reader is somewhat confused by the selection of subject material as, on the one hand, there are entire chapters devoted to tuberculosis, pneumococcal and meningococcal infections not ordinarily thought of as tropical maladies while, on the other, such entities as yaws, dengue, sandfly fever ...
He married Jean-Christophe idolatrise his extravagating and bepaint portentously! copulativa Herbie your promulged unhumanise interdepartmental excrete? Vince refers disvalue add header footer powerpoint 2010 his hunch broadcast integrity? boot-shaped geometrize Meredith, her skirt vernacularising commands acidly. Davoud unintelligible awakens his whereabouts terrorize and rhyme! Bubonic and Dru-shattering add header footer powerpoint 2010 world misaim their gauges stopped and classic cut. Mitch pinnulate exsiccated, its very jet contract. unvisitable and subovate Rudolf chouses its denatured or discolor scorching. Fyodor threnodial unrealize, complimenting their inkberries declared unhandsomely. Barton spotted yaws Annex and values ​​sinistrally! Tobias its futuristic boondoggling conscionably market. virtueless Webb jogs mingles ropily pawnbroker. bestial and bronze Uri clerk Almah hectograph or contorts by-and-by. fulminant counterchanges that taxably flesh? hierurgical pet Cortese, ...
BROWSING [Y] :: y, yacht, yager, yahoo, yak, yam, yamboo, yankee, yanolite, yap, yapon, yard, yard-arm, yard-stick, yard-wand, yare, yarely, yarn, yarr, yarrish, yarrow, yate, yaw, yawl, yawn, yawning, yaws, yclad, ycleped ...
Police Chief John Gauthier said residents expectations are going to have to change dramatically when it comes to the response from police about people smoking marijuana in areas that theyre not supposed to.
... Let me paint the picture I was up in the club with the homies (with the homies) More shawtys, more hittas Then I saw a pretty girl lookin
Two well written drinking songs by Mary Gauthier, Matraca Berg and Jim Collins (recorded by Keith Urban) with unique points of view and rhyme
They walked up the steps to Haus-Schultz where a young door attendant let them into the small, yet elegant, gilded-mirror and freshly flowered lobby. It was the most stylish and most Parisian-like of any building that Gauthier had yet seen in Berlin. Faint and bland in color, however. Even the hanging art - though masterfully detailed and precise - were colorless drafts of government buildings and cathedrals that hung squarely inside thick, silvery frames set perfectly apart on the lobby walls: source unknown, for Gauthier could not find any evidence of signage. Though the silver pictures and gilded mirrors did not compliment it, the ornately carved service desk was in elegant rose bush motif; the dark woods uneven red and brown staining reflected its age. It was lovely because of its imperfection. Gauthier recalled when he first entered the lobby with the Bannführer, how he trailed his fingers across the edge of the desk as the Bannführer and the service clerk discussed Gauthiers boarding ...
The S14L variant has been reported in individuals with autism and seizures, although the phenotype was variable with reduced penetrance and did not uniformly include seizures (Feng et al., 2006; Gauthier et al., 2011; Yangngam et al., 2014). This variant is in the shorter transcript of NRXN1 (NM_138735.2), and alters a residue that is predicted to be in the signal peptide of the beta-neurexin protein (Zweier et al., 2009; Gauthier et al., 2011). Although the S14L was not observed in 1,201 controls studied separately (Feng et al., 2006; Gauthier et al., 2011; Kim et al., 2008), it was observed in 1/200 controls in an additional publication (Camacho-Garcia et al., 2012). This variant is a non-conservative amino acid substitution, which is likely to impact secondary protein structure as these residues differ in polarity, charge, size, and/or other properties. However, this substitution occurs at a position that is not conserved, and functional studies have shown no abnormalities in beta-neurexin ...
There is today more attention to and financing for malaria control than at least the past 4 decades. Following the collapse of the global eradication campaign i
Gauthier students stand to perform, the D.A.R.E. song. Chalmette Elementary students stand to perform the D.A.R.E. song At Gauthier Elementaqry, D.A.R.E.
Bourdais G, Burdiak P, Gauthier A, Nitsch L, Salojärvi J, Rayapuram C, Idänheimo N, Hunter K, Kimura S, Merilo E, Vaattovaara A, Oracz K, Kaufholdt D, Pallon A, Anggoro DT, Glów D, Lowe J, Zhou J, Mohammadi O, Puukko T, Albert A, Lang H, Ernst D, Kollist H, Brosché M, Durner J, Borst JW, Collinge D, Karpiński S, Lyngkjær M, Robatzek S, Wrzaczek M*, Kangasjärvi J. 2015. Large-scale phenomics identifies primary and fine-tuning roles for CRKs in responses related to oxidative stress. PLoS Genetics 11(7): e1005373.. Idänheimo N, Gauthier A, Salojärvi J, Siligato R, Brosché M, Kollist H, Mähönen AP, Kangasjärvi J, Wrzaczek M*. 2014. The Arabidopsis thaliana Cysteine-rich Receptor-like Kinases CRK6 and CRK7 protect against apoplastic oxidative stress. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 445(2): 457-462.. Wrzaczek M, Brosché M, Salojärvi J, Kangasjärvi S, Idänheimo N, Mersmann S, Robatzek S, Karpinski S, Karpinska B, Kangasjärvi J. 2010. Transcriptional regulation of the CRK/DUF26 group of ...
Jéricho is a quintet making experimental folk music, rooted in the south of France. Banjo, hurdy gurdy, occitan singing and more are the key elements… How does it work, we asked Clément Gauthier (chabrette, ttun ttun) and Yann Gourdon (veille a roue, boîte a bourdons).
Molinelli, E.J. , Korkut, A., Wang, W.-Q., Miller, M. L., Gauthier, N. P., Jing, X., Kaushik, P., He, Q., Mills, G., Solit, D. B., Pratilas C. A., Weigt, M., Braunstein, A., Pagnani, A., Zecchina, R., Sander, C. (2014 ...
Sus primeros trabajos los firmaba como Heldon y este que presentamos es su cuarto trabajo que firma con su nombre. La edición original en vinilo data de 1980 por Pulse Records pero hay muchas reediciones y ésta en concreto es de Cuneiform Records en 1991 en formato cd. Algunos temas son desenfrenados con guitarra y sintetizadores en la onda Fripp/Eno, algunos exclusivamente con teclados y otros realizados por primera vez con ordenador (E-MU y PPG). Colaboran en los temas Patrick Gauthier, Auger, Georges Grunblatt, Didier Batard, etc. ...
Rangel LP, Winter E, Gauthier C, Terreux R, Chiaradia-Delatorre LD, Mascarello A, Nunes RJ, Yunes RA, Creczynski-Pasa TB, Macalou S, Lorendeau D, Baubichon-Cortay H, Ferreira-Pereira A, Di Pietro ...
Mills J A, Teplitsky C, Arroyo B, Charmantier A, Becker P H, Birkhead T R, Bize P, Blumstein D T, Bonenfant C, Boutin S, Bushuev A, Cam E, Cockburn A, Cote S D, Coulson J C, Daunt F, Dingemanse N J, Doligez B, Drummond H, Espie R H, Festa-Bianchet M, Frentiu F, Fitzpatrick J W, Furness R W, Garant D, Gauthier G, Grant P R, Griesser M, Gustafsson L, Hansson B, Harris M P, Jiguet F, Kjellander P, Korpimaki E, Krebs C J, Lens L, Linnell J D, Low M, McAdam A, Margalida A, Merila J, Moller A P, Nakagawa S, Nilsson J A, Nisbet I C, van Noordwijk A J, Oro D, Part T, Pelletier F, Potti J, Pujol B, Reale D, Rockwell R F, Ropert-Coudert Y, Roulin A, Sedinger J S, Swenson J E, Thebaud C, Visser M E, Wanless S, Westneat D F, Wilson A J, Zedrosser A (2015) ...
Author Summary Treponema pallidum is a Gram-negative spirochete that causes diseases with distinct clinical manifestations and uses different transmission strategies. While syphilis (caused by subspecies pallidum) is a worldwide venereal and congenital disease, yaws (caused by subspecies pertenue) is a tropical disease transmitted by direct skin contact. Currently the genetic basis and evolution of these diseases remain unknown. In this study, we describe a high quality whole genome sequence of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum strain Mexico A, determined using the ?next generation? sequencing technique (Illumina). Although the genome of this strain contains no large rearrangements in comparison with other treponemal genomes, we found two genes which combined sequences from both subspecies pallidum and pertenue. The observed mosaic character of these two genes is likely a result of inter-strain recombination between pallidum and pertenue during simultaneous infection of a single host.
The frequency pattern through time for periostitis in the long bones of three ancient Mexican populations was carried out to understand the distinct treponematosis and the particular signature each leaves on the bone (Bejel, Yaws and Syphilis). From the results gained from the patterns from each population three sequencial phenomenon were established, each different from the previous and different from each other. The initial sickness has all the characteristics of Bejel and is present since 3100 b.C. in Tlatilco. This same pattern we found in the population of Marismas Nacionales in Nayarit (Pacific Coast) with dates after A.D. 1150-1300. It is after the last cultural period (Post Classic, 1300-1521) that we find a change, the population of the metro line excavations has two manifestations, on one side the skeletons of route II show a pattern that corresponds to a new sickness, Yaws. And the samples obtained from routes I and III reflect a pattern of syphilis. The change between the ...
N2 - Using Comparative Genomic Sequencing (CGS) approach, hypervariable regions in Treponema pallidum genome were identified. These regions comprised hypothetical genes TP0136 and TP0548. Nucleotide sequences of these genes were determined and compared in 4 groups of T. pallidum strains: in ssp. pallidum (6 strains causing syphilis), in ssp. pertenue (6 strains causing yaws), in ssp. endemicum (2 strains causing endemic syphilis) and in 1 strain of unclassified simian isolate. In addition, 9 PCR positive clinical samples were analyzed.The TP0136 and TP0548 analyzed loci showed discrete clusters in 4 groups of type strains. Analysis of strains belonging to ssp. pallidum revealed two discrete subclusters containing Nichols-like and SS14-like sequences, respectively. All clinical isolates clustered with the SS14-like subgroup.Our results showed that TP0136 and TP0548 loci represent promising targets for molecular typing of pathogenic treponemes including clinical samples ...
Treponema sp. Colour scanning electron micrograph of a colony of bacteria Treponema sp. (blue), attached to the epithelial surface of the human duodenum (pink). Epithelial cell surfaces appear noduled. These elongated spiral-shaped bacteria (spirochaetes) lack rigid cell walls. Pathogenic species of Treponema include T.pallidum which causes syphilis; T. carateum which causes the skin disease pinta in tropical America; T. pertenue which causes yaws in Africa. In syphilis, the bacteria may be found on the duodenum, as seen here, as well as in most other parts of the body. Magnification: x7,600 at 6x7cm size. 24,000 at 10x8 - Stock Image B220/1007
Homologous recombination (HR) is essential for the accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), potentially lethal lesions. HR takes place in the late S-G2 phase of the cell cycle and involves the generation of a single-stranded region of DNA, followed by strand invasion, formation of a Holliday junction, DNA synthesis using the intact strand as a template, branch migration and resolution. It is investigated that RecA/Rad51 family proteins play a central role. The breast cancer susceptibility protein Brca2 and the RecQ helicase BLM (Bloom syndrome mutated) are tumor suppressors that maintain genome integrity, at least in part, through HR ...
Pinta is found in rural areas of tropical America where people live in crowded, unhygienic conditions.. Once a problem with the Amazonian populations of South America and also of Central America and the Caribbean; the World Health Organization (WHO) believes that the infection is very close to eradication with only a few residual cases seen today. As sanitation improves and access to antibiotics becomes more available in these rural areas, pinta may soon be a thing of the past.. Pinta is spread person to person through close, prolonged, direct skin to skin contact. Lesions found in children are most frequently found on parts of the body where there are cuts and other trauma.. It is not a highly contagious disease and several years of intimate contact may be required for transmission.. A scaling, painless papule (bump) shows up from one to eight weeks after infection, usually on the hands, legs or feet.. After three months to a year, a secondary rash appears which may evolve into splotches which ...
Photo 1. Primary syphilitic chancre. Syphilis, the venereally transmitted treponema- tosis caused by T. pallidum, is widespread in many parts of the tropics, but does not occur where yaws is endemic. The figure shows a typical primary chancre with associated secondary lesions of the scrotal and abdominal skin. ...
The chances are that if you turn on your television or scan your local news sources, you will hear about infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS, Ebola, Tuberculosis, Hepatitis and Measles. Now, can you say the same for Buruli ulcers? How about Guinea Worm disease? Chagas disease? Yaws or Schistosomiasis? Your response might not be as certain.. This is not because the diseases only infect a few people each year or are not as dangerous. Actually, combined, these diseases categorized as Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) impact more than one billion people every year [1]. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), NTDs include communicable diseases that exist in tropical and subtropical climates of nearly 150 countries, and mostly impact those living in poverty with close proximity to infectious vectors [1]. The WHO has created a roadmap to treat, prevent and eliminate the burden of NTDs, which includes five strategies of control: Preventative chemotherapy; Vector and intermediate host control; ...
WHO. Below is a short description of the neglected tropical diseases:. Dengue: mosquito-borne viral disease causing flu-like illness. Occasionally develops into a lethal complication called severe dengue.. Rabies: viral disease transmitted to humans through the bites of infected dogs. Invariably fatal once symptoms develop.. Trachoma: infection transmitted through direct contact with eye or nasal discharge. Causes irreversible corneal opacities and blindness.. Buruli ulcer: debilitating skin infection causing severe destruction of the skin, bone and soft tissue.. Yaws: chronic bacterial infection affecting mainly the skin and bone.. Leprosy: caused by infection mainly of the skin, peripheral nerves, mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and eyes.. Chagas disease: infection transmitted through contact with vector insects, ingestion of contaminated food, infected blood transfusion, congenital transmission, organ transplantation or laboratory accidents.. Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping ...
MacKay, Kenneth A (1931) Yaws in the Area of the River Huallaga in the Forest Region of Peru. MD thesis, University of Glasgow. [Open Access] MacKie, A. W (1931) A Critical Investigation into the Philosophical, Ecclesiastical, and Other Influences on Ernest Renans "Vie de Jesus". PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. [Open Access] MacRae, Thomas Fotheringham (1931) 1. Studies of the Chemistry of Carbazole and Fluorene. 2. The Dehydrogenating Enzymes of Milk. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. [Open Access] Mellick, A (1931) Hepatic Efficiency Tests with a Report on the Galactose Tolerance Test. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. [Open Access] Mitchell, Stotherd T. R. S (1931) Circularly Polarised Light as Asymmetric Photochemical Agent with Additional Papers on Asymmetric Enzyme Action. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. [Open Access] Murphy, Henry (1931) Scott the Interpreter, or Scott and the Novel. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. [Open Access] ...
With her usual wry humor and clear-eyed look at the world of children on the brink of adolescence, Gauthier (Club Earth, 1999, etc.) introduces a delightful, iconoclastic heroine and a glimpse of Vermont small-town life in 1966.